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1.
Chem Senses ; 472022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831029

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OD, GD) are prevalent symptoms following COVID-19 and persist in 6%-44% of individuals post-infection. As only few reports have described their prognosis after 6 months, our main objective was to assess the prevalence of OD and GD 11-month post-COVID-19. We also aimed to determine intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of chemosensory self-ratings for the follow-up of chemosensory sensitivity. We designed an observational study and distributed an online questionnaire assessing chemosensory function to healthcare workers with a RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 5- and 11-month post-COVID-19. Specifically, we assessed olfaction, gustation, and trigeminal sensitivity (10-point visual analog scale) and function (4-point Likert scale). We further measured clinically relevant OD using the Chemosensory Perception Test, a psychophysical test designed to provide a reliable remote olfactory evaluation. We included a total of 366 participants (mean [SD] age of 44.8 (11.7) years old). They completed the last online questionnaire 10.6 months (0.7) after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Of all participants, 307 (83.9%) and 301 (82.2%) individuals retrospectively reported lower olfactory or gustatory sensitivity during the acute phase of COVID-19. At the time of evaluation, 184 (50.3%) and 163 (44.5%) indicated reduced chemosensory sensitivity, 32.2% reported impairment of olfactory function while 24.9% exhibited clinically relevant OD. Olfactory sensitivity had a high test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.818; 95% CI: 0.760-0.860). This study suggests that chemosensory dysfunctions persist in a third of COVID-19 patients 11 months after COVID-19. OD appears to be a common symptom of post-COVID-19 important to consider when treating patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
2.
Wiad Lek ; 75(3): 670-677, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1824254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyse the structure of sensory impairments, associated with COVID-19. To identify terms of recovery periods depending on severity of disease, age and gender of the patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Within two weeks, 2225 patients with confirmed COVID-19 completed a questionnaire, created by Google Forms. General complaints, peculiarities of sensory impairments and recovery time were specified. After exclusion criteria application, data of 2108 patients were analyzed by R Statistics Package, Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Fisher's exact test, Spearman's rank test. RESULTS: Results: Among patients enrolled (973 males and 1135 females, mean age 28.6±0.18) the most frequent were olfactory (91.32%) and gustatory (66.03%) dysfunctions. Olfactory manifestations were usually accompanied by gustatory disorders (73.72%). Average duration of olfactory dysfunction was 15.46±0.45 days, gustatory - 11.3±0.33, hearing - 4.3±0.16, and visual - 6.53±0.23 days. It was found a correlation between duration of olfactory and gustatory impairments (r=0.65; p < 0.001), hearing and visual disorders (r=0.49; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prevalent symptoms in Ukrainian population. 7.87% of respondents who had impairment of all four sensory functions had the longest recovery time. Duration of sensory impairments did not depend on age, type of treatment and severity of disease, which rises the question about the neurogenic pathway of virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 155-161, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chemosensory disorders associated with COVID-19 have been widely discussed during the pandemic. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies published between December 1, 2019, and August 31, 2021. We selected random-effects model or fixed-effects model to pool data based on heterogeneity. The results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was reported as I2. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies with a total of 13,813 patients were included. The pooled data indicated that sex (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.93-2.31), age (SMD -5.80; 95% CI -13.35 to 1.75), smoking (OR 2.04; 95% CI 0.72-5.79), and comorbidity (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.58-2.53) of patients with COVID-19 had no effect on gustatory dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction was more likely to occur in older patients with COVID-19 (SMD, -5.22; 95% CI, -8.28 to -2.16). Patients with COVID-19 with nasal congestion (OR 3.41; 95% CI 2.30-5.06) and rhinorrhea (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.60-3.45) were more prone to olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize that older patients with COVID-19 are more likely to experience olfactory dysfunction. Symptoms of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea may affect the recognition of olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
4.
Rhinology ; 60(2): 128-138, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Self-reported smell loss is a prominent symptom of COVID-19 infection and a potentially useful clinical tool for remote pre-screening of this disease. However, pre-existing chemosensory dysfunction with obesity may diminish the usefulness of self-reported smell loss in this vulnerable group. Here we aim to compare COVID-19 related chemosensory alterations in participants with and without obesity and determine if self-reported smell loss is predictive of lab-based COVID-19 diagnosis in both groups in the context of restrictive clinical data collection. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional global dataset, we compared self-reported chemosensory ability in participants with a respiratory illness reporting a positive (C19+; n = 5156) or a negative (C19-; n = 659) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome, who also self-reported to have obesity (C19+; n = 433, C19-; n = 86) or not. RESULTS: Participants with obesity and without obesity reported a similar decline in smell, taste, and chemesthesis during illness. In C19+ participants with obesity, we observed a greater relative prevalence of non-chemosensory symptoms, including respiratory and GI symptoms. Critically, we found that the model previously proposed also predicts C19+ diagnosis in participants with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that COVID-19 respondents with obesity experience a similar self-reported chemosensory loss as those without obesity. In both groups self-reported chemosensory symptoms are similarly predictive of COVID-19 infection, thus highlighting the potential of collecting self-report of symptoms and comorbidities remotely when clinical observations are restrictive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obesity/complications , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1042-1048, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alterations of the olfactory function in patients affected by COVID-19 often have an early onset and a variable duration ranging from a few weeks to months. The aim of this study was to evaluate olfactory dysfunction persistence after recovery from COVID-19, and potential related clinical-demographic conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients recovered from COVID-19 from at least 20 days with olfactory dysfunction during the infection were included in the study. For the subjective evaluation of olfactory function, a visual analogic scale (VAS) was used. The objective evaluation was performed with the use of the Sniffin' Sticks test. RESULTS: Objective assessment of olfactory function revealed that 48 (63.16%) patients were found to be normosmic (TDI ≥ 30.5), 26 (34.21%) were hyposmic (TDI from 30.5 to 16.5) and two (2.63%) were anosmic (TDI ≤ 16.5) at the time of the evaluation. These results did not show a significant difference between subjective and objective tests (p = 0.45). Most patients recovered their sense of smell within the first two months after recovery while a portion (22.2%) still experienced olfactory alterations 4-6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients who had not recovered their sense of smell had a significantly longer period of SARS-CoV-2 positivity compared to patients that fully recovered (36.07 ± 7.78 days vs. 29 ± 7.89 days; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the duration of the infection negatively correlates with the recovery of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Young Adult
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2111, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692556

ABSTRACT

Alterations in the three chemosensory modalities-smell, taste, and chemesthesis-have been implicated in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet emerging data suggest a wide geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of these symptoms. Studies on chemosensory disorders in COVID-19 have predominantly focused on Caucasian populations whereas Asians remain understudied. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire on a cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed adult COVID-19 patients in Malaysia between 6 June and 30 November 2020. The aim of our study was to investigate their presenting symptoms and assess their chemosensory function using self-ratings of perceived smell, taste, chemesthesis, and nasal blockage. In this cohort of 498 patients, 41.4% reported smell and/or taste loss when diagnosed with COVID-19, which was the commonest symptom. Blocked nose, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbances were independent predictors of smell and/or taste loss on multivariate analysis. Self-ratings of chemosensory function revealed a reduction in smell, taste, and chemesthesis across the entire cohort of patients that was more profound among those reporting smell and/or taste loss as their presenting symptom. Perceived nasal obstruction accounted for only a small proportion of changes in smell and taste, but not for chemesthesis, supporting viral disruption of sensorineural mechanisms as the dominant aetiology of chemosensory dysfunction. Our study suggests that chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 is more widespread than previously reported among Asians and may be related to the infectivity of viral strains.Study Registration: NMRR-20-934-54803 and NCT04390165.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
7.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 26(1): 105-111, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dysgeusia and anosmia have been liked to COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of dysgeusia and anosmia in COVID-19 patients treated at the University of Florida Health Center and establish the odds of having an olfactory and gustatory disorder with a confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study utilizing the University of Florida Health Center patients' registry i2b2 platform to search for ICD 10 diagnoses of COVID-19 infection and taste and smell disturbances. We assessed the odds ratio for patients with dysgeusia and anosmia having a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection using a logistic regression model adjusting for gender, race, age, and comorbidity conditions. P < 0.05 was deemed significant. RESULTS: Out of 889 individuals that tested positive for COVID-19, 12.88% were diagnosed with taste and smell disturbances. The odds ratio for COVID-19 for people with dysgeusia and anosmia was 39.107. After adjusting for sex, age, and race, it was 41.9, 37, and 34.2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Taste and smell disturbances in COVID-19 are not anecdotal. It is paramount that oral and maxillofacial surgeons include taste and smell disturbances in the history and physical examination as these symptoms are suspicious of active COVID-19 infection. Patients presenting with an olfactory and gustatory disorder should undergo further evaluations for COVID-19 infection and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should enhance the personal protective equipment used when treating these patients to prevent further spread of the infection and protect other healthcare members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(2): 103376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the utility of a 5-item odorant test (U-Smell-It™) in determining COVID-19 status in COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive and -negative participants. METHODS: Symptoms, COVID-19 status, and 5-item odorant test results were collected from general population COVID-19 testing in Louisiana (n = 1042), and routine COVID-19 screening of healthcare workers in a nursing home in Florida (n = 278) (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04431908). RESULTS: In the general population COVID-19 testing site, a cutoff point of ≤2 (0, 1, or 2 correct answers out of 5) achieved sensitivity of 40.0% (95% CI: 26.4%-54.8%) and specificity of 89.2% (95% CI: 87.1%-91.1%) in detecting COVID-19 infection. Within this population, analysis of individuals with no self-reported loss of smell/taste and runny/stuffy nose resulted in sensitivity of 38.1% (95% CI: 18.1%-61.6%) and specificity of 92.3% (95% CI: 89.1%-93.4%), while analysis of individuals with self-reported loss of smell/taste and/or runny/stuffy nose resulted in sensitivity of 41.4% (95% CI: 23.5%-61.1%) and specificity of 82.4% (95% CI: 77.7%-86.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The quick turnaround time, low cost, reduced resource requirement, and ease of administering odorant tests provide many advantages as an indicator sign to help flag a molecular diagnostic COVID-19 test with relatively high specificity. Our results suggest that this odorant testing for olfactory dysfunction may be a viable option in pre-screening COVID-19 infection. This tool has the potential to allow for continued monitoring and surveillance, while helping mitigate surges of COVID-19 variants. Further investigation is warranted to observe the extent to which odorant testing might be applied in a serial testing scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 77, 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From the initial stages of the pandemic in early 2020, COVID-19-related olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been widely reported and are emerging as one of the most frequent long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, data regarding the long-term recovery of the sense of smell and taste are lacking. This study aimed to characterize the evolution up to one year after the diagnosis of self-reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Based on the data of the active surveillance platform of the Apulia region, Italy, we selected the residents of Foggia district who were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 from March 1st to June 16th, 2020, and home-quarantined with paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation. Self-reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions were recorded at baseline through a survey of dichotomous questions. The evolution of these symptoms at approximately one year was prospectively assessed via telephone by the validated sino-nasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22, Italian version). RESULTS: Among the 1,175 COVID-19 cases notified in the Foggia district during the first epidemic wave, 488 had paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation. Of these, 41.2% (n = 201, 95% confidence interval [CI] 36.8-45.7%) reported at least one sensory dysfunction. A total of 178 to 201 (88.5%) patients agreed to participate in the follow-up survey. According to the SNOT-22 results, the persistence of a sensory dysfunction was observed in the 29.8% (n = 53, 95% CI 23.2-37.1%) of them. Particularly, loss of smell persisted in 25.8% (n = 46, 95% CI 19.6-32.9%), loss of taste in 21.3% (n = 38, 95% CI 15.6-28.1%), loss of both in 17.4% (n = 31, 95% CI 12.2-23.8%) of participants in the follow-up. The rates of full recovery increased over time: from 59% at 30 days to 71.9% at 90 days for the sense of smell; from 61.3% at 30 days to 74.7% at 90 days for the sense of taste. CONCLUSIONS: The persistence of COVID-19-related olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions up to 12 months after the disease onset in a noteworthy proportion (approximately 3 out of 10) of patients with paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation deserves further investigations due to its possible pathophysiological implications and impact on the quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smell and taste dysfunction are frequently reported by SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. The degree of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction varies from a very mild reduction to their complete loss. Several studies have been performed to determine their prevalence in COVID-19 patients, mostly using subjective measurement methods. The literature lacks long-term studies regarding duration and recovery. METHODS: We assessed olfactory performance, using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test, in a group of patients who had not reported olfactory dysfunction, around 131 days after their COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 11 out of 20 subjects showed no olfactory reduction (65%), while 9 subjects showed reduced TDI score (45%). A total of 13 subjects (65%) scored above the cutoff point for Threshold, 16 subjects (80%) scored above the cutoff point for discrimination and 13 subjects (65%) scored above the cutoff point for identification. CONCLUSION: Objective measurement methods of olfactory performance show a higher prevalence of olfactory reduction compared to patients' self-reported questionnaires. Olfactory dysfunction can last even months after its onset and because of its high prevalence, it could be a screening symptom for suspect COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19 Testing , Dentists , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
11.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 30(1): 19-25, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612726

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the literature on COVID-19 related anosmia, focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiology recovery rates, current available treatment options, and research regarding novel treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Loss of sense of smell is one of the most prevalent symptoms reported by patients after COVID-19 infection. Even though there is a high self-reported recovery rate, recent studies have demonstrated that up to 7% of the patients remain anosmic more than 12 months after onset, leaving millions worldwide with severe olfactory dysfunction. Olfactory training remains the first line recommended treatment. Given the paucity of effective medical treatments options researchers are exploring novel therapeutic options. SUMMARY: Olfactory dysfunction remains a significant and persistent legacy of the COVID-19 pandemic, but heightened awareness may stimulate research that leads to the development of much-needed treatment options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
12.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 245-250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. OBJECTIVE: To know the frequency at which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. RESULTS: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


INTRODUCCIÓN: En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha reportado disfunción olfatoria y anosmia; en la mujer embarazada se presenta hasta en 24.2 %. OBJETIVO: Conocer la frecuencia con la que las mujeres embarazadas e infección por SARS-CoV-2 tienen disfunción olfatoria. MÉTODOS: Se preguntó edad, edad gestacional, temperatura, presencia de constipación nasal o rinorrea, mialgias, cefalea, tos o dolor torácico, además de evaluar si las mujeres percibían e identificaban el aroma de jugo de uva, café en polvo y mentol. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. La U de Mann-Whitney y el contraste de proporciones sirvieron para las comparaciones entre los grupos. RESULTADOS: Hubo mayor proporción de mujeres con tos, cefalea, disnea, mialgias, odinofagia, rinorrea, dolor torácico y anosmia en mujeres positivas a SARS-CoV-2. De las pacientes sin COVID-19, 88.9 % detectó cada uno de los aromas; solo 31.8 % del grupo positivo detectó el aroma a uva, 47.7 % el de café y 59.1 % el de mentol, el cual tuvo los porcentajes más altos en sensibilidad (40 %), especificidad (21 %), valores predictivos positivo (59 %) y negativo (11 %). CONCLUSIÓN: la disfunción olfatoria se presenta en un porcentaje importante de las mujeres embarazadas con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
13.
HNO ; 70(3): 224-231, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588820

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prevalence of long-term olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in participants suffering from sudden chemosensory loss due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Furthermore, evaluations of the reliability of participants' self-reporting of olfactory function (SOF) and gustatory function (SGF) using extended objective psychophysical testing are missing. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study in a PCR-tested community in Thuringia, Germany, olfactory function was extensively examined 4 months after a COVID-19 outbreak using the "Sniffin Sticks" test battery to determine the TDIa score, i.e., the sum of results obtained for threshold, discrimination, and identification scores averaged for both nasal sides. Gustatory function was assessed using the three-drop test resulting in the gustatory composite score (CSg). The data were compared with SOF and SGF. RESULTS: Of 43 adult convalescents (median age: 68 years; 58% female) after SARS-CoV­2 infection, 18 participants (42%) had olfactory complaints due to SOF, one participant (2%) complained of taste disturbance due to SGF. The TDIa was 22.0 ± 5.9. Normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia were seen in 17, 18, and eight participants, respectively. TDIa correlated with SOF (rs = -0.434, p = 0.004); CSg was 23.5 ± 2.7. Normogeusia and hypogeusia were objectified in 39 and four participants, respectively. The prevalence of long-term olfactory dysfunction and gustatory dysfunction in the study group was 60.5 and 9.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The SOF was reliable, especially for participants who felt a sudden chemosensory dysfunction during the outbreak. At 4 months after SARS-CoV­2 infection, a high proportion of participants were dysosmic, whereas nearly all of them had normal taste function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
14.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580554

ABSTRACT

We identified associations between self-reported olfactory dysfunction (OD) and dietary attributes in participants aged ≥40 years (n = 6,356) from the nationally representative 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The chemosensory questionnaire and 24-h dietary recalls were administered by trained interviewers. OD was defined as self-report of either smell problems in the last year, worse smell relative to age 25, or perceiving phantom odors. Dietary outcomes included Healthy Eating Index 2015 score (HEI) with adequacy and moderation components (higher scores indicated higher diet quality), dietary diversity, energy density, and intake of major food groups. Survey-weighted linear regression models estimated OD-diet associations, adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Adjusted mean difference (95% CI) between those with versus without OD, showed that adults with OD had significantly lower HEI moderation score (-0.67 (-1.22, -0.11)) and diets higher in energy density (0.06 (0.00, 0.11)), and percent energy from saturated fat (0.47 (0.12, 0.81)), total fat (0.96 (0.22, 1.70)), and added sugar (1.00 (0.33, 1.66)). Age and sex-stratified analyses showed that younger females (40-64 years) primarily accounted for the associations with diet quality and total/saturated fat intake. These findings inform dietary screening and recommendations for adults who report OD, including those experiencing transient or persistent smell loss with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Feeding Behavior , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
15.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 440-444, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, evolution and risk factors for long-term persistence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGD) in COVID-19 outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in SARS-CoV-2 infected outpatients with OGD. Weekly phone interviews were set up starting from COVID-19 onset symptoms and over the course of 60 days, using standardized questionnaires that included a detailed description of general symptoms and OGD. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with complete recovery of OGD at D30. Rate and time to recovery of OGD, as well as risk factors for late recovery (>30 days), were evaluated using Cox regression models. RESULTS: Ninety-eight outpatients were included. The median time to onset of OGD after first COVID-19 symptoms was 2 days (IQR 0-4). The 30-day recovery rate from OGD was 67.5% (95% CI 57.1-75.4) and the estimated median time of OGD recovery was 20 days (95% CI 13-26). Risk factors for late recovery of OGD were a complete loss of smell or taste at diagnosis (HR=0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.56, P=0.0005) and age over 40 years (HR=0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.89, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with complete loss of smell or taste and over age 40 are more likely to develop persistent OGD and should rapidly receive sensorial rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
16.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 1010-1018, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the association between olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment and disease severity and radiological findings in coronavirus disease-2019. The secondary goal was to assess the prevalence, severity and course of olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHOD: This prospective observational cohort study evaluated patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 between April 1 and 1 May 2020. Olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment were evaluated by two questionnaires. Chest computed tomography findings and coronavirus disease-2019 severity were assessed. RESULTS: Among 133 patients, 23.3 per cent and 30.8 per cent experienced olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment, respectively, and 17.2 per cent experienced both. The mean age was 56.03 years, and 64.7 per cent were male and 35.3 per cent were female. No statistically significant association was found between olfactory dysfunction (p = 0.706) and taste impairment (p = 0.35) with either disease severity or chest computed tomography grading. CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment does not have prognostic importance in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Taste Disorders/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 947-952, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569183

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To outline the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Five databases were searched for articles referring to the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The search was conducted for the period from November 2019 to April 2021. The search was conducted over one month (May 2021). RESULTS: Four studies that met the objective were included. Altogether, there were 1045 patients. Various questionnaires were used to assess quality of life. Overall, the quality of life deficit affected 67.7 per cent of patients. Quality of life domains investigated include overall quality of life (four studies), food and taste dysfunction (two studies), mental health (two studies), cognitive function (one study), functional outcome (one study) and safety domains (one study). CONCLUSION: Quality of life deficit was reported to be 67.7 per cent among coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The high prevalence of persistent olfactory dysfunction prompts more serious research, as the long-standing consequences of olfactory dysfunction are detrimental.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cost of Illness , Olfaction Disorders/psychology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology
18.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(5): 2296-2303, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566692

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: This study aims to evaluate of olfactory and gustatory functions of COVID-19 patients and possible risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study included adult patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in Gazi University Hospital between April 2020 and June 2020. Volunteered patients participated in a survey in which olfactory and gustatory functions and various clinical information were questioned. Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 was also administrated to all patients. Results: A hundred and seventy-one patients participated in this study. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions rates were 10.5% (n: 18) and 10.5% (n: 18), respectively. Patients without any symptom other than smell and taste dysfunctions were clustered as group 1 and patients who are clinically symptomatic were clustered as group 2. Olfactory dysfunction occurred in 8% of group 1 and 17.4% of group 2 (p = 0.072). Gustatory dysfunction rate of smokers was 19.7% and significantly higher than gustatory dysfunction rate of nonsmokers (5.5%) (p = 0.007). Twenty-seven-point-eight percent of the patients with olfactory dysfunction (n = 5) were male and 72.2% (n: 13) were female. Sex did not show significant effect on rate of olfactory dysfunction. Twenty-five patients participated in psychophysical olfactory function test. No participant reported olfactory dysfunction at the time of test. Of the participants, 64% (n: 16) were normosmic and 36% (n: 9) were hyposmic according to Sniffin' Stick test. Conclusion: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are more common in patients who are clinically symptomatic than those diagnosed during contact tracing. Objective tests may show that frequency of olfactory dysfunction is greater than frequency of self-reported olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 30(1): 19-25, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566100

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the literature on COVID-19 related anosmia, focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiology recovery rates, current available treatment options, and research regarding novel treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Loss of sense of smell is one of the most prevalent symptoms reported by patients after COVID-19 infection. Even though there is a high self-reported recovery rate, recent studies have demonstrated that up to 7% of the patients remain anosmic more than 12 months after onset, leaving millions worldwide with severe olfactory dysfunction. Olfactory training remains the first line recommended treatment. Given the paucity of effective medical treatments options researchers are exploring novel therapeutic options. SUMMARY: Olfactory dysfunction remains a significant and persistent legacy of the COVID-19 pandemic, but heightened awareness may stimulate research that leads to the development of much-needed treatment options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
20.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 255-260, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1552053

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha reportado disfunción olfatoria y anosmia; en la mujer embarazada se presenta hasta en 24.2 %. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia con la que las mujeres embarazadas e infección por SARS-CoV-2 tienen disfunción olfatoria. Métodos: Se preguntó edad, edad gestacional, temperatura, presencia de constipación nasal o rinorrea, mialgias, cefalea, tos o dolor torácico, además de evaluar si las mujeres percibían e identificaban el aroma de jugo de uva, café en polvo y mentol. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. La U de Mann-Whitney y el contraste de proporciones sirvieron para las comparaciones entre los grupos. Resultados: Hubo mayor proporción de mujeres con tos, cefalea, disnea, mialgias, odinofagia, rinorrea, dolor torácico y anosmia en mujeres positivas a SARS-CoV-2. De las pacientes sin COVID-19, 88.9 % detectó cada uno de los aromas; solo 31.8 % del grupo positivo detectó el aroma a uva, 47.7 % el de café y 59.1 % el de mentol, el cual tuvo los porcentajes más altos en sensibilidad (40 %), especificidad (21 %), valores predictivos positivo (59 %) y negativo (11 %). Conclusión: la disfunción olfatoria se presenta en un porcentaje importante de las mujeres embarazadas con COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. Objective: To know the frequency in which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. Methods: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. Results: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). Conclusion: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology
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