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1.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953779

ABSTRACT

A perennial wild shrub from the Lamiaceae family and native to the Mediterranean region, thyme is considered an important wild edible plant studied for centuries for its unique importance in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry. Thyme is loaded with phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins. It is pungent in taste, yet rich in moisture, proteins, crude fiber, minerals and vitamins. Its chemical composition may vary with geographical location but is mainly composed of flavonoids and antioxidants. Previous studies have illustrated the therapeutic effects of thyme and its essential oils, especially thymol and carvacrol, against various diseases. This is attributed to its multi-pharmacological properties that include, but are not limited to, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic actions. Moreover, thyme has long been known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic activities, in addition to remarkable disruption of microbial biofilms. In the COVID-19 era, some thyme constituents were investigated for their potential in viral binding. As such, thyme presents a wide range of functional possibilities in food, drugs, and other fields and prominent interest as a nutraceutical. The aims of the current review are to present botanical and nutritive values of this herb, elaborate its major constituents, and review available literature on its dietetic and biological activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Thymus Plant , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Thymol/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Vitamins
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11431, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921707

ABSTRACT

Emergent application of antimicrobial strategies as symptomatic treatment in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and linkage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 with microbial infections, has created colossal demand for antimicrobials. For the first time, this communication explore the physicochemical, antifungal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic properties of biogenic magnesium nanoparticles (MgNPs), synthesized using essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus's as an efficient multifunctional reducing and stabilizing/capping reagent. It is observed that MgNPs (ranging in size: 8-16 nm) of varying phytochemical compositions (MgS1, MgS2, MgS3) exhibited various useful physicochemical, antimicrobial, and photocatalytic properties. FTIR outcomes highlight the functional biomolecules-assisted reduction of Mg from Mg+ to Mg0. Among all, MgS3-Nps owing to the smallest particle size exhibited superior photocatalytic efficacy (91.2%) for the methylene blue degradation upon direct exposure to the sunlight for 3 h without using any reducing agents. Fabricated MgNPs also exhibited excellent antifungal (against Fusarium oxysporum) and antibacterial (versus Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) efficacies compared to state-of-the-art antimicrobial agents deployed for the treatment of infectious diseases. Based on this investigated greener approach, imperative from economic and environmental viewpoint, such essential oil based-MgNPs can be a potential nanosystem for various industrial applications where photocatalytic, and biomedical attributes are the key requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Oils, Volatile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Escherichia coli , Humans , Magnesium , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
3.
Complement Ther Med ; 67: 102823, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of individuals who have recovered from an acute COVID-19 infection continue to experience symptoms months later. Post-acute COVID-19 (long-haul COVID-19) can range from serious complications to quality of life symptoms such as fatigue or insomnia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for inhalation of essential oils to improve energy levels among otherwise healthy female survivors of acute COVID-19 who experience a lack of energy more than five months after recovery. This study was conducted in the United States in late 2021. METHOD: This was a randomized double blind, placebo controlled trial to evaluate the potential for inhalation of Longevity™, a proprietary essential oil blend manufactured by Young Living Essential Oils (Lehi, Utah, USA), on energy levels among female survivors of COVID-19 who continue to experience fatigue more than 5 months recovery from the acute infection. Forty women were randomized to two groups: intervention and placebo. Both groups inhaled the assigned product twice daily for fourteen consecutive days. Fatigue scores were measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory (MFSI). Secondary outcomes included scores on each of the MFSI's ten subscales. RESULTS: Individuals who inhaled the essential oil blend for 2 weeks had significantly lower fatigue scores after controlling for baseline scores, employment status, BMI, olfactory function, and time since diagnosis, with a large effect size (F (1,39) = 6.15, p = .020, partial eta squared = 0.198). Subscale analysis identified subscales of vigor, as well as global, behavioral, general, and mental fatigue as benefiting from the intervention. This study provides evidence that a proprietary aromatherapy blend can significantly improve energy levels among women who are experiencing fatigue after recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aromatherapy , Boswellia , COVID-19 , Citrus sinensis , Frankincense , Oils, Volatile , Syzygium , Thymus Plant , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818130

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have reported a significant increase in stress experienced by students owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, interest in stress management using nature-derived substances has increased. However, studies examining the effects of olfactory stimulation by fir are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of inhaling fir essential oil. Additionally, differences between male and female participants were compared. Twenty-six university students (16 female and 10 male students; mean age, 21.5 ± 1.9 years) participated in this study. Fir essential oil was used for olfactory stimulation, with normal room air as the control. The odor was administered for 3 min. Heart rate variability and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous system activity. The Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used as psychological indicators. The ln(Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio, which is an indicator of sympathetic nervous activity reflecting a stressful or aroused state during stimulation with fir essential oil, was significantly lower than during the control condition. Assessment of psychological indicators showed that the positive mood of "vigor" improved significantly and negative moods of "tension-anxiety", "depression", "anger-hostility", "fatigue" and anxiety levels reduced significantly after inhaling fir essential oil compared to the control condition. This study showed that inhalation of fir essential oil has physiologically and psychologically relaxing effects, with differences in results depending on the sex of the participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Adult , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pandemics , Relaxation , Stress, Psychological , Students , Universities , Young Adult
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
6.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760782

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a neglected disease, present mainly in tropical countries, with more than 5.2 million cases reported in 2019. Vector control remains the most effective protective measure against dengue and other arboviruses. Synthetic insecticides based on organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, neonicotinoids and oxadiazines are unattractive due to their high degree of toxicity to humans, animals and the environment. Conversely, natural-product-based larvicides/insecticides, such as essential oils, present high efficiency, low environmental toxicity and can be easily scaled up for industrial processes. However, essential oils are highly complex and require modern analytical and computational approaches to streamline the identification of bioactive substances. This study combined the GC-MS spectral similarity network approach with larvicidal assays as a new strategy for the discovery of potential bioactive substances in complex biological samples, enabling the systematic and simultaneous annotation of substances in 20 essential oils through LC50 larvicidal assays. This strategy allowed rapid intuitive discovery of distribution patterns between families and metabolic classes in clusters, and the prediction of larvicidal properties of acyclic monoterpene derivatives, including citral, neral, citronellal and citronellol, and their acetate forms (LC50 < 50 µg/mL).


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Oils, Volatile , Animals , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Mosquito Vectors , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
7.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732132

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the search for new molecules with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The entry of the virus into the cell is one of the main targets for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. Natural products are an important source of new therapeutic alternatives against diseases. Pseudotyped viruses allow the study of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry inhibitors, and due to their simplicity, they allow the screening of a large number of antiviral candidates in Biosafety Level 2 facilities. We used pseudotyped HIV-1 with the D614G SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to test its ability to infect ACE2-expressing HEK 293T cells in the presence of diverse natural products, including 21 plant extracts, 7 essential oils, and 13 compounds from plants and fungi. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was evaluated using the resazurin method. From these analyses, we determined the inhibitory activity of the extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis, which had a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 91.65 µg/mL, a CC50 of 693.5 µg/mL, and a selectivity index (SI) of 7.57, indicating its potential use as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 entry. Moreover, our work indicates the usefulness of the pseudotyped-virus system in the screening of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Actinobacteria/chemistry , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 783832, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591474

ABSTRACT

Reports of COVID-19 cases potentially attributed to fomite transmission led to the extensive use of various disinfectants to control viral spread. Alternative disinfectants, such as essential oils, have emerged as a potential antimicrobial. Four essential oil blends were tested on three different surfaces inoculated with a coronavirus surrogate, bacteriophage Phi 6, and a bacterial indicator, Staphylococcus aureus. Log10 concentration reductions were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software. Data collected in this study show that the application of dilute essential oil disinfectants using a spray delivery device is an effective way to reduce concentrations of bacterial and viral microorganisms on ceramic, stainless steel, and laminate surfaces. Surrogate viruses were reduced up to 6 log10 PFU and bacterial were reduced up to 4 log10 CFU. Although surfaces are no longer considered a high risk fomite for COVID-19 transmission, the disinfection of microorganisms on surfaces remains an important consideration for high touch areas in hospitals, waiting rooms, etc. The application of spray disinfectants, based on essential oil blends, provides a rapid and effective means to reduce microbial contamination on high-touched surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Oils, Volatile , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 119-130, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389070

ABSTRACT

A review of nasal sprays and gargles with antiviral properties suggests that a number of commonly used antiseptics including povidone-iodine, Listerine®, iota-carrageenan and chlorhexidine should be studied in clinical trials to mitigate both the progression and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Several of these antiseptics have demonstrated the ability to cut the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 by 3-4 log10 in 15-30 s in vitro. In addition, hypertonic saline targets viral replication by increasing hypochlorous acid inside the cell. A number of clinical trials are in process to study these interventions both for prevention of transmission, prophylaxis after exposure, and to diminish progression by reduction of viral load in the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/transmission , Carrageenan/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Nasal Sprays , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Salicylates/therapeutic use , Terpenes/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects
10.
Int J Pharm ; 607: 121032, 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364122

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology has provided novel approaches against food born and pathogenic bacteria. Within the present study, the effects of pure and nanoemulsified essential oil derived from Satureja Khuzistanica essential oil (SKEO) on Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 25922) as a human pathogen has been studied using a microfluidic chip. The morphology and antibacterial activity of E. coli at disparate residence durations (from 2 to 30 min) and various nanoemulsified or pure essential oil concentrations (8.0-62.5 µg mL-1) and numerous nanoemulsion's droplet sizes from 32 to 124 nm, have been investigated in the microfluidic system. Also, the quantitative analysis including optical density, time killing assay, protein, nucleic acid and potassium release were employed to confirm the effects of bacterial inhibition taking advantage of the chip apparatus. It was revealed that the prepared nanoemulsion left a considerable destructive effect on E. coli bacterial membrane, confirmed by fast release of cytoplasmic elements including protein, nucleic acid and potassium. However, this process was remarkably intensified for both nanoemulsion and pure essential oil using the microfluidic chip versus the conventional methods. The results also revealed that after 4 min of bacterium treatment by 12.5 µg mL-1 nanoemulsion with 32 nm mean particle size, the bacterial membrane wall began to degrade rapidly, and bacterial activity was almost completely inhibited in a 20-min period. These findings may have implications in the similarly structured and phospholipid-encapsulated bacteria and viruses, like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Satureja , Escherichia coli , Humans , Microfluidics , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1327: 191-195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316248

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic and acute respiratory disease. Every day, all around the world, researchers are endeavoring to find effective or potential adjuvant therapies. Studies illustrate that essential oils from cinnamon and derivatives such as cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid possess numerous biological activities. In this paper, we have reviewed the possible mechanisms of cinnamon on the inflammatory cascade as a potential alternative therapy to decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305727

ABSTRACT

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is a species with great importance in the history of medicine and was called the "mother of herbs" in the Middle Ages. It is a common herbaceous plant that exhibits high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where it occurs. This species is well known almost all over the world. Its herb-Artemisiae vulgaris herba-is used as a raw material due to the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenoids lactones and their associated biological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia has listed this species as a potential homeopathic raw material. Moreover, this species has been used in traditional Chinese, Hindu, and European medicine to regulate the functioning of the gastrointestinal system and treat various gynecological diseases. The general aim of this review was to analyze the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological as well as professional scientific studies focusing on A. vulgaris. Thus far, numerous authors have confirmed the beneficial properties of A. vulgaris herb extracts, including their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, several works have reviewed the use of this species in the production of cosmetics and its role as a valuable spice in the food industry. Furthermore, biotechnological micropropagation of A. vulgaris has been analyzed.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts , History of Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
13.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282533

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease that progresses in a relatively symptom-free manner; thus, is difficult to detect and treat. Essential oil is reported to exhibit pharmacological properties, besides its common and well-known function as aromatherapy. Therefore, this study herein aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effect of essential oil extracted from leaves of Garcinia atroviridis (EO-L) against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. The cell growth inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) and selective index (SI) values of EO-L analyses were determined as 78 µg/mL and 1.23, respectively. Combination index (CI) analysis revealed moderate synergism (CI values of 0.36 to 0.75) between EO-L and 2 deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) treatments. The treatments of PANC-1 cells with EO-L, 2-DG and EOL+2DG showed evidence of depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The molecular mechanism causing the anti-proliferative effect between EO-L and 2-DG is potentially through pronounced up-regulation of P53 (4.40-fold), HIF1α (1.92-fold), HK2 (2.88-fold) and down-regulation of CYP3A5 (0.11-fold), as supported by quantitative mRNA expression analysis. Collectively, the current data suggest that the combination of two anti-proliferative agents, EO-L and 2-DG, can potentially be explored as therapeutic treatments and as potentiating agents to conventional therapy against human pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Humans , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
14.
Epilepsy Res ; 173: 106626, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Essential oils (EOs) like eucalyptus and camphor have pro-convulsant properties. These EOs are present in many over- the- counter balms and oils. The effect of exposure to these EOs and occurrence of seizure is not systematically studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between essential oils and the first episode of seizure and breakthrough seizures in known epileptic patients. METHODS: This was a multi-center prospective study, conducted in four hospitals over four years. Every person presenting with the first episode of seizure or breakthrough seizure was asked about exposure to EOs, mode of exposure, time to onset of a seizure in relationship to exposure, duration of seizure, type of seizure, and antiepileptic drug therapy. RESULTS: During the four-year period there were 55 patients with essential oil-related seizure (EORS). 22(40 %) had essential oil-induced seizures (EOIS) and 33(60 %) had essential oil-provoked seizures (EOPS). The female: male ratio was 1:1.1, the age of the patients ranged from 8 months to 77 years. In the EOIS group, 95 % had generalized tonic-clonic seizures and 5% had focal impaired awareness seizures. In the EOPS group, 42.4 % had focal impaired awareness seizures, 27.3 % generalized tonic-clonic seizures, 15 % focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, and 15 % focal aware motor seizures. EOs implicated were preparations containing eucalyptus and camphor. CONCLUSION: Exposure to essential oils of eucalyptus and camphor is an under-recognized cause of the first and breakthrough seizure. Identifying the true causative factor will prevent unnecessary antiepileptic drug therapy and future recurrence.


Subject(s)
Epilepsies, Partial , Oils, Volatile , Adult , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Epilepsies, Partial/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 44-47, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199055

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal systemic disease of felids caused by a Coronavirus (CoV) (FIPV). In spite of its clinical relevance and impact on feline health, currently the therapeutic possibilities for treatment of FIP in cats are limited. The emergence of the pandemic Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), etiological agent of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), able to infect a broad spectrum of animal species including cats, triggered the interest for the development of novel molecules with antiviral activity for treatment of CoV infections in humans and animals. Essential oils (EOs) have raised significant attention for their antiviral properties integrating and, in some cases, replacing conventional drugs. Thymus vulgaris EO (TEO) has been previously shown to be effective against several RNA viruses including CoVs. In the present study the antiviral efficacy of TEO against FIPV was evaluated in vitro. TEO at 27 µg/ml was able to inhibit virus replication with a significant reduction of 2 log10 TCID50/50 µl. Moreover, virucidal activity was tested using TEO at 27 and 270 µg/ml, over the cytotoxic threshold, determining a reduction of viral titre as high as 3.25 log10 TCID50/50 µl up to 1 h of time contact. These results open several perspectives in terms of future applications and therapeutic possibilities for coronaviruses considering that FIPV infection in cats could be a potential model for the study of antivirals against CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Cats , Cell Line , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(11): e2000707, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193067

ABSTRACT

Lodoicea maldivica (J.F.Gmel.) Pers. (Arecaceae), 'Coco de Mer', is a palm, growing as endemic in the Seychelles islands. Its fruit weighs up to 20 kg and is characterized by a fleshy and fibrous envelope surrounding the nutlike portion. The present work combines a morpho-anatomical and a phytochemical analysis of the fruit exocarp and mesocarp. The exocarp is composed by a layer of palisade cells. The mesocarp is characterized by vascular bundles and by sclereids. In the aerenchyma, the internal zone of the mesocarp, cells aggregates were positive to phenols, while idioblasts were positive to terpenes. We performed a GC/MS analysis with a semi-quantitative relative amount calculation of the recorded compounds. The GC/MS essential oil profile revealed the dominance of acyclic sesquiterpenoids (53.95 %), followed by bicyclic sesquiterpenoids (31.69 %), monoterpenes (11.89 %) and monocyclic sesquiterpenoids (2.44 %). The terpenes detected in higher amounts, ß-caryophyllene and bicyclogermacrene, are known for activity against insect larvae, but have been proposed as antiviral candidates against SARS-CoV-2. The third compound in amount, aromadendrene, is active against bacteria and, again, known to possess insecticidal properties.


Subject(s)
Cocos/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Azulenes/analysis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cocos/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fruit/ultrastructure , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Insecticides/analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 341: 109449, 2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a severe global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as one of the most threatening transmissible disease. As a great threat to global public health, the development of treatment options has become vital, and a rush to find a cure has mobilized researchers globally from all areas. SCOPE AND APPROACH: This review focuses on deciphering the potential of different secondary metabolites from medicinal plants as therapeutic options either as inhibitors of therapeutic targets of SARS-CoV-2 or as blockers of viral particles entry through host cell receptors. The use of medicinal plants containing specific phytomoieties could be seen in providing a safer and long-term solution for the population with lesser side effects. Key Findings and Conclusions: Considering the high cost and time-consuming drug discovery process, therapeutic repositioning of existing drugs was explored as treatment option in COVID-19, however several molecules have been retracted as therapeutics either due to no positive outcomes or the severe side effects. These effects call for exploring the alternate treatment options which are therapeutically effective as well as safe. Keeping this in mind, phytopharmaceuticals derived from medicinal plants could be explored as important resources in the development of COVID-19 treatment, as their role in the past for treatment of viral diseases like HIV, MERS-CoV, and influenza has been well reported. Considering this fact, different phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides etc. Possessing antiviral properties against coronaviruses and possessing potential against SARS-CoV-2 have been reviewed in the present work.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anthraquinones/chemistry , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Saponins/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology , Secondary Metabolism
18.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(6): 976-999, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124732

ABSTRACT

At present, specific therapies for COVID-19 are not well established, being certain only that the immune system plays a decisive role in the initiation and progression of the disease. Plants have given and continue to give compounds with great efficiency and low toxicity, some of them being a starting point for extremely effective synthetic substances. Although herbal remedies are used mainly for preventive purposes, there are also guidelines issued by some countries that indicate the use of traditional remedies for different stages of COVID-19 disease.Europe has a long and strong tradition of using medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes, but clinical trials for this type of approach are scarce, compared to Asia. In this regard, a bridge between tradition and science, would have a strong impact on the capacity for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The paper reviews compounds of plant origin that have previously proven effective in counteracting some coronaviruses but also some of their major effects - direct action on virus replicative apparatus (viral entry or replication, action on the viral enzymatic system), collateral action of natural compounds on the immune system and also the contribution of herbal medicine as vaccine adjuvants are tackled.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Clinical Trials as Topic , Europe , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Lectins/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saponins/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(5): 601-610, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current health concern to the entire world is the chronic respiratory disease caused by coronavirus 2 (COVID-19). A specific treatment or proper therapy is still lacking, and the investigations from across the world for proper drug/vaccine development towards disease control are in progress. The Coronavirus replication takes place by the conversion of the polypeptide into functional protein and this occurs due to the key enzyme Main protease (Mpro). Therefore, identification of natural and effective Mpro inhibitors could be a safe and promising approach for COVID-19 control. METHODS: The present in silico study evaluates the effect of bioactive compounds found in Eucalyptus and Corymbia species essential oil on Mpro by docking. Molecular docking of the major seven compounds of essential oil (citronellol, alpha-terpineol, eucalyptol, d-limonene, 3-carene, o-cymene, and alpha-pinene) with Mpro was studied by AutoDock 4.2, and the properties were analysed by PreADMET and Biovia Discovery Studio visualizer. RESULTS: The calculated parameters such as binding energy, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bond interactions of 6LU7 (Mpro) with Eucalyptus and Corymbia volatile secondary metabolites represented its scope as an effective therapy option against covid-19. Among the docked compounds, eucalyptol shows the least binding energy without toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of this study reported that the essential oil of Eucalyptus and Corymbia species, mainly eucalyptol can be utilized as a potential inhibitor against COVID-19 and also it can be used in its treatment. Hence, further analysis was required to explore its potential application in medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Curr Pharm Des ; 26(41): 5261-5277, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073202

ABSTRACT

On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) announced a pandemic caused by a novel beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, designated COVID-19. The virus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has spread across the world as a global pandemic. The traditional use of medicines from plants can be traced back to 60,000 years. Global interest in the development of drugs from natural products has increased greatly during the last few decades. Essential oils (EOs) have been studied through the centuries and are known to possess various pharmaceutical properties. In the present review, we have highlighted the current biology, epidemiology, various clinical aspects, different diagnostic techniques, clinical symptoms, and management of COVID-19. An overview of the antiviral action of EOs, along with their proposed mechanism of action and in silico studies conducted, is described. The reported studies of EOs' antiviral activity highlight the baseline data about the additive and/or synergistic effects among primary or secondary phytoconstituents found in individual oils, combinations or blends of oils and between EOs and antiviral drugs. It is hoped that further research will provide better insights into EOs' potential to limit viral infection and aid in providing solutions through natural, therapeutically active agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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