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1.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(2): 313-316, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence of gustatory and olfactory impairment and its correlation with the severity of SARS-Cov-2 infection as per WHO guidelines. METHODS: A total of 241 patients of both gender having age from 15-80 years were included in the study. It was cross Sectional study conducted at SARS-COV-2 Isolation wards of Pakistan institute of medical science Islamabad from 15thSeptember 2020 to 15th January 2021. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect data. A proforma was designed for this purpose. Participants were divided into 3 groups on the basis of age. Group-1 (15-30 years), group-2 (31-50 years) and group 3 (51-80 years). Further the participants were graded into mild, moderate and severe stages of Sars-Cov-2 infection according to WHO guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 20. RESULTS: In this study 66% were male and 34% population were the female. Regarding the age groups 72% population were from the group-3. Results of study shows 47% in mild stage, 45% in moderate stage and 8% severe stage. The results regarding the Gustatory and Olfactory impairment showed that 126 had gustatory impairment while 130 patients had olfactory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: We found strong relationship of olfactory and gustatory changes associated with SARS-COV-2 patients. It is premature to conclude that taste and smell changes are strongly linked to SARS-COV-2 diagnosis. Further multi center researches are required to find out possible pathophysiological mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847326

ABSTRACT

Hospital workers have increased exposure risk of healthcare-associated infections due to the frontline nature of their work. Olfactory dysfunction is highly prevalent. The objectives for this investigation are to study the prevalence of long-lasting olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection in hospital workers during the first pandemic wave, to identify clinical characteristics and associated symptomatology, and to analyze how many patients with COVID-19 infection had developed olfactory dysfunction during infection and maintained a reduced olfactory function for approximately 10 weeks after diagnosis. Between June and July of 2020, a cross-sectional study was carried out at the Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja San José and Santa Adela in Madrid, Spain. One hundred sixty-four participants were included, of which 110 were patient-facing healthcare staff and 54 were non-patient-facing healthcare staff. Participants were split into three groups, according to COVID-19 diagnosis and presence of COVID-19 related olfactory symptomatology. Participants were asked to complete a structured online questionnaire along with Sniffin' Stick Olfactory Test measurements. In this study, 88 participants were confirmed for COVID-19 infection, 59 of those participants also reported olfactory symptomatology. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection was 11.35%, and the prevalence for olfactory dysfunction was 67.05%. Olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection leads to long-lasting olfactory loss. Objective assessment with Sniffin' Stick Olfactory Test points to odor identification as the most affected process. Lemon, liquorice, solvent, and rose are the odors that are worst recognized. Mint, banana, solvent, garlic, coffee, and pineapple, although they are identified, are perceived with less intensity. The findings of this study confirmed a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the hospital workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Solvents
3.
Chem Senses ; 472022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831029

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OD, GD) are prevalent symptoms following COVID-19 and persist in 6%-44% of individuals post-infection. As only few reports have described their prognosis after 6 months, our main objective was to assess the prevalence of OD and GD 11-month post-COVID-19. We also aimed to determine intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of chemosensory self-ratings for the follow-up of chemosensory sensitivity. We designed an observational study and distributed an online questionnaire assessing chemosensory function to healthcare workers with a RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 5- and 11-month post-COVID-19. Specifically, we assessed olfaction, gustation, and trigeminal sensitivity (10-point visual analog scale) and function (4-point Likert scale). We further measured clinically relevant OD using the Chemosensory Perception Test, a psychophysical test designed to provide a reliable remote olfactory evaluation. We included a total of 366 participants (mean [SD] age of 44.8 (11.7) years old). They completed the last online questionnaire 10.6 months (0.7) after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Of all participants, 307 (83.9%) and 301 (82.2%) individuals retrospectively reported lower olfactory or gustatory sensitivity during the acute phase of COVID-19. At the time of evaluation, 184 (50.3%) and 163 (44.5%) indicated reduced chemosensory sensitivity, 32.2% reported impairment of olfactory function while 24.9% exhibited clinically relevant OD. Olfactory sensitivity had a high test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.818; 95% CI: 0.760-0.860). This study suggests that chemosensory dysfunctions persist in a third of COVID-19 patients 11 months after COVID-19. OD appears to be a common symptom of post-COVID-19 important to consider when treating patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
4.
Wiad Lek ; 75(3): 670-677, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1824254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyse the structure of sensory impairments, associated with COVID-19. To identify terms of recovery periods depending on severity of disease, age and gender of the patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Within two weeks, 2225 patients with confirmed COVID-19 completed a questionnaire, created by Google Forms. General complaints, peculiarities of sensory impairments and recovery time were specified. After exclusion criteria application, data of 2108 patients were analyzed by R Statistics Package, Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Fisher's exact test, Spearman's rank test. RESULTS: Results: Among patients enrolled (973 males and 1135 females, mean age 28.6±0.18) the most frequent were olfactory (91.32%) and gustatory (66.03%) dysfunctions. Olfactory manifestations were usually accompanied by gustatory disorders (73.72%). Average duration of olfactory dysfunction was 15.46±0.45 days, gustatory - 11.3±0.33, hearing - 4.3±0.16, and visual - 6.53±0.23 days. It was found a correlation between duration of olfactory and gustatory impairments (r=0.65; p < 0.001), hearing and visual disorders (r=0.49; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prevalent symptoms in Ukrainian population. 7.87% of respondents who had impairment of all four sensory functions had the longest recovery time. Duration of sensory impairments did not depend on age, type of treatment and severity of disease, which rises the question about the neurogenic pathway of virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 158: 111173, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop an olfactory test that can be conducted by an untrained person using common household items and to introduce a German version of the Chemosensory Pleasure Scale for Children (CPS-C(de)). METHODOLOGY: This olfactory home test was developed in phases including evaluation of odors for suitability in a home setting. Parents of 50 children (ages 6-17) were then equipped with instruction manuals and participants were tested twice in a cross-over design. A validated pediatric olfactory test (the Universal Sniff test (U-Sniff)) served as the comparative gold standard. Additionally, a Chinese-English-German "back-and-forth" translation was conducted to establish the CPS-C(de) and was tested for empirical validity. RESULTS: Fourteen items were tested for feasibility, and all were identified on a sufficient rate (≥66%, mean ±â€¯SD of 93.3% ±â€¯9.5%). Bland Altman Plot analysis between home testing and the U-Sniff test was nearly identical (bias = 0.04). CPS-C(de) showed similar results to the original Chinese version and a moderate correlation was found between CPS-C(de) scores and Body Mass Index of children (r30 = -0.527, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Remote olfactory testing in children using household items is feasible. The CPS-C(de) may be of value for future olfactory studies.


Subject(s)
Olfaction Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Sensory Thresholds , Smell
6.
J Int Med Res ; 50(5): 3000605221096280, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of objective olfactory dysfunction (OD) and gustatory dysfunction (GD) testing among patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who presented with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A prospective, blinded, observational study was conducted in the emergency units of two tertiary hospitals. Participants were asked to identify scents in the pocket smell test (PST) and flavors in four different solutions in the gustatory dysfunction test (GDT). We assessed the level of agreement between objective findings and self-reported symptoms. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of chemosensory dysfunction for diagnosing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. RESULTS: Of 250 participants, 74 (29.6%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive. There was slight agreement between self-reported symptoms and objective findings (kappa = 0.13 and 0.10 for OD and GD, respectively). OD assessed by the PST was independently associated with COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.46). This association was stronger when OD was combined with objective GD, cough, and fever (adjusted odds ratio = 7.33, 95% confidence interval, 1.17-45.84). CONCLUSIONS: Neither the PST nor GDT alone are useful screening tools for COVID-19. However, a diagnostic scale based on objective OD, GD, fever, and cough may help triage patients with suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Ageusia/diagnosis , Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever/diagnosis , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
7.
Front Neural Circuits ; 16: 862005, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809448

ABSTRACT

Chemosensory systems are deemed marginal in human pathology. In appraising their role, we aim at suggesting a paradigm shift based on the available clinical and experimental data that will be discussed. Taste and olfaction are polymodal sensory systems, providing inputs to many brain structures that regulate crucial visceral functions, including metabolism but also endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune systems. Moreover, other visceral chemosensory systems monitor different essential chemical parameters of "milieu intérieur," transmitting their data to the brain areas receiving taste and olfactory inputs; hence, they participate in regulating the same vital functions. These chemosensory cells share many molecular features with olfactory or taste receptor cells, thus they may be affected by the same pathological events. In most COVID-19 patients, taste and olfaction are disturbed. This may represent only a small portion of a broadly diffuse chemosensory incapacitation. Indeed, many COVID-19 peculiar symptoms may be explained by the impairment of visceral chemosensory systems, for example, silent hypoxia, diarrhea, and the "cytokine storm". Dysregulation of chemosensory systems may underlie the much higher mortality rate of COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) compared to ARDSs of different origins. In chronic non-infectious diseases like hypertension, diabetes, or cancer, the impairment of taste and/or olfaction has been consistently reported. This may signal diffuse chemosensory failure, possibly worsening the prognosis of these patients. Incapacitation of one or few chemosensory systems has negligible effects on survival under ordinary life conditions but, under stress, like metabolic imbalance or COVID-19 pneumonia, the impairment of multiple chemosensory systems may lead to dire consequences during the course of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Smell , Taste/physiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
8.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801503

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic which has infected more than 100 million individuals and having taken a big toll on the world in terms of morbidity and mortality. The disease may progress in some patients from an influenza like illness to sever acute respiratory illness. Diagnosis of COVID 19 by RTPCR supported by radiological evidence, Material: In this prospective observational study, 60 COVID- 19 positive patients and 60 COVID negative/ suspect patients respectively were enrolled from march 2020 to July 2020 in Bowring and lady Curzon Hospital, Bangalore and they were assessed for taste and smell sensations based on SQOD- NS and questions based on smell and taste component of NHNE survey, symptomatic patients were followed up and duration needed for recovery of symptoms was analysed for P value, chi-square value, other relevant blood and radiological investigations were done. Observation: 1. To compare the olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID suspects and patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. 2. To assess utility of hypoguesia and hyposmia as discriminant clinical features that might be used for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients with ILI. Conclusion: We concluded that patients with COVID 19 positive status had severe spectrum of olfactory dysfunction like anosmia, hyposmia and they will have long recovery time compared to COVID negative /suspect patients .Taste perception was more impaired in COVID positive patients compared to COVID negative /suspects.Covid positive patients had higher sQOD-NS score compared to COVID negative patients and significant associations are seen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , India , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
9.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various symptoms have been associated with COVID-19, but little is known about the impacts of COVID-19 on the sensory system, risk factors, and the duration of symptoms. This study assesses olfactory, gustatory, hearing, and vestibular systems after COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional, single-center study involved 50 patients one to six months after COVID-19 and reports their patient records and the extent, onset, and duration of olfactory, gustatory, hearing, and balance disorders using questionnaires during and after COVID-19. Sensory symptoms were objectively studied using the following clinical tests after COVID-19 Sniffin' Sticks, taste tests, tone/speech audiometry, and video head impulse test. RESULTS: Post-COVID-19-patients were suffering from olfactory and gustatory impairment for up to six months. According to the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, balance disorders were less noticed: Overall, about 40% of the patients during COVID-19 and nearly all patients recovered within six months. After COVID-19, clinical tests revealed that 75% were suffering from hyposomnia/anosmia, and 20% of all patients reported mild hypogeusia for up to six months. Vestibular disorders and hearing impairment rarely/did not occur. Females were significantly more affected by sensory impairments than males. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 particularly caused olfactory and gustatory impairment; balance disorders were present too; vestibular and auditory symptoms were negligible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hearing , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Smell , Taste
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785192

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prominent symptoms of acute COVID-19. Although both senses recover in many patients within weeks to months, persistency has been described in up to 60%. However up to now most reports on the course of chemosensitive disorders after COVID-19 are not based on psychophysical testing but only on subjective patients' ratings. In this study we assessed both olfaction and gustation using psychophysical tests eight months after COVID-19. Validated psychophysical testing revealed hyposmia in 18% and hypogeusia in even 32% of 303 included patients. This shows that olfactory and especially gustatory disorders have to be seen as important chronic symptoms post-COVID-19. The high prevalence of gustatory dysfunction indicates that gustatory function does not recover or might even deteriorate in the months following the acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Threshold
12.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(2): 406-419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our ability to smell and taste is dictated by 3 chemosensory systems with distinct physiologic mechanisms - olfaction, gustation, and chemesthesis. Although often overlooked, dysfunction of these special senses may have broad implications on multiple facets of patients' lives -including safety, nutritional status, quality of life, mental health, and even cognitive function. As "loss of smell or taste" emerged as a common symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the importance of intact chemosensory function has been thrust into the spotlight. Despite the growing recognition of chemosensory dysfunction, this already highly prevalent condition will increasingly impact a larger and more diverse population, highlighting the need for improved awareness and care of these patients. METHODS: Comtemporary review of chemosensory function and assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Although patient-reported chemosensory function measures highlight the ease of screening of chemosensory dysfunction, self-reported measures underestimate both the prevalence and degree of chemosensory dysfunction and do not adequately distinguish between olfaction, gustation, and chemesthesis. Meanwhile, psychophysical assessment tools provide opportunities for more accurate, thorough assessment of the chemosenses when appropriate. Primary care providers are uniquely situated to identify patients burdened by chemosensory dysfunction and raise patient and provider awareness about the importance of chemosensory dysfunction. Identification of chemosensory dysfunction, particularly olfactory dysfunction, may raise suspicion for many underlying medical conditions, including early detection of neurodegenerative conditions. Furthermore, identification and awareness of patients with chemosensory dysfunction may help primary care providers to identify those who may benefit from additional therapeutic and safety interventions, or consultations with specialists for more detailed evaluations and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , Smell
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 155-161, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chemosensory disorders associated with COVID-19 have been widely discussed during the pandemic. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies published between December 1, 2019, and August 31, 2021. We selected random-effects model or fixed-effects model to pool data based on heterogeneity. The results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was reported as I2. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies with a total of 13,813 patients were included. The pooled data indicated that sex (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.93-2.31), age (SMD -5.80; 95% CI -13.35 to 1.75), smoking (OR 2.04; 95% CI 0.72-5.79), and comorbidity (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.58-2.53) of patients with COVID-19 had no effect on gustatory dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction was more likely to occur in older patients with COVID-19 (SMD, -5.22; 95% CI, -8.28 to -2.16). Patients with COVID-19 with nasal congestion (OR 3.41; 95% CI 2.30-5.06) and rhinorrhea (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.60-3.45) were more prone to olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize that older patients with COVID-19 are more likely to experience olfactory dysfunction. Symptoms of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea may affect the recognition of olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
14.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725524

ABSTRACT

Among the first clinical symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is olfactory-gustatory deficit; this continues for weeks and, in some cases, can be persistent. We prospectively evaluated 162 patients affected by COVID-19 using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for nasal and olfactory-gustatory symptoms. Patients were checked after 7, 14, 21, 28, 90, and 180 days. A total of 118 patients (72.8%) reported an olfactory VAS < 7 at baseline (group B), and 44 (27.2%) reported anosmia (VAS ≥ 7) (group A) and underwent the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) and Burghart Taste Strips (BTS) to quantify the deficit objectively and repeated the tests to confirm the sense recovery. Group A patients showed B-SIT anosmia and hyposmia in 44.2% and 55.8% of cases, respectively. A total of 88.6% of group A patients reported ageusia with VAS ≥ 7, and BTS confirmed 81.8% of ageusia and 18.2% of hypogeusia. VAS smell recovery was recorded starting from 14 days, with normalization at 28 days. The 28-day B-SIT score showed normosmia in 90.6% of group A patients. The mean time for full recovery (VAS = 0) was shorter in group B (22.9 days) than in group A (31.9 days). Chemosensory deficit is frequently the first symptom in patients with COVID-19, and, in most cases, recovery occurs after four weeks.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
15.
Rhinology ; 60(2): 128-138, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Self-reported smell loss is a prominent symptom of COVID-19 infection and a potentially useful clinical tool for remote pre-screening of this disease. However, pre-existing chemosensory dysfunction with obesity may diminish the usefulness of self-reported smell loss in this vulnerable group. Here we aim to compare COVID-19 related chemosensory alterations in participants with and without obesity and determine if self-reported smell loss is predictive of lab-based COVID-19 diagnosis in both groups in the context of restrictive clinical data collection. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional global dataset, we compared self-reported chemosensory ability in participants with a respiratory illness reporting a positive (C19+; n = 5156) or a negative (C19-; n = 659) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome, who also self-reported to have obesity (C19+; n = 433, C19-; n = 86) or not. RESULTS: Participants with obesity and without obesity reported a similar decline in smell, taste, and chemesthesis during illness. In C19+ participants with obesity, we observed a greater relative prevalence of non-chemosensory symptoms, including respiratory and GI symptoms. Critically, we found that the model previously proposed also predicts C19+ diagnosis in participants with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that COVID-19 respondents with obesity experience a similar self-reported chemosensory loss as those without obesity. In both groups self-reported chemosensory symptoms are similarly predictive of COVID-19 infection, thus highlighting the potential of collecting self-report of symptoms and comorbidities remotely when clinical observations are restrictive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obesity/complications , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2111, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692556

ABSTRACT

Alterations in the three chemosensory modalities-smell, taste, and chemesthesis-have been implicated in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet emerging data suggest a wide geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of these symptoms. Studies on chemosensory disorders in COVID-19 have predominantly focused on Caucasian populations whereas Asians remain understudied. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire on a cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed adult COVID-19 patients in Malaysia between 6 June and 30 November 2020. The aim of our study was to investigate their presenting symptoms and assess their chemosensory function using self-ratings of perceived smell, taste, chemesthesis, and nasal blockage. In this cohort of 498 patients, 41.4% reported smell and/or taste loss when diagnosed with COVID-19, which was the commonest symptom. Blocked nose, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbances were independent predictors of smell and/or taste loss on multivariate analysis. Self-ratings of chemosensory function revealed a reduction in smell, taste, and chemesthesis across the entire cohort of patients that was more profound among those reporting smell and/or taste loss as their presenting symptom. Perceived nasal obstruction accounted for only a small proportion of changes in smell and taste, but not for chemesthesis, supporting viral disruption of sensorineural mechanisms as the dominant aetiology of chemosensory dysfunction. Our study suggests that chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 is more widespread than previously reported among Asians and may be related to the infectivity of viral strains.Study Registration: NMRR-20-934-54803 and NCT04390165.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
17.
Rhinology ; 60(2): 139-144, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether omega-3 supplementation would support olfactory recovery among postviral olfactory dysfunction patients. METHODOLOGY: Patients with postviral olfactory dysfunction were included in this non-blinded, prospective pilot study. Structured medical history was taken from the patients, including the following: age, sex, history of COVID-19 infection, and duration of symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to receive olfactory training only (control group) versus olfactory training with omega-3 supplementation (treatment group). All patients exposed themselves twice a day to four odours (phenyl ethyl alcohol [rose], eucalyptol [eucalyptus], citronellal [lemon], and eugenol [cloves]). Olfactory function was measured before and after training using 'Sniffin' Sticks', comprised of tests for odour threshold, discrimination, and identification. The average interval between olfactory tests was 3 months. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were included in the study, 25 men and 33 women. Generally, an improvement in olfactory scores was observed. Compared to the control group, the improvement in odour thresholds was more pronounced in the omega-3 group. Age, sex, and duration of symptoms had no effect on olfactory scores among both control and treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Overall, the present results indicate that omega-3 supplementation may be an option for adjunct therapy with olfactory training in patients with postviral olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensory Thresholds , Smell
18.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(2): 103376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the utility of a 5-item odorant test (U-Smell-It™) in determining COVID-19 status in COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive and -negative participants. METHODS: Symptoms, COVID-19 status, and 5-item odorant test results were collected from general population COVID-19 testing in Louisiana (n = 1042), and routine COVID-19 screening of healthcare workers in a nursing home in Florida (n = 278) (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04431908). RESULTS: In the general population COVID-19 testing site, a cutoff point of ≤2 (0, 1, or 2 correct answers out of 5) achieved sensitivity of 40.0% (95% CI: 26.4%-54.8%) and specificity of 89.2% (95% CI: 87.1%-91.1%) in detecting COVID-19 infection. Within this population, analysis of individuals with no self-reported loss of smell/taste and runny/stuffy nose resulted in sensitivity of 38.1% (95% CI: 18.1%-61.6%) and specificity of 92.3% (95% CI: 89.1%-93.4%), while analysis of individuals with self-reported loss of smell/taste and/or runny/stuffy nose resulted in sensitivity of 41.4% (95% CI: 23.5%-61.1%) and specificity of 82.4% (95% CI: 77.7%-86.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The quick turnaround time, low cost, reduced resource requirement, and ease of administering odorant tests provide many advantages as an indicator sign to help flag a molecular diagnostic COVID-19 test with relatively high specificity. Our results suggest that this odorant testing for olfactory dysfunction may be a viable option in pre-screening COVID-19 infection. This tool has the potential to allow for continued monitoring and surveillance, while helping mitigate surges of COVID-19 variants. Further investigation is warranted to observe the extent to which odorant testing might be applied in a serial testing scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 77, 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From the initial stages of the pandemic in early 2020, COVID-19-related olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been widely reported and are emerging as one of the most frequent long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, data regarding the long-term recovery of the sense of smell and taste are lacking. This study aimed to characterize the evolution up to one year after the diagnosis of self-reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Based on the data of the active surveillance platform of the Apulia region, Italy, we selected the residents of Foggia district who were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 from March 1st to June 16th, 2020, and home-quarantined with paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation. Self-reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions were recorded at baseline through a survey of dichotomous questions. The evolution of these symptoms at approximately one year was prospectively assessed via telephone by the validated sino-nasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22, Italian version). RESULTS: Among the 1,175 COVID-19 cases notified in the Foggia district during the first epidemic wave, 488 had paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation. Of these, 41.2% (n = 201, 95% confidence interval [CI] 36.8-45.7%) reported at least one sensory dysfunction. A total of 178 to 201 (88.5%) patients agreed to participate in the follow-up survey. According to the SNOT-22 results, the persistence of a sensory dysfunction was observed in the 29.8% (n = 53, 95% CI 23.2-37.1%) of them. Particularly, loss of smell persisted in 25.8% (n = 46, 95% CI 19.6-32.9%), loss of taste in 21.3% (n = 38, 95% CI 15.6-28.1%), loss of both in 17.4% (n = 31, 95% CI 12.2-23.8%) of participants in the follow-up. The rates of full recovery increased over time: from 59% at 30 days to 71.9% at 90 days for the sense of smell; from 61.3% at 30 days to 74.7% at 90 days for the sense of taste. CONCLUSIONS: The persistence of COVID-19-related olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions up to 12 months after the disease onset in a noteworthy proportion (approximately 3 out of 10) of patients with paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation deserves further investigations due to its possible pathophysiological implications and impact on the quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell
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