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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785192

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prominent symptoms of acute COVID-19. Although both senses recover in many patients within weeks to months, persistency has been described in up to 60%. However up to now most reports on the course of chemosensitive disorders after COVID-19 are not based on psychophysical testing but only on subjective patients' ratings. In this study we assessed both olfaction and gustation using psychophysical tests eight months after COVID-19. Validated psychophysical testing revealed hyposmia in 18% and hypogeusia in even 32% of 303 included patients. This shows that olfactory and especially gustatory disorders have to be seen as important chronic symptoms post-COVID-19. The high prevalence of gustatory dysfunction indicates that gustatory function does not recover or might even deteriorate in the months following the acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Threshold
2.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 512022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786590

ABSTRACT

On average, 47% of patients with COVID-19 self-report an olfactory disorder, although the inaccuracy of self-reporting means this figure may be higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 843850, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785447

ABSTRACT

A great number of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience olfactory dysfunction, typically of a short duration and with a high incidence rate, during the early stages of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This kind of olfactory dysfunction appears more likely in young people and women. This study presents a review of the clinical features and pathogenic mechanism of the olfactory dysfunction related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, aiming to provide a clinical reference for the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(6): 2196-2200, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has been associated with a wide range of quantitative and qualitative disorders of smell, including hyposmia/anosmia, parosmia, and phantosmia; however, no reports to date have reported hyperosmia as a sequela of SARS-CoV-2 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present two cases of subjective hyperosmia in a South Tyrolean Alps family, occurring within days after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection with transient anosmia. RESULTS: The subjects, a mother and son, exhibited subjective hyperosmia despite normal objective olfactory testing. During independent assessments, the severity of hyperosmia and specific odors affected were highly correlated, consistent with shared genetic and environmental factors. In contrast, two other family members with COVID-19 had no perceptual distortion and normal recovery of smell. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective hyperosmia after COVID-19 infection exhibited striking similarity in two affected family members, suggesting interaction of environment, genetics, and perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Mothers , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
5.
6.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(2): 406-419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our ability to smell and taste is dictated by 3 chemosensory systems with distinct physiologic mechanisms - olfaction, gustation, and chemesthesis. Although often overlooked, dysfunction of these special senses may have broad implications on multiple facets of patients' lives -including safety, nutritional status, quality of life, mental health, and even cognitive function. As "loss of smell or taste" emerged as a common symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the importance of intact chemosensory function has been thrust into the spotlight. Despite the growing recognition of chemosensory dysfunction, this already highly prevalent condition will increasingly impact a larger and more diverse population, highlighting the need for improved awareness and care of these patients. METHODS: Comtemporary review of chemosensory function and assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Although patient-reported chemosensory function measures highlight the ease of screening of chemosensory dysfunction, self-reported measures underestimate both the prevalence and degree of chemosensory dysfunction and do not adequately distinguish between olfaction, gustation, and chemesthesis. Meanwhile, psychophysical assessment tools provide opportunities for more accurate, thorough assessment of the chemosenses when appropriate. Primary care providers are uniquely situated to identify patients burdened by chemosensory dysfunction and raise patient and provider awareness about the importance of chemosensory dysfunction. Identification of chemosensory dysfunction, particularly olfactory dysfunction, may raise suspicion for many underlying medical conditions, including early detection of neurodegenerative conditions. Furthermore, identification and awareness of patients with chemosensory dysfunction may help primary care providers to identify those who may benefit from additional therapeutic and safety interventions, or consultations with specialists for more detailed evaluations and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , Smell
8.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(2): 96-105, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760174

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been associated with a dramatic increase in postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) among patients who are infected. A contemporary evidence-based review of current treatment options for PVOD is both timely and relevant to improve patient care. Objective: This review seeks to impact patient care by qualitatively reviewing available evidence in support of medical and procedural treatment options for PVOD. Systematic evaluation of data quality and of the level of evidence was completed to generate current treatment recommendations. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify primary studies that evaluated treatment outcomes for PVOD. A number of medical literature data bases were queried from January 1998 to May 2020, with completion of subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles to identify all relevant studies. Validated tools for the assessment of bias among both interventional and observational studies were used to complete quality assessment. The summary level of evidence and associated outcomes were used to generate treatment recommendations. Results: Twenty-two publications were identified for qualitative review. Outcomes of alpha-lipoic acid, intranasal and systemic corticosteroids, minocycline, zinc sulfate, vitamin A, sodium citrate, caroverine, intranasal insulin, theophylline, and Gingko biloba are reported. In addition, outcomes of traditional Chinese acupuncture and olfactory training are reviewed. Conclusion: Several medical and procedural treatments may expedite the return of olfactory function after PVOD. Current evidence supports olfactory training as a first-line intervention. Additional study is required to define specific treatment recommendations and expected outcomes for PVOD in the setting of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Smell , Treatment Outcome
9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(2): 103299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal theophylline saline irrigation on olfactory recovery in patients with post-viral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD). METHODS: Between May 2019 and April 2020, we conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of adults with 6-36 months of PVOD. Patients were randomized to nasal theophylline saline irrigation or placebo saline irrigation twice a day for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the Global Rating of Smell Change. Secondary outcomes were changes in the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (QOD-NS). RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (n = 12, theophylline; n = 10, placebo) completed the study. Slightly more patients in the theophylline group (33%) reported improved smell compared to the placebo group (30%, difference 3.3%, 95% CI -35.6% to 42.3%). The median differences in pre- and post-treatment UPSIT and QOD-NS change between the two groups were 1 (95% CI -3 to 5) and -10 (95% CI -15 to -4), respectively in favor of theophylline. Three patients receiving theophylline and 2 receiving placebo had clinically meaningful improvements on the UPSIT (difference 5%, 95% CI -30% to 40%). There were no adverse events, and serum theophylline levels were undetectable in 10/10 patients. CONCLUSIONS: While safe, there were no clinically meaningful differences in olfactory change between the two groups except for olfaction-related quality of life, which was better with theophylline. The imprecise estimates suggest future trials will need substantially larger sample sizes or treatment modifications, such as increasing the theophylline dose, to observe larger treatment effects.


Subject(s)
Olfaction Disorders , Smell , Adult , Humans , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , Theophylline/therapeutic use
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732119

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Since the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of cases of post-infectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD) has substantially increased. Despite a good recovery rate, olfactory dysfunction (OD) becomes persistent in up to 15% of cases and further research is needed to find new treatment modalities for those patients who have not improved on currently available treatments. Social media has emerged as a potential avenue for patient recruitment, but its role in recruiting patients with smell dysfunction remains unexplored. We conducted a survey using the AbScent Facebook page to evaluate the feasibility of using this platform for future studies on smell dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Between 26 October and 4 November 2021, we conducted an online survey to evaluate propensity of patients with PIOD who would be willing to participate in research studies on smell dysfunction. Results: Sixty-five subjects were surveyed with a response rate of 90.7%. The median visual analogue scale (VAS) for sense of smell was 0 at infection and 2 at survey completion. The median length of OD was 1.6 years, and the main cause of OD was SARS-CoV-2 (57.6%). Parosmia was reported in 41 subjects (69.5%) whilst phantosmia in 22 (37.3%). The median length of olfactory training (OT) was 6 months but subjectively effective in 15 subjects (25.4%). Twenty-seven subjects (45.8%) tried other medications to improve olfaction, but only 6 participants (22.2%) reported an improvement. All subjects expressed their propensity to participate in future studies with most of them (38; 64.4%) willing to be enrolled either in medical and surgical studies or to be part of a randomised study design (11; 18.6%). Conclusions: Using the AbScent Facebook platform we successfully selected a population of subjects with persistent and severe OD that have failed to improve on available treatments and are willing to participate in further clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Social Media , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 155-161, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chemosensory disorders associated with COVID-19 have been widely discussed during the pandemic. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies published between December 1, 2019, and August 31, 2021. We selected random-effects model or fixed-effects model to pool data based on heterogeneity. The results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was reported as I2. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies with a total of 13,813 patients were included. The pooled data indicated that sex (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.93-2.31), age (SMD -5.80; 95% CI -13.35 to 1.75), smoking (OR 2.04; 95% CI 0.72-5.79), and comorbidity (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.58-2.53) of patients with COVID-19 had no effect on gustatory dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction was more likely to occur in older patients with COVID-19 (SMD, -5.22; 95% CI, -8.28 to -2.16). Patients with COVID-19 with nasal congestion (OR 3.41; 95% CI 2.30-5.06) and rhinorrhea (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.60-3.45) were more prone to olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize that older patients with COVID-19 are more likely to experience olfactory dysfunction. Symptoms of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea may affect the recognition of olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
13.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
14.
Rhinology ; 60(2): 128-138, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Self-reported smell loss is a prominent symptom of COVID-19 infection and a potentially useful clinical tool for remote pre-screening of this disease. However, pre-existing chemosensory dysfunction with obesity may diminish the usefulness of self-reported smell loss in this vulnerable group. Here we aim to compare COVID-19 related chemosensory alterations in participants with and without obesity and determine if self-reported smell loss is predictive of lab-based COVID-19 diagnosis in both groups in the context of restrictive clinical data collection. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional global dataset, we compared self-reported chemosensory ability in participants with a respiratory illness reporting a positive (C19+; n = 5156) or a negative (C19-; n = 659) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome, who also self-reported to have obesity (C19+; n = 433, C19-; n = 86) or not. RESULTS: Participants with obesity and without obesity reported a similar decline in smell, taste, and chemesthesis during illness. In C19+ participants with obesity, we observed a greater relative prevalence of non-chemosensory symptoms, including respiratory and GI symptoms. Critically, we found that the model previously proposed also predicts C19+ diagnosis in participants with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that COVID-19 respondents with obesity experience a similar self-reported chemosensory loss as those without obesity. In both groups self-reported chemosensory symptoms are similarly predictive of COVID-19 infection, thus highlighting the potential of collecting self-report of symptoms and comorbidities remotely when clinical observations are restrictive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obesity/complications , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1042-1048, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alterations of the olfactory function in patients affected by COVID-19 often have an early onset and a variable duration ranging from a few weeks to months. The aim of this study was to evaluate olfactory dysfunction persistence after recovery from COVID-19, and potential related clinical-demographic conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients recovered from COVID-19 from at least 20 days with olfactory dysfunction during the infection were included in the study. For the subjective evaluation of olfactory function, a visual analogic scale (VAS) was used. The objective evaluation was performed with the use of the Sniffin' Sticks test. RESULTS: Objective assessment of olfactory function revealed that 48 (63.16%) patients were found to be normosmic (TDI ≥ 30.5), 26 (34.21%) were hyposmic (TDI from 30.5 to 16.5) and two (2.63%) were anosmic (TDI ≤ 16.5) at the time of the evaluation. These results did not show a significant difference between subjective and objective tests (p = 0.45). Most patients recovered their sense of smell within the first two months after recovery while a portion (22.2%) still experienced olfactory alterations 4-6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients who had not recovered their sense of smell had a significantly longer period of SARS-CoV-2 positivity compared to patients that fully recovered (36.07 ± 7.78 days vs. 29 ± 7.89 days; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the duration of the infection negatively correlates with the recovery of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Young Adult
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2111, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692556

ABSTRACT

Alterations in the three chemosensory modalities-smell, taste, and chemesthesis-have been implicated in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet emerging data suggest a wide geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of these symptoms. Studies on chemosensory disorders in COVID-19 have predominantly focused on Caucasian populations whereas Asians remain understudied. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire on a cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed adult COVID-19 patients in Malaysia between 6 June and 30 November 2020. The aim of our study was to investigate their presenting symptoms and assess their chemosensory function using self-ratings of perceived smell, taste, chemesthesis, and nasal blockage. In this cohort of 498 patients, 41.4% reported smell and/or taste loss when diagnosed with COVID-19, which was the commonest symptom. Blocked nose, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbances were independent predictors of smell and/or taste loss on multivariate analysis. Self-ratings of chemosensory function revealed a reduction in smell, taste, and chemesthesis across the entire cohort of patients that was more profound among those reporting smell and/or taste loss as their presenting symptom. Perceived nasal obstruction accounted for only a small proportion of changes in smell and taste, but not for chemesthesis, supporting viral disruption of sensorineural mechanisms as the dominant aetiology of chemosensory dysfunction. Our study suggests that chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 is more widespread than previously reported among Asians and may be related to the infectivity of viral strains.Study Registration: NMRR-20-934-54803 and NCT04390165.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
18.
Rhinology ; 60(2): 139-144, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether omega-3 supplementation would support olfactory recovery among postviral olfactory dysfunction patients. METHODOLOGY: Patients with postviral olfactory dysfunction were included in this non-blinded, prospective pilot study. Structured medical history was taken from the patients, including the following: age, sex, history of COVID-19 infection, and duration of symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to receive olfactory training only (control group) versus olfactory training with omega-3 supplementation (treatment group). All patients exposed themselves twice a day to four odours (phenyl ethyl alcohol [rose], eucalyptol [eucalyptus], citronellal [lemon], and eugenol [cloves]). Olfactory function was measured before and after training using 'Sniffin' Sticks', comprised of tests for odour threshold, discrimination, and identification. The average interval between olfactory tests was 3 months. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were included in the study, 25 men and 33 women. Generally, an improvement in olfactory scores was observed. Compared to the control group, the improvement in odour thresholds was more pronounced in the omega-3 group. Age, sex, and duration of symptoms had no effect on olfactory scores among both control and treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Overall, the present results indicate that omega-3 supplementation may be an option for adjunct therapy with olfactory training in patients with postviral olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensory Thresholds , Smell
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 77, 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From the initial stages of the pandemic in early 2020, COVID-19-related olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been widely reported and are emerging as one of the most frequent long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, data regarding the long-term recovery of the sense of smell and taste are lacking. This study aimed to characterize the evolution up to one year after the diagnosis of self-reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Based on the data of the active surveillance platform of the Apulia region, Italy, we selected the residents of Foggia district who were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 from March 1st to June 16th, 2020, and home-quarantined with paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation. Self-reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions were recorded at baseline through a survey of dichotomous questions. The evolution of these symptoms at approximately one year was prospectively assessed via telephone by the validated sino-nasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22, Italian version). RESULTS: Among the 1,175 COVID-19 cases notified in the Foggia district during the first epidemic wave, 488 had paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation. Of these, 41.2% (n = 201, 95% confidence interval [CI] 36.8-45.7%) reported at least one sensory dysfunction. A total of 178 to 201 (88.5%) patients agreed to participate in the follow-up survey. According to the SNOT-22 results, the persistence of a sensory dysfunction was observed in the 29.8% (n = 53, 95% CI 23.2-37.1%) of them. Particularly, loss of smell persisted in 25.8% (n = 46, 95% CI 19.6-32.9%), loss of taste in 21.3% (n = 38, 95% CI 15.6-28.1%), loss of both in 17.4% (n = 31, 95% CI 12.2-23.8%) of participants in the follow-up. The rates of full recovery increased over time: from 59% at 30 days to 71.9% at 90 days for the sense of smell; from 61.3% at 30 days to 74.7% at 90 days for the sense of taste. CONCLUSIONS: The persistence of COVID-19-related olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions up to 12 months after the disease onset in a noteworthy proportion (approximately 3 out of 10) of patients with paucisymptomatic-to-mild clinical presentation deserves further investigations due to its possible pathophysiological implications and impact on the quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell
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