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1.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953779

ABSTRACT

A perennial wild shrub from the Lamiaceae family and native to the Mediterranean region, thyme is considered an important wild edible plant studied for centuries for its unique importance in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry. Thyme is loaded with phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins. It is pungent in taste, yet rich in moisture, proteins, crude fiber, minerals and vitamins. Its chemical composition may vary with geographical location but is mainly composed of flavonoids and antioxidants. Previous studies have illustrated the therapeutic effects of thyme and its essential oils, especially thymol and carvacrol, against various diseases. This is attributed to its multi-pharmacological properties that include, but are not limited to, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic actions. Moreover, thyme has long been known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic activities, in addition to remarkable disruption of microbial biofilms. In the COVID-19 era, some thyme constituents were investigated for their potential in viral binding. As such, thyme presents a wide range of functional possibilities in food, drugs, and other fields and prominent interest as a nutraceutical. The aims of the current review are to present botanical and nutritive values of this herb, elaborate its major constituents, and review available literature on its dietetic and biological activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Thymus Plant , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Thymol/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Vitamins
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11431, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921707

ABSTRACT

Emergent application of antimicrobial strategies as symptomatic treatment in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and linkage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 with microbial infections, has created colossal demand for antimicrobials. For the first time, this communication explore the physicochemical, antifungal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic properties of biogenic magnesium nanoparticles (MgNPs), synthesized using essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus's as an efficient multifunctional reducing and stabilizing/capping reagent. It is observed that MgNPs (ranging in size: 8-16 nm) of varying phytochemical compositions (MgS1, MgS2, MgS3) exhibited various useful physicochemical, antimicrobial, and photocatalytic properties. FTIR outcomes highlight the functional biomolecules-assisted reduction of Mg from Mg+ to Mg0. Among all, MgS3-Nps owing to the smallest particle size exhibited superior photocatalytic efficacy (91.2%) for the methylene blue degradation upon direct exposure to the sunlight for 3 h without using any reducing agents. Fabricated MgNPs also exhibited excellent antifungal (against Fusarium oxysporum) and antibacterial (versus Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) efficacies compared to state-of-the-art antimicrobial agents deployed for the treatment of infectious diseases. Based on this investigated greener approach, imperative from economic and environmental viewpoint, such essential oil based-MgNPs can be a potential nanosystem for various industrial applications where photocatalytic, and biomedical attributes are the key requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Oils, Volatile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Escherichia coli , Humans , Magnesium , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818130

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have reported a significant increase in stress experienced by students owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, interest in stress management using nature-derived substances has increased. However, studies examining the effects of olfactory stimulation by fir are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of inhaling fir essential oil. Additionally, differences between male and female participants were compared. Twenty-six university students (16 female and 10 male students; mean age, 21.5 ± 1.9 years) participated in this study. Fir essential oil was used for olfactory stimulation, with normal room air as the control. The odor was administered for 3 min. Heart rate variability and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous system activity. The Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used as psychological indicators. The ln(Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio, which is an indicator of sympathetic nervous activity reflecting a stressful or aroused state during stimulation with fir essential oil, was significantly lower than during the control condition. Assessment of psychological indicators showed that the positive mood of "vigor" improved significantly and negative moods of "tension-anxiety", "depression", "anger-hostility", "fatigue" and anxiety levels reduced significantly after inhaling fir essential oil compared to the control condition. This study showed that inhalation of fir essential oil has physiologically and psychologically relaxing effects, with differences in results depending on the sex of the participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Adult , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pandemics , Relaxation , Stress, Psychological , Students , Universities , Young Adult
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
5.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760782

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a neglected disease, present mainly in tropical countries, with more than 5.2 million cases reported in 2019. Vector control remains the most effective protective measure against dengue and other arboviruses. Synthetic insecticides based on organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, neonicotinoids and oxadiazines are unattractive due to their high degree of toxicity to humans, animals and the environment. Conversely, natural-product-based larvicides/insecticides, such as essential oils, present high efficiency, low environmental toxicity and can be easily scaled up for industrial processes. However, essential oils are highly complex and require modern analytical and computational approaches to streamline the identification of bioactive substances. This study combined the GC-MS spectral similarity network approach with larvicidal assays as a new strategy for the discovery of potential bioactive substances in complex biological samples, enabling the systematic and simultaneous annotation of substances in 20 essential oils through LC50 larvicidal assays. This strategy allowed rapid intuitive discovery of distribution patterns between families and metabolic classes in clusters, and the prediction of larvicidal properties of acyclic monoterpene derivatives, including citral, neral, citronellal and citronellol, and their acetate forms (LC50 < 50 µg/mL).


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Oils, Volatile , Animals , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Mosquito Vectors , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
6.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732132

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the search for new molecules with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The entry of the virus into the cell is one of the main targets for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. Natural products are an important source of new therapeutic alternatives against diseases. Pseudotyped viruses allow the study of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry inhibitors, and due to their simplicity, they allow the screening of a large number of antiviral candidates in Biosafety Level 2 facilities. We used pseudotyped HIV-1 with the D614G SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to test its ability to infect ACE2-expressing HEK 293T cells in the presence of diverse natural products, including 21 plant extracts, 7 essential oils, and 13 compounds from plants and fungi. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was evaluated using the resazurin method. From these analyses, we determined the inhibitory activity of the extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis, which had a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 91.65 µg/mL, a CC50 of 693.5 µg/mL, and a selectivity index (SI) of 7.57, indicating its potential use as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 entry. Moreover, our work indicates the usefulness of the pseudotyped-virus system in the screening of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Actinobacteria/chemistry , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 783832, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591474

ABSTRACT

Reports of COVID-19 cases potentially attributed to fomite transmission led to the extensive use of various disinfectants to control viral spread. Alternative disinfectants, such as essential oils, have emerged as a potential antimicrobial. Four essential oil blends were tested on three different surfaces inoculated with a coronavirus surrogate, bacteriophage Phi 6, and a bacterial indicator, Staphylococcus aureus. Log10 concentration reductions were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software. Data collected in this study show that the application of dilute essential oil disinfectants using a spray delivery device is an effective way to reduce concentrations of bacterial and viral microorganisms on ceramic, stainless steel, and laminate surfaces. Surrogate viruses were reduced up to 6 log10 PFU and bacterial were reduced up to 4 log10 CFU. Although surfaces are no longer considered a high risk fomite for COVID-19 transmission, the disinfection of microorganisms on surfaces remains an important consideration for high touch areas in hospitals, waiting rooms, etc. The application of spray disinfectants, based on essential oil blends, provides a rapid and effective means to reduce microbial contamination on high-touched surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Oils, Volatile , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Pharm ; 607: 121032, 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364122

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology has provided novel approaches against food born and pathogenic bacteria. Within the present study, the effects of pure and nanoemulsified essential oil derived from Satureja Khuzistanica essential oil (SKEO) on Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 25922) as a human pathogen has been studied using a microfluidic chip. The morphology and antibacterial activity of E. coli at disparate residence durations (from 2 to 30 min) and various nanoemulsified or pure essential oil concentrations (8.0-62.5 µg mL-1) and numerous nanoemulsion's droplet sizes from 32 to 124 nm, have been investigated in the microfluidic system. Also, the quantitative analysis including optical density, time killing assay, protein, nucleic acid and potassium release were employed to confirm the effects of bacterial inhibition taking advantage of the chip apparatus. It was revealed that the prepared nanoemulsion left a considerable destructive effect on E. coli bacterial membrane, confirmed by fast release of cytoplasmic elements including protein, nucleic acid and potassium. However, this process was remarkably intensified for both nanoemulsion and pure essential oil using the microfluidic chip versus the conventional methods. The results also revealed that after 4 min of bacterium treatment by 12.5 µg mL-1 nanoemulsion with 32 nm mean particle size, the bacterial membrane wall began to degrade rapidly, and bacterial activity was almost completely inhibited in a 20-min period. These findings may have implications in the similarly structured and phospholipid-encapsulated bacteria and viruses, like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Satureja , Escherichia coli , Humans , Microfluidics , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282533

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease that progresses in a relatively symptom-free manner; thus, is difficult to detect and treat. Essential oil is reported to exhibit pharmacological properties, besides its common and well-known function as aromatherapy. Therefore, this study herein aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effect of essential oil extracted from leaves of Garcinia atroviridis (EO-L) against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. The cell growth inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) and selective index (SI) values of EO-L analyses were determined as 78 µg/mL and 1.23, respectively. Combination index (CI) analysis revealed moderate synergism (CI values of 0.36 to 0.75) between EO-L and 2 deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) treatments. The treatments of PANC-1 cells with EO-L, 2-DG and EOL+2DG showed evidence of depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The molecular mechanism causing the anti-proliferative effect between EO-L and 2-DG is potentially through pronounced up-regulation of P53 (4.40-fold), HIF1α (1.92-fold), HK2 (2.88-fold) and down-regulation of CYP3A5 (0.11-fold), as supported by quantitative mRNA expression analysis. Collectively, the current data suggest that the combination of two anti-proliferative agents, EO-L and 2-DG, can potentially be explored as therapeutic treatments and as potentiating agents to conventional therapy against human pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Humans , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Plant Leaves/chemistry
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 44-47, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199055

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal systemic disease of felids caused by a Coronavirus (CoV) (FIPV). In spite of its clinical relevance and impact on feline health, currently the therapeutic possibilities for treatment of FIP in cats are limited. The emergence of the pandemic Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), etiological agent of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), able to infect a broad spectrum of animal species including cats, triggered the interest for the development of novel molecules with antiviral activity for treatment of CoV infections in humans and animals. Essential oils (EOs) have raised significant attention for their antiviral properties integrating and, in some cases, replacing conventional drugs. Thymus vulgaris EO (TEO) has been previously shown to be effective against several RNA viruses including CoVs. In the present study the antiviral efficacy of TEO against FIPV was evaluated in vitro. TEO at 27 µg/ml was able to inhibit virus replication with a significant reduction of 2 log10 TCID50/50 µl. Moreover, virucidal activity was tested using TEO at 27 and 270 µg/ml, over the cytotoxic threshold, determining a reduction of viral titre as high as 3.25 log10 TCID50/50 µl up to 1 h of time contact. These results open several perspectives in terms of future applications and therapeutic possibilities for coronaviruses considering that FIPV infection in cats could be a potential model for the study of antivirals against CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Cats , Cell Line , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 341: 109449, 2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a severe global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as one of the most threatening transmissible disease. As a great threat to global public health, the development of treatment options has become vital, and a rush to find a cure has mobilized researchers globally from all areas. SCOPE AND APPROACH: This review focuses on deciphering the potential of different secondary metabolites from medicinal plants as therapeutic options either as inhibitors of therapeutic targets of SARS-CoV-2 or as blockers of viral particles entry through host cell receptors. The use of medicinal plants containing specific phytomoieties could be seen in providing a safer and long-term solution for the population with lesser side effects. Key Findings and Conclusions: Considering the high cost and time-consuming drug discovery process, therapeutic repositioning of existing drugs was explored as treatment option in COVID-19, however several molecules have been retracted as therapeutics either due to no positive outcomes or the severe side effects. These effects call for exploring the alternate treatment options which are therapeutically effective as well as safe. Keeping this in mind, phytopharmaceuticals derived from medicinal plants could be explored as important resources in the development of COVID-19 treatment, as their role in the past for treatment of viral diseases like HIV, MERS-CoV, and influenza has been well reported. Considering this fact, different phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides etc. Possessing antiviral properties against coronaviruses and possessing potential against SARS-CoV-2 have been reviewed in the present work.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anthraquinones/chemistry , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Saponins/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology , Secondary Metabolism
12.
Curr Pharm Des ; 26(41): 5261-5277, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073202

ABSTRACT

On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) announced a pandemic caused by a novel beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, designated COVID-19. The virus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has spread across the world as a global pandemic. The traditional use of medicines from plants can be traced back to 60,000 years. Global interest in the development of drugs from natural products has increased greatly during the last few decades. Essential oils (EOs) have been studied through the centuries and are known to possess various pharmaceutical properties. In the present review, we have highlighted the current biology, epidemiology, various clinical aspects, different diagnostic techniques, clinical symptoms, and management of COVID-19. An overview of the antiviral action of EOs, along with their proposed mechanism of action and in silico studies conducted, is described. The reported studies of EOs' antiviral activity highlight the baseline data about the additive and/or synergistic effects among primary or secondary phytoconstituents found in individual oils, combinations or blends of oils and between EOs and antiviral drugs. It is hoped that further research will provide better insights into EOs' potential to limit viral infection and aid in providing solutions through natural, therapeutically active agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Microb Pathog ; 152: 104620, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949816

ABSTRACT

Essential oils and their chemical constituents have been reported with well documented antimicrobial effects against a range of bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. By definition, essential oils are a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds which are synthesized naturally in different parts of the plant as part of plants secondary metabolism. The chemical composition of the essential oils is dominated by the presence of a range of compounds including phenolics, terpenoids, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, epoxides and many others inferring that essential oils must be effective against a wide range of pathogens. This review article mainly focuses on the antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents especially against influenza and coronaviruses. Essential oils have been screened against several pathogenic viruses, including influenza and other respiratory viral infections. The essential oils of cinnamon, bergamot, lemongrass, thyme, lavender have been reported to exert potent antiviral effects against influenza type A virus. The essential oil of Citrus reshni leaves has been shown to be effective against H5N1 virus. The essential oil of Lippia species at a concentration of 11.1 µg/mL has been shown to induce 100% inhibition of yellow fever virus in Vero cells. Essential oils and oleoresins have been shown through in vitro and in vivo experiments to induce antiviral effects against Coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. A study reported 221 phytochemical compounds and essential oils to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using a cell-based assay measuring SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect on Vero E6 cells. The main mechanism of antiviral effects of essential oils has been found to cause capsid disintegration and viral expansion which prevents the virus to infect host cells by adsorption via the capsid. Essential oils also inhibit hemagglutinin (an important membrane protein of various viruses) of certain viruses; this membrane protein allows the virus to enter the host cell. Many essential oils and their components could inhibit the late stages of viral life cycle by targeting the redox signalling pathway. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and Rosmarinus officinalis have been found to destabilize the Tat/TAR-RNA complex of HIV-1 virus, this complex being essential for HIV-1 replication. Being lipophilic in nature, essential oils can penetrate viral membranes easily leading to membrane disintegration. The current comprehensive review will facilitate researchers to find chemical entities from plant sources as possible inhibitory agents against various viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2944-2954, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824735

ABSTRACT

This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. The use of EOs along with administration of ND vaccines (VTC) revealed a lower mortality rate (42.86%), clinical signs, and postmortem lesion score (11) than ND vaccines alone (VC) (52.28% mortality and score 15), in addition to lower hemagglutination inhibition (P < 0.05) (6.5 ± 0.46) and viral shedding (10 log 2.28 ± 0.24) titres 1 wk after challenge in comparison with VC (8.63 ± 0.65 and 10 log 3.29 ± 0.72, respectively). Nevertheless, the EOs mixture (VTC) (1952 ± 28.82) did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve growth performance compared with the nontreated birds (NC and VC) (1970 ± 19.56 and 1904 ± 38.66). EOs showed an antiviral effect on vNDv in vivo (in chickens) as a preventive measure (PRV) as well as some therapeutic effect (TTT) through decreasing the viral shedding titres (loNC0), mortality rate, and severity of clinical signs and postmortem lesions, in addition to serum malondialdhyde level. Regarding the other viruses, the EOs mixture did not improve the immune response to the AI and IB vaccines but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ELISA antibody titre for IBD virus at the 28th D of age (2,108 ± 341.05). The studied EOs mixture showed an immune-stimulating response to ND and IBD vaccines, antiviral effect against ND virus, especially if administered before the challenge; however, it did not have a growth-promoting effect.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Immunity, Humoral , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/classification
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245065

ABSTRACT

Essential oils have shown promise as antiviral agents against several pathogenic viruses. In this work we hypothesized that essential oil components may interact with key protein targets of the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A molecular docking analysis was carried out using 171 essential oil components with SARS-CoV-2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro), SARS-CoV-2 endoribonucleoase (SARS-CoV-2 Nsp15/NendoU), SARS-CoV-2 ADP-ribose-1″-phosphatase (SARS-CoV-2 ADRP), SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (SARS-CoV-2 RdRp), the binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-CoV-2 rS), and human angiotensin-converting enzyme (hACE2). The compound with the best normalized docking score to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (E)-ß-farnesene. The best docking ligands for SARS-CoV Nsp15/NendoU were (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol. (E,E)-Farnesol showed the most exothermic docking to SARS-CoV-2 ADRP. Unfortunately, the docking energies of (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol with SARS-CoV-2 targets were relatively weak compared to docking energies with other proteins and are, therefore, unlikely to interact with the virus targets. However, essential oil components may act synergistically, essential oils may potentiate other antiviral agents, or they may provide some relief of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry
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