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1.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 8(6): 437-451, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus has become a life-threatening disease and it is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This new strain of coronavirus is not completely understood and to date, there is no treatment for coronavirus. Traditional ayurvedic medicines, mainly essential oils and Chinese herbs, have always played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of several epidemics and pandemics. In the meantime, guidelines of the ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, yoga, unani, siddha and homoepathy) include a traditional medicinal treatment for flu and fever and also recommended to boost immunity to prevent the spread of coronavirus. It is not possible to find which essential oil will offer the best level of protection. However, it is likely to assume that some essential oils are likely to offer a measurable level of defense in the same way they do with many other known viruses. METHODS: Literature relevant to various essential oils having antiviral activity has been collected and compiled. Various nanocarriers of essential oils have also been stated. The database was collected using various search engines such as J-Gate, Google Scholar, Sci-Hub, PubMed, ScienceDirect, etc. Results: Essential oils contain active constituents such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenyl propanoids, etc., which are responsible for their biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and many more. However, the use of essential oils has always been limited due to poor solubility, solvent toxicity, volatility and low solubility. Many nanotechnology based carriers especially, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, nanoemulsion and microemulsion, etc. have been evidenced to overcome limitations associated with essential oils. CONCLUSION: Several essential oils possess potent antiviral activity and are characterized by fewer side effects and are safe for human use. The nanocarrier systems of these oils have proved the potential to treat viral and bacterial infections. Lay Summary: Current COVID-19 era demands traditional treatment for immunity boost up as support therapy. Traditional ayurvedic medicines, mainly essential oils and Chinese herbs, have always played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of several epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, authors have summarized various essential oils having antiviral activity in current manuscript. Various nanocarriers of essential oils have been reported. Essential oils contain active constituents such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenyl propanoids, etc., which are responsible for their biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity. However, the use of essential oils has always been limited due to poor solubility, solvent toxicity, volatility and low solubility. Many nanotechnology based carriers especially, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, nanoemulsion and microemulsion, etc. have been evidenced to overcome limitations associated with essential oils. The nanocarrier systems of these oils have proved the potential to treat viral and bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Nanocapsules/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Compounding , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Terpenes/chemistry
2.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2944-2954, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824735

ABSTRACT

This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. The use of EOs along with administration of ND vaccines (VTC) revealed a lower mortality rate (42.86%), clinical signs, and postmortem lesion score (11) than ND vaccines alone (VC) (52.28% mortality and score 15), in addition to lower hemagglutination inhibition (P < 0.05) (6.5 ± 0.46) and viral shedding (10 log 2.28 ± 0.24) titres 1 wk after challenge in comparison with VC (8.63 ± 0.65 and 10 log 3.29 ± 0.72, respectively). Nevertheless, the EOs mixture (VTC) (1952 ± 28.82) did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve growth performance compared with the nontreated birds (NC and VC) (1970 ± 19.56 and 1904 ± 38.66). EOs showed an antiviral effect on vNDv in vivo (in chickens) as a preventive measure (PRV) as well as some therapeutic effect (TTT) through decreasing the viral shedding titres (loNC0), mortality rate, and severity of clinical signs and postmortem lesions, in addition to serum malondialdhyde level. Regarding the other viruses, the EOs mixture did not improve the immune response to the AI and IB vaccines but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ELISA antibody titre for IBD virus at the 28th D of age (2,108 ± 341.05). The studied EOs mixture showed an immune-stimulating response to ND and IBD vaccines, antiviral effect against ND virus, especially if administered before the challenge; however, it did not have a growth-promoting effect.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Immunity, Humoral , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/classification
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