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1.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953779

ABSTRACT

A perennial wild shrub from the Lamiaceae family and native to the Mediterranean region, thyme is considered an important wild edible plant studied for centuries for its unique importance in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry. Thyme is loaded with phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins. It is pungent in taste, yet rich in moisture, proteins, crude fiber, minerals and vitamins. Its chemical composition may vary with geographical location but is mainly composed of flavonoids and antioxidants. Previous studies have illustrated the therapeutic effects of thyme and its essential oils, especially thymol and carvacrol, against various diseases. This is attributed to its multi-pharmacological properties that include, but are not limited to, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic actions. Moreover, thyme has long been known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic activities, in addition to remarkable disruption of microbial biofilms. In the COVID-19 era, some thyme constituents were investigated for their potential in viral binding. As such, thyme presents a wide range of functional possibilities in food, drugs, and other fields and prominent interest as a nutraceutical. The aims of the current review are to present botanical and nutritive values of this herb, elaborate its major constituents, and review available literature on its dietetic and biological activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Thymus Plant , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Thymol/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Vitamins
2.
Complement Ther Med ; 67: 102823, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of individuals who have recovered from an acute COVID-19 infection continue to experience symptoms months later. Post-acute COVID-19 (long-haul COVID-19) can range from serious complications to quality of life symptoms such as fatigue or insomnia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for inhalation of essential oils to improve energy levels among otherwise healthy female survivors of acute COVID-19 who experience a lack of energy more than five months after recovery. This study was conducted in the United States in late 2021. METHOD: This was a randomized double blind, placebo controlled trial to evaluate the potential for inhalation of Longevity™, a proprietary essential oil blend manufactured by Young Living Essential Oils (Lehi, Utah, USA), on energy levels among female survivors of COVID-19 who continue to experience fatigue more than 5 months recovery from the acute infection. Forty women were randomized to two groups: intervention and placebo. Both groups inhaled the assigned product twice daily for fourteen consecutive days. Fatigue scores were measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory (MFSI). Secondary outcomes included scores on each of the MFSI's ten subscales. RESULTS: Individuals who inhaled the essential oil blend for 2 weeks had significantly lower fatigue scores after controlling for baseline scores, employment status, BMI, olfactory function, and time since diagnosis, with a large effect size (F (1,39) = 6.15, p = .020, partial eta squared = 0.198). Subscale analysis identified subscales of vigor, as well as global, behavioral, general, and mental fatigue as benefiting from the intervention. This study provides evidence that a proprietary aromatherapy blend can significantly improve energy levels among women who are experiencing fatigue after recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aromatherapy , Boswellia , COVID-19 , Citrus sinensis , Frankincense , Oils, Volatile , Syzygium , Thymus Plant , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
4.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732132

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the search for new molecules with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The entry of the virus into the cell is one of the main targets for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. Natural products are an important source of new therapeutic alternatives against diseases. Pseudotyped viruses allow the study of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry inhibitors, and due to their simplicity, they allow the screening of a large number of antiviral candidates in Biosafety Level 2 facilities. We used pseudotyped HIV-1 with the D614G SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to test its ability to infect ACE2-expressing HEK 293T cells in the presence of diverse natural products, including 21 plant extracts, 7 essential oils, and 13 compounds from plants and fungi. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was evaluated using the resazurin method. From these analyses, we determined the inhibitory activity of the extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis, which had a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 91.65 µg/mL, a CC50 of 693.5 µg/mL, and a selectivity index (SI) of 7.57, indicating its potential use as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 entry. Moreover, our work indicates the usefulness of the pseudotyped-virus system in the screening of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Actinobacteria/chemistry , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 119-130, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389070

ABSTRACT

A review of nasal sprays and gargles with antiviral properties suggests that a number of commonly used antiseptics including povidone-iodine, Listerine®, iota-carrageenan and chlorhexidine should be studied in clinical trials to mitigate both the progression and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Several of these antiseptics have demonstrated the ability to cut the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 by 3-4 log10 in 15-30 s in vitro. In addition, hypertonic saline targets viral replication by increasing hypochlorous acid inside the cell. A number of clinical trials are in process to study these interventions both for prevention of transmission, prophylaxis after exposure, and to diminish progression by reduction of viral load in the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/transmission , Carrageenan/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Nasal Sprays , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Salicylates/therapeutic use , Terpenes/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects
6.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305727

ABSTRACT

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is a species with great importance in the history of medicine and was called the "mother of herbs" in the Middle Ages. It is a common herbaceous plant that exhibits high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where it occurs. This species is well known almost all over the world. Its herb-Artemisiae vulgaris herba-is used as a raw material due to the presence of essential oil, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenoids lactones and their associated biological activities. The European Pharmacopoeia has listed this species as a potential homeopathic raw material. Moreover, this species has been used in traditional Chinese, Hindu, and European medicine to regulate the functioning of the gastrointestinal system and treat various gynecological diseases. The general aim of this review was to analyze the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological as well as professional scientific studies focusing on A. vulgaris. Thus far, numerous authors have confirmed the beneficial properties of A. vulgaris herb extracts, including their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, several works have reviewed the use of this species in the production of cosmetics and its role as a valuable spice in the food industry. Furthermore, biotechnological micropropagation of A. vulgaris has been analyzed.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , Plant Extracts , History of Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
7.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 119-130, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034857

ABSTRACT

A review of nasal sprays and gargles with antiviral properties suggests that a number of commonly used antiseptics including povidone-iodine, Listerine®, iota-carrageenan and chlorhexidine should be studied in clinical trials to mitigate both the progression and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Several of these antiseptics have demonstrated the ability to cut the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 by 3-4 log10 in 15-30 s in vitro. In addition, hypertonic saline targets viral replication by increasing hypochlorous acid inside the cell. A number of clinical trials are in process to study these interventions both for prevention of transmission, prophylaxis after exposure, and to diminish progression by reduction of viral load in the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/transmission , Carrageenan/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Nasal Sprays , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Salicylates/therapeutic use , Terpenes/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects
8.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(5): 1153-1161, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716333

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. Unfortunately, there are very limited approved drugs available with established efficacy against the SARs-CoV-2 virus and its inflammatory complications. Vaccine development is actively being researched, but it may take over a year to become available to general public. Certain medications, for example, dexamethasone, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiviral (remdesivir), and IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), are used in various combinations as off-label medications to treat COVID-19. Essential oils (EOs) have long been known to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, and antiviral properties and are being proposed to have activity against SARC-CoV-2 virus. Owing to their lipophilic nature, EOs are advocated to penetrate viral membranes easily leading to membrane disruption. Moreover, EOs contain multiple active phytochemicals that can act synergistically on multiple stages of viral replication and also induce positive effects on host respiratory system including bronchodilation and mucus lysis. At present, only computer-aided docking and few in vitro studies are available which show anti-SARC-CoV-2 activities of EOs. In this review, role of EOs in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is discussed. A discussion on possible side effects associated with EOs as well as anti-corona virus claims made by EOs manufacturers are also highlighted. Based on the current knowledge a chemo-herbal (EOs) combination of the drugs could be a more feasible and effective approach to combat this viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Pandemics , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245065

ABSTRACT

Essential oils have shown promise as antiviral agents against several pathogenic viruses. In this work we hypothesized that essential oil components may interact with key protein targets of the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A molecular docking analysis was carried out using 171 essential oil components with SARS-CoV-2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro), SARS-CoV-2 endoribonucleoase (SARS-CoV-2 Nsp15/NendoU), SARS-CoV-2 ADP-ribose-1″-phosphatase (SARS-CoV-2 ADRP), SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (SARS-CoV-2 RdRp), the binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-CoV-2 rS), and human angiotensin-converting enzyme (hACE2). The compound with the best normalized docking score to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (E)-ß-farnesene. The best docking ligands for SARS-CoV Nsp15/NendoU were (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol. (E,E)-Farnesol showed the most exothermic docking to SARS-CoV-2 ADRP. Unfortunately, the docking energies of (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol with SARS-CoV-2 targets were relatively weak compared to docking energies with other proteins and are, therefore, unlikely to interact with the virus targets. However, essential oil components may act synergistically, essential oils may potentiate other antiviral agents, or they may provide some relief of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry
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