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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055490, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613008

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obesity prevention is increasingly focused on early childhood, but toddlers have not been well-studied, and children born preterm are frequently excluded. The Play & Grow Cohort was established to investigate child growth in relation to parent-child interactions in mealtime and non-mealtime settings. PARTICIPANTS: Between December 2017 and May 2019, 300 toddlers and primary caregivers were recruited from records of a large paediatric care provider in Columbus, Ohio, USA. This report describes recruitment of the cohort and outlines the data collection protocols for two toddler and two preschool-age visits. The first study visit coincided with enrolment and occurred when children (57% boys) were a mean (SD) calendar age of 18.2 (0.7) months. FINDINGS TO DATE: Children in the cohort are diverse relative to gestational age at birth (16%, 28-31 completed weeks' gestation; 21%, 32-36 weeks' gestation; 63%, ≥37 weeks' gestation) and race/ethnicity (8%, Hispanic; 35%, non-Hispanic black; 46%, non-Hispanic white). Caregivers enrolled in the cohort are primarily the child's biological mother (93%) and are diverse in age (range 18-54 years), education (23%, high school or less; 20% graduate degree) and annual household income (27%,

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Ohio , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 626, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592243

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The majority of studies evaluating the effect of myocardial injury on the survival of COVID-19 patients have been performed outside of the United States (U.S.). These studies have often utilized definitions of myocardial injury that are not guideline-based and thus, not applicable to the U.S. METHODS: The current study is a two-part investigation of the effect of myocardial injury on the clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The first part is a retrospective analysis of 268 patients admitted to our healthcare system in Toledo, Ohio, U.S.; the second part is a systematic review and meta-analysis of all similar studies performed within the U.S. RESULTS: In our retrospective analysis, patients with myocardial injury were older (mean age 73 vs. 59 years, P 0.001), more likely to have hypertension (86% vs. 67%, P 0.005), underlying cardiovascular disease (57% vs. 24%, P 0.001), and chronic kidney disease (26% vs. 10%, P 0.004). Myocardial injury was also associated with a lower likelihood of discharge to home (35% vs. 69%, P 0.001), and a higher likelihood of death (33% vs. 10%, P 0.001), acute kidney injury (74% vs. 30%, P 0.001), and circulatory shock (33% vs. 12%, P 0.001). Our meta-analysis included 12,577 patients from 8 U.S. states and 55 hospitals who were hospitalized with COVID-19, with the finding that myocardial injury was significantly associated with increased mortality (HR 2.43, CI 2.28-3.6, P 0.0005). The prevalence of myocardial injury ranged from 9.2 to 51%, with a mean prevalence of 27.2%. CONCLUSION: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the U.S. have a high prevalence of myocardial injury, which was associated with poorer survival and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Ohio , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood
4.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(8): 672-676, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the media use of children from low-income homes during school closings during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Caregivers of 151 kindergarteners from low-income homes completed questionnaires as part of a larger study. Caregivers reported how much time children spent watching television/videos and using apps on the most recent weekday and weekend days. Caregivers also reported how their child's current use of media for several different purposes compared with how much the child usually uses media for that purpose. RESULTS: Weekly average media use was 46.3 hours or 6.6 hours per day. Counter to previous research, weekday media use was higher than weekend media use, suggesting that media was likely used as a replacement for time usually spent in school. Caregivers reported increased child media use for positive purposes, such as education and maintaining relationships with family and friends outside of the home, and potentially useful but less socially valued purposes, such as occupying the child's time while caregivers were completing other tasks. Having more children in the household was related to higher media use, and girls used media for maintaining remote relationships more than boys. CONCLUSION: These findings provide reason for both concern and optimism for the impacts of pandemic closures on low-income children. High levels of media use seem to be prevalent in this population. However, the diverse purposes for media use suggest that caregivers relied on media to supplement children's academic and social growth at a time when school and socializing were not safe in their typical forms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poverty , Television , Caregivers , Child, Preschool , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Ohio , Pandemics , Television/statistics & numerical data
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134241, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508587

ABSTRACT

Importance: The influence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-related hypoxemia in SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and COVID-19 outcomes remains unknown. Controversy exists regarding whether to continue treatment for SDB with positive airway pressure given concern for aerosolization with limited data to inform professional society recommendations. Objective: To investigate the association of SDB (identified via polysomnogram) and sleep-related hypoxia with (1) SARS-CoV-2 positivity and (2) World Health Organization (WHO)-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes while accounting for confounding including obesity, underlying cardiopulmonary disease, cancer, and smoking history. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study was conducted within the Cleveland Clinic Health System (Ohio and Florida) and included all patients who were tested for COVID-19 between March 8 and November 30, 2020, and who had an available sleep study record. Sleep indices and SARS-CoV-2 positivity were assessed with overlap propensity score weighting, and COVID-19 clinical outcomes were assessed using the institutional registry. Exposures: Sleep study-identified SDB (defined by frequency of apneas and hypopneas using the Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI]) and sleep-related hypoxemia (percentage of total sleep time at <90% oxygen saturation [TST <90]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection and WHO-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes (hospitalization, use of supplemental oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death). Results: Of 350 710 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, 5402 (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [14.5] years; 3005 women [55.6%]) had a prior sleep study, of whom 1935 (35.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 5402 participants, 1696 were Black (31.4%), 3259 were White (60.3%), and 822 were of other race or ethnicity (15.2%). Patients who were positive vs negative for SARS-CoV-2 had a higher AHI score (median, 16.2 events/h [IQR, 6.1-39.5 events/h] vs 13.6 events/h [IQR, 5.5-33.6 events/h]; P < .001) and increased TST <90 (median, 1.8% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-12.8% sleep time] vs 1.4% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-10.8% sleep time]; P = .02). After overlap propensity score-weighted logistic regression, no SDB measures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Median TST <90 was associated with the WHO-designated COVID-19 ordinal clinical outcome scale (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.74; P = .005). Time-to-event analyses showed sleep-related hypoxia associated with a 31% higher rate of hospitalization and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.57; P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, SDB and sleep-related hypoxia were not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 positivity; however, once patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2, sleep-related hypoxia was an associated risk factor for detrimental COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Hospitalization , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Florida , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Ohio , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/pathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/therapy
6.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(5): 492-500, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine levels of expenditure and needed investment in public health at the local level in the state of Ohio pre-COVID-19. DESIGN: Using detailed financial reporting from fiscal year (FY) 2018 from Ohio's local health departments (LHDs), we characterize spending by Foundational Public Health Services (FPHS). We also constructed estimates of the gap in public health spending in the state using self-reported gaps in service provision and a microsimulation approach. Data were collected between January and June 2019 and analyzed between June and September 2019. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four of the 113 LHDs in the state of Ohio covering a population of almost 9 million Ohioans. RESULTS: In FY2018, Ohio LHDs spent an average of $37 per capita on protecting and promoting the public's health. Approximately one-third of this investment supported the Foundational Areas (communicable disease control; chronic disease and injury prevention; environmental public health; maternal, child, and family health; and access to and linkages with health care). Another third supported the Foundational Capabilities, that is, the crosscutting skills and capacities needed to support all LHD activities. The remaining third supported programs and activities that are responsive to local needs and vary from community to community. To fully meet identified LHD needs in the state pre-COVID-19, Ohio would require an additional annual investment of $20 per capita on top of the current $37 spent per capita, or approximately $240 million for the state. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the cost and value of public health services can educate policy makers so that they can make informed trade-offs when balancing health care, public health, and social services investments. The current environment of COVID-19 may dramatically increase need, making understanding and growing public health investment critical.


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Public Health Practice/economics , Public Health/economics , COVID-19/economics , Financing, Government/economics , Humans , Local Government , Ohio
7.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(1): 4-13, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455389

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Across the healthcare landscape, the COVID-19 pandemic has been incredibly challenging. It also has been a catalyst for change. It has ignited a redesign of the US health system and presented opportunities in areas such as caregiver and patient communication, digital practice, telehealth and virtual care, and more. Notably, the pandemic also has shined a new light on caregiver well-being. As executive leaders of Cleveland Clinic's Caregiver Office, our top priority throughout the pandemic has been to support our caregivers professionally and personally-to help them be their best for themselves and for their fellow caregivers, our patients, our organization, and our communities. Today, Cleveland Clinic is realizing the profound impact of many of the strategies put in place during the pandemic and seeing how COVID-19 accelerated our organization's unified vision for caregiver well-being. This article offers insight into Cleveland Clinic's commitment to caregiver well-being, highlights actions we undertook during the pandemic, shares the resulting lessons we learned, and showcases how those lessons are shaping our future caregiver well-being strategy.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Caregivers/standards , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel/standards , Holistic Health , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio , Organizational Culture , Organizational Objectives , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nurs Res ; 70(5S Suppl 1): S3-S12, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Black/African American women in the United States are more likely to live in neighborhoods with higher social vulnerability than other racial/ethnic groups, even when adjusting for personal income. Social vulnerability, defined as the degree to which the social conditions of a community affect its ability to prevent loss and suffering in the event of disaster, has been used in research as an objective measure of neighborhood social vulnerability. Black/African American women also have the highest rates of hypertension and obesity in the United States. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neighborhood social vulnerability and cardiovascular risk (hypertension and obesity) among Black/African American women. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the InterGEN Study that enrolled Black/African American women in the Northeast United States. Participants' addresses were geocoded to ascertain neighborhood vulnerability using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Social Vulnerability Index at the census tract level. We used multivariable regression models to examine associations between objective measures of neighborhood quality and indicators of structural racism and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and obesity (body mass index > 24.9) and to test psychological stress, coping, and depression as potential moderators of these relationships. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of participating Black/African American women lived in neighborhoods in the top quartile for social vulnerability nationally. Women living in the top 10% of most socially vulnerable neighborhoods in our sample had more than a threefold greater likelihood of hypertension when compared to those living in less vulnerable neighborhoods. Objective neighborhood measures of structural racism (percentage of poverty, percentage of unemployment, percentage of residents >25 years old without a high school diploma, and percentage of residents without access to a vehicle) were significantly associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure and obesity in adjusted models. Psychological stress had a significant moderating effect on the associations between neighborhood vulnerability and cardiovascular risk. DISCUSSION: We identified important associations between structural racism, the neighborhood environment, and cardiovascular health among Black/African American women. These findings add to a critical body of evidence documenting the role of structural racism in perpetuating health inequities and highlight the need for a multifaceted approach to policy, research, and interventions to address racial health inequities.


Subject(s)
/ethnology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Social Segregation/psychology , Adult , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ohio , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376826

ABSTRACT

Physical activity (PA), associated with all-cause mortality, morbidity, and healthcare costs, improves vitamin D absorption, immune response, and stress when completed outdoors. Rural communities, which experience PA inequities, rely on trails to meet PA guidelines. However, current trail audit methods could be more efficient and accurate, which geospatial video may support. Therefore, the study purpose was (1) to identify and adopt validated instruments for trail audit evaluations using geospatial video and a composite score and (2) to determine if geospatial video and a composite score motivate (influence the decision to use) specific trail selection among current trail users. Phase 1 used a mixed-method exploratory sequential core design using qualitative data, then quantitative data for the development of the Spatial-temporal Trail Audit Tool (STAT). Geospatial videos of two Northeast Ohio trails were collected using a bicycle-mounted spatial video camera and video analysis software. The creation of STAT was integrated from Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), Walk Score, and Path Environment Audit Tool (PEAT) audit tools based on four constructs: trail accessibility, conditions, amenities, and safety. Scoring was determined by three independent reviewers. Phase 2 included a mixed-method convergent core design to test the applicability of STAT for trail participant motivation. STAT has 20 items in 4 content areas computing a composite score and was found to increase trail quality and motivation for use. STAT can evaluate trails for PA using geospatial video and a composite score which may spur PA through increased motivation to select and use trails.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Walking , Humans , Ohio , Research Design , Residence Characteristics
12.
Public Health Rep ; 136(6): 782-790, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 mortality varies across demographic groups at the national level, but little is known about potential differences in COVID-19 mortality across states. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of all-cause excess deaths associated with COVID-19 in Florida and Ohio overall and by sex, age, and race. METHODS: We calculated the number of weekly and cumulative excess deaths among adults aged ≥20 from March 15 through December 5, 2020, in Florida and Ohio as the observed number of deaths less the expected number of deaths, adjusted for population, secular trends, and seasonality. We based our estimates on death certificate data from the previous 10 years. RESULTS: The results were based on ratios of observed-to-expected deaths. The ratios were 1.17 (95% prediction interval, 1.14-1.21) in Florida and 1.15 (95% prediction interval, 1.11-1.19) in Ohio. Although the largest number of excess deaths occurred in the oldest age groups, in both states the ratios of observed-to-expected deaths were highest among adults aged 20-49 (1.21; 95% prediction interval, 1.11-1.32). The ratio of observed-to-expected deaths for the Black population was especially elevated in Florida. CONCLUSIONS: Although excess deaths were largely concentrated among older cohorts, the high ratios of observed-to-expected deaths among younger age groups indicate widespread effects of COVID-19. The high levels of observed-to-expected deaths among Black adults may reflect in part disparities in infection rates, preexisting conditions, and access to care. The finding of high excess deaths among Black adults deserves further attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149757, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364461

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in more than 129 million confirm cases. Many health authorities around the world have implemented wastewater-based epidemiology as a rapid and complementary tool for the COVID-19 surveillance system and more recently for variants of concern emergence tracking. In this study, three SARS-CoV-2 target genes (N1 and N2 gene regions, and E gene) were quantified from wastewater influent samples (n = 250) obtained from the capital city and 7 other cities in various size in central Ohio from July 2020 to January 2021. To determine human-specific fecal strength in wastewater samples more accurately, two human fecal viruses (PMMoV and crAssphage) were quantified to normalize the SARS-CoV-2 gene concentrations in wastewater. To estimate the trend of new case numbers from SARS-CoV-2 gene levels, different statistical models were built and evaluated. From the longitudinal data, SARS-CoV-2 gene concentrations in wastewater strongly correlated with daily new confirmed COVID-19 cases (average Spearman's r = 0.70, p < 0.05), with the N2 gene region being the best predictor of the trend of confirmed cases. Moreover, average daily case numbers can help reduce the noise and variation from the clinical data. Among the models tested, the quadratic polynomial model performed best in correlating and predicting COVID-19 cases from the wastewater surveillance data, which can be used to track the effectiveness of vaccination in the later stage of the pandemic. Interestingly, neither of the normalization methods using PMMoV or crAssphage significantly enhanced the correlation with new case numbers, nor improved the estimation models. Viral sequencing showed that shifts in strain-defining variants of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater samples matched those in clinical isolates from the same time periods. The findings from this study support that wastewater surveillance is effective in COVID-19 trend tracking and provide sentinel warning of variant emergence and transmission within various types of communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Ohio , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5515-5522, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363690

ABSTRACT

Complement system hyperactivation has been proposed as a potential driver of adverse outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients, given prior research of complement deposits found in tissue and blood samples, as well as evidence of clinical improvement with anticomplement therapy. Its role in augmenting thrombotic microangiopathy mediated organ damage has also been implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine associations between complement parameters and progression to severe COVID-19 illness, as well as correlations with other systems. Blood samples of COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) were analyzed for a wide panel of complement and inflammatory biomarkers. The primary outcome was COVID-19 severity at index ED visit, while the secondary outcome was peak disease severity over the course of illness. Fifty-two COVID-19 patients were enrolled. C3a (p = 0.018), C3a/C3 ratio (p = 0.002), and sC5b-9/C3 ratio (p = 0.021) were significantly elevated in with severe disease at ED presentation. Over the course of illness, C3a (p = 0.028) and C3a/C3 ratio (p = 0.003) were highest in the moderate severity group. In multivariate regression controlled for confounders, complement hyperactivation failed to predict progression to severe disease. C3a, C3a/C3 ratio, and sC5b-9/C3 ratio were correlated positively with numerous inflammatory biomarkers, fibrinogen, and VWF:Ag, and negatively with plasminogen and ADAMTS13 activity. We found evidence of complement hyperactivation in COVID-19, associated with hyperinflammation and thrombotic microangiopathy. Complement inhibition should be further investigated for potential benefit in patients displaying a hyperinflammatory and microangiopathic phenotype.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Complement C3/analysis , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Ohio , Patient Admission , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(6): 1019-1029, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has highlighted differences in our engagement in health prevention behaviors. The Health Belief Model (HBM), personality traits (conscientiousness, extraversion, and neuroticism), and sociodemographic variables were used to evaluate social distancing during the first month of a state-mandated Stay At Home (SAH) order. DESIGN: A web-based convenience sample of 645 Ohioans was surveyed. Hierarchical linear regression and mediation analysis were used to examine predictors of social distancing attitudes and behaviors and whether health beliefs mediated the relationship between personality and social distancing. RESULTS: Most respondents agreed with and adhered to social distancing guidelines. HBM constructs were strong predictors of SAH attitudes, while personality accounted for little additional variance. Anxiety was indirectly related to overall social distancing attitudes and behavior through its relationship with health beliefs. However, violations of social distancing were best explained by situational factors (e.g., being an essential worker). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the power of components of the HBM to explain attitudes and behaviors regarding the SAH order beyond any contribution from personality. By examining the role of personality and health beliefs on social distancing attitudes and behaviors, this research will benefit public health nurses and others tasked with communicating and promoting preventative health behavior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Humans , Nurses, Public Health , Ohio/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255343, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social and ecological differences in early SARS-CoV-2 pandemic screening and outcomes have been documented, but the means by which these differences have arisen are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To characterize socioeconomic and chronic disease-related mechanisms underlying these differences. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient and emergency care. PATIENTS: 12900 Cleveland Clinic Health System patients referred for SARS-CoV-2 testing between March 17 and April 15, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Nasopharyngeal PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. MEASUREMENTS: Test location (emergency department, ED, vs. outpatient care), COVID-19 symptoms, test positivity and hospitalization among positive cases. RESULTS: We identified six classes of symptoms, ranging in test positivity from 3.4% to 23%. Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity was disproportionately represented in the group with highest positivity rates. Non-Hispanic Black patients ranged from 1.81 [95% confidence interval: 0.91-3.59] times (at age 20) to 2.37 [1.54-3.65] times (at age 80) more likely to test positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus than non-Hispanic White patients, while test positivity was not significantly different across the neighborhood income spectrum. Testing in the emergency department (OR: 5.4 [3.9, 7.5]) and cardiovascular disease (OR: 2.5 [1.7, 3.8]) were related to increased risk of hospitalization among the 1247 patients who tested positive. LIMITATIONS: Constraints on availability of test kits forced providers to selectively test for SARS-Cov-2. CONCLUSION: Non-Hispanic Black patients and patients from low-income neighborhoods tended toward more severe and prolonged symptom profiles and increased comorbidity burden. These factors were associated with higher rates of testing in the ED. Non-Hispanic Black patients also had higher test positivity rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/psychology , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Am J Med ; 134(11): 1424-1426, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A decrease in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates has led some states to consider various incentives to boost demand for vaccines. On May 13, 2021, Ohio announced a free weekly lottery for individuals who received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccination. This study seeks to rigorously quantify the impact of Ohio's vaccination lottery. METHODS: A synthetic control consisting of a weighted combination of other states was used to approximate the demographic characteristics, new cases, and vaccination rates in Ohio prior to the lottery announcement. The difference in vaccination rates in Ohio and the synthetic control following the lottery announcement was then used to estimate the lottery's impact. RESULTS: Prior to the lottery announcement, Ohio and synthetic Ohio had similar demographic characteristics and new case rates. Ohio and synthetic Ohio also had identical first vaccination rates. By the final lottery enrollment date of June 20, the percentage of the population with first vaccinations increased to 47.41% in Ohio and 46.43% in synthetic Ohio for a difference of 0.98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-1.54). CONCLUSION: An additional 114,553 Ohioans received vaccinations as a result of the Vax-a-Million program (95% CI 49,094-180,012) at a cost of approximately $49 per Ohioan vaccinated (95% CI $31-$114). However, a majority of Ohioans remained unvaccinated by the end of the lottery, indicating that additional efforts are needed to address barriers to vaccination. This synthetic control approach may also be useful to evaluate other COVID-19 incentive programs.


Subject(s)
Behavior Control/methods , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination , Motivation , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage/methods , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254667, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309966

ABSTRACT

The world is currently in a pandemic of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease-2019) caused by a novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ß-coronavirus referred to as SARS-CoV-2. Here we investigated rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, USA metropolitan area from August 13 to December 8, 2020, just prior to initiation of the national vaccination program. Examination of 9,550 adult blood donor volunteers for serum IgG antibody positivity against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein showed an overall prevalence of 8.40%, measured as 7.56% in the first 58 days and 9.24% in the last 58 days, and 12.86% in December 2020, which we extrapolated to ~20% as of March, 2021. Males and females showed similar rates of past infection, and rates among Hispanic or Latinos, African Americans and Whites were also investigated. Donors under 30 years of age had the highest rates of past infection, while those over 60 had the lowest. Geographic analysis showed higher rates of infectivity on the West side of Cincinnati compared with the East side (split by I-75) and the lowest rates in the adjoining region of Kentucky (across the Ohio river). These results in regional seroprevalence will help inform efforts to best achieve herd immunity in conjunction with the national vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/ethnology , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
19.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 403-412, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Data-informed decision making is valued among school districts, but challenges remain for local health departments to provide data, especially during a pandemic. We describe the rapid planning and deployment of a school-based COVID-19 surveillance system in a metropolitan US county. METHODS: In 2020, we used several data sources to construct disease- and school-based indicators for COVID-19 surveillance in Franklin County, an urban county in central Ohio. We collected, processed, analyzed, and visualized data in the COVID-19 Analytics and Targeted Surveillance System for Schools (CATS). CATS included web-based applications (public and secure versions), automated alerts, and weekly reports for the general public and decision makers, including school administrators, school boards, and local health departments. RESULTS: We deployed a pilot version of CATS in less than 2 months (August-September 2020) and added 21 school districts in central Ohio (15 in Franklin County and 6 outside the county) into CATS during the subsequent months. Public-facing web-based applications provided parents and students with local information for data-informed decision making. We created an algorithm to enable local health departments to precisely identify school districts and school buildings at high risk of an outbreak and active SARS-CoV-2 transmission in school settings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Piloting a surveillance system with diverse school districts helps scale up to other districts. Leveraging past relationships and identifying emerging partner needs were critical to rapid and sustainable collaboration. Valuing diverse skill sets is key to rapid deployment of proactive and innovative public health practices during a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intersectoral Collaboration , Public Health Surveillance , Schools/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Data Collection , Humans , Ohio/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Socioeconomic Factors
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