Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953779

ABSTRACT

A perennial wild shrub from the Lamiaceae family and native to the Mediterranean region, thyme is considered an important wild edible plant studied for centuries for its unique importance in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry. Thyme is loaded with phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins. It is pungent in taste, yet rich in moisture, proteins, crude fiber, minerals and vitamins. Its chemical composition may vary with geographical location but is mainly composed of flavonoids and antioxidants. Previous studies have illustrated the therapeutic effects of thyme and its essential oils, especially thymol and carvacrol, against various diseases. This is attributed to its multi-pharmacological properties that include, but are not limited to, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic actions. Moreover, thyme has long been known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic activities, in addition to remarkable disruption of microbial biofilms. In the COVID-19 era, some thyme constituents were investigated for their potential in viral binding. As such, thyme presents a wide range of functional possibilities in food, drugs, and other fields and prominent interest as a nutraceutical. The aims of the current review are to present botanical and nutritive values of this herb, elaborate its major constituents, and review available literature on its dietetic and biological activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Thymus Plant , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Thymol/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Vitamins
2.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732132

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the search for new molecules with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The entry of the virus into the cell is one of the main targets for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. Natural products are an important source of new therapeutic alternatives against diseases. Pseudotyped viruses allow the study of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry inhibitors, and due to their simplicity, they allow the screening of a large number of antiviral candidates in Biosafety Level 2 facilities. We used pseudotyped HIV-1 with the D614G SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to test its ability to infect ACE2-expressing HEK 293T cells in the presence of diverse natural products, including 21 plant extracts, 7 essential oils, and 13 compounds from plants and fungi. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was evaluated using the resazurin method. From these analyses, we determined the inhibitory activity of the extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis, which had a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 91.65 µg/mL, a CC50 of 693.5 µg/mL, and a selectivity index (SI) of 7.57, indicating its potential use as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 entry. Moreover, our work indicates the usefulness of the pseudotyped-virus system in the screening of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Actinobacteria/chemistry , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305727

ABSTRACT

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is a species with great importance in the history of medicine and was called the "mother of herbs" in the Middle Ages. It is a common herbaceous plant that exhibits high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where it occurs. This species is well known almost all over the world. Its herb-Artemisiae vulgaris herba-is used as a raw material due to the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenoids lactones and their associated biological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia has listed this species as a potential homeopathic raw material. Moreover, this species has been used in traditional Chinese, Hindu, and European medicine to regulate the functioning of the gastrointestinal system and treat various gynecological diseases. The general aim of this review was to analyze the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological as well as professional scientific studies focusing on A. vulgaris. Thus far, numerous authors have confirmed the beneficial properties of A. vulgaris herb extracts, including their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, several works have reviewed the use of this species in the production of cosmetics and its role as a valuable spice in the food industry. Furthermore, biotechnological micropropagation of A. vulgaris has been analyzed.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts , History of Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 44-47, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199055

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal systemic disease of felids caused by a Coronavirus (CoV) (FIPV). In spite of its clinical relevance and impact on feline health, currently the therapeutic possibilities for treatment of FIP in cats are limited. The emergence of the pandemic Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), etiological agent of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), able to infect a broad spectrum of animal species including cats, triggered the interest for the development of novel molecules with antiviral activity for treatment of CoV infections in humans and animals. Essential oils (EOs) have raised significant attention for their antiviral properties integrating and, in some cases, replacing conventional drugs. Thymus vulgaris EO (TEO) has been previously shown to be effective against several RNA viruses including CoVs. In the present study the antiviral efficacy of TEO against FIPV was evaluated in vitro. TEO at 27 µg/ml was able to inhibit virus replication with a significant reduction of 2 log10 TCID50/50 µl. Moreover, virucidal activity was tested using TEO at 27 and 270 µg/ml, over the cytotoxic threshold, determining a reduction of viral titre as high as 3.25 log10 TCID50/50 µl up to 1 h of time contact. These results open several perspectives in terms of future applications and therapeutic possibilities for coronaviruses considering that FIPV infection in cats could be a potential model for the study of antivirals against CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Cats , Cell Line , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 341: 109449, 2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a severe global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as one of the most threatening transmissible disease. As a great threat to global public health, the development of treatment options has become vital, and a rush to find a cure has mobilized researchers globally from all areas. SCOPE AND APPROACH: This review focuses on deciphering the potential of different secondary metabolites from medicinal plants as therapeutic options either as inhibitors of therapeutic targets of SARS-CoV-2 or as blockers of viral particles entry through host cell receptors. The use of medicinal plants containing specific phytomoieties could be seen in providing a safer and long-term solution for the population with lesser side effects. Key Findings and Conclusions: Considering the high cost and time-consuming drug discovery process, therapeutic repositioning of existing drugs was explored as treatment option in COVID-19, however several molecules have been retracted as therapeutics either due to no positive outcomes or the severe side effects. These effects call for exploring the alternate treatment options which are therapeutically effective as well as safe. Keeping this in mind, phytopharmaceuticals derived from medicinal plants could be explored as important resources in the development of COVID-19 treatment, as their role in the past for treatment of viral diseases like HIV, MERS-CoV, and influenza has been well reported. Considering this fact, different phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides etc. Possessing antiviral properties against coronaviruses and possessing potential against SARS-CoV-2 have been reviewed in the present work.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anthraquinones/chemistry , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Saponins/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology , Secondary Metabolism
6.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(6): 976-999, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124732

ABSTRACT

At present, specific therapies for COVID-19 are not well established, being certain only that the immune system plays a decisive role in the initiation and progression of the disease. Plants have given and continue to give compounds with great efficiency and low toxicity, some of them being a starting point for extremely effective synthetic substances. Although herbal remedies are used mainly for preventive purposes, there are also guidelines issued by some countries that indicate the use of traditional remedies for different stages of COVID-19 disease.Europe has a long and strong tradition of using medicinal plants for therapeutic purposes, but clinical trials for this type of approach are scarce, compared to Asia. In this regard, a bridge between tradition and science, would have a strong impact on the capacity for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The paper reviews compounds of plant origin that have previously proven effective in counteracting some coronaviruses but also some of their major effects - direct action on virus replicative apparatus (viral entry or replication, action on the viral enzymatic system), collateral action of natural compounds on the immune system and also the contribution of herbal medicine as vaccine adjuvants are tackled.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Clinical Trials as Topic , Europe , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Lectins/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saponins/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 8(6): 437-451, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus has become a life-threatening disease and it is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This new strain of coronavirus is not completely understood and to date, there is no treatment for coronavirus. Traditional ayurvedic medicines, mainly essential oils and Chinese herbs, have always played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of several epidemics and pandemics. In the meantime, guidelines of the ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, yoga, unani, siddha and homoepathy) include a traditional medicinal treatment for flu and fever and also recommended to boost immunity to prevent the spread of coronavirus. It is not possible to find which essential oil will offer the best level of protection. However, it is likely to assume that some essential oils are likely to offer a measurable level of defense in the same way they do with many other known viruses. METHODS: Literature relevant to various essential oils having antiviral activity has been collected and compiled. Various nanocarriers of essential oils have also been stated. The database was collected using various search engines such as J-Gate, Google Scholar, Sci-Hub, PubMed, ScienceDirect, etc. Results: Essential oils contain active constituents such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenyl propanoids, etc., which are responsible for their biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and many more. However, the use of essential oils has always been limited due to poor solubility, solvent toxicity, volatility and low solubility. Many nanotechnology based carriers especially, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, nanoemulsion and microemulsion, etc. have been evidenced to overcome limitations associated with essential oils. CONCLUSION: Several essential oils possess potent antiviral activity and are characterized by fewer side effects and are safe for human use. The nanocarrier systems of these oils have proved the potential to treat viral and bacterial infections. Lay Summary: Current COVID-19 era demands traditional treatment for immunity boost up as support therapy. Traditional ayurvedic medicines, mainly essential oils and Chinese herbs, have always played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of several epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, authors have summarized various essential oils having antiviral activity in current manuscript. Various nanocarriers of essential oils have been reported. Essential oils contain active constituents such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenyl propanoids, etc., which are responsible for their biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity. However, the use of essential oils has always been limited due to poor solubility, solvent toxicity, volatility and low solubility. Many nanotechnology based carriers especially, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, nanoemulsion and microemulsion, etc. have been evidenced to overcome limitations associated with essential oils. The nanocarrier systems of these oils have proved the potential to treat viral and bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Nanocapsules/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Compounding , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Terpenes/chemistry
8.
Microb Pathog ; 152: 104620, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949816

ABSTRACT

Essential oils and their chemical constituents have been reported with well documented antimicrobial effects against a range of bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. By definition, essential oils are a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds which are synthesized naturally in different parts of the plant as part of plants secondary metabolism. The chemical composition of the essential oils is dominated by the presence of a range of compounds including phenolics, terpenoids, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, epoxides and many others inferring that essential oils must be effective against a wide range of pathogens. This review article mainly focuses on the antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents especially against influenza and coronaviruses. Essential oils have been screened against several pathogenic viruses, including influenza and other respiratory viral infections. The essential oils of cinnamon, bergamot, lemongrass, thyme, lavender have been reported to exert potent antiviral effects against influenza type A virus. The essential oil of Citrus reshni leaves has been shown to be effective against H5N1 virus. The essential oil of Lippia species at a concentration of 11.1 µg/mL has been shown to induce 100% inhibition of yellow fever virus in Vero cells. Essential oils and oleoresins have been shown through in vitro and in vivo experiments to induce antiviral effects against Coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. A study reported 221 phytochemical compounds and essential oils to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using a cell-based assay measuring SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect on Vero E6 cells. The main mechanism of antiviral effects of essential oils has been found to cause capsid disintegration and viral expansion which prevents the virus to infect host cells by adsorption via the capsid. Essential oils also inhibit hemagglutinin (an important membrane protein of various viruses) of certain viruses; this membrane protein allows the virus to enter the host cell. Many essential oils and their components could inhibit the late stages of viral life cycle by targeting the redox signalling pathway. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and Rosmarinus officinalis have been found to destabilize the Tat/TAR-RNA complex of HIV-1 virus, this complex being essential for HIV-1 replication. Being lipophilic in nature, essential oils can penetrate viral membranes easily leading to membrane disintegration. The current comprehensive review will facilitate researchers to find chemical entities from plant sources as possible inhibitory agents against various viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL