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1.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: New-onset olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OGD) represents a well-acknowledged COVID-19 red flag. Nevertheless, its clinical, virological and serological features are still a matter of debate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cohort study, 170 consecutive subjects with new-onset OGD were consecutively recruited. Otolaryngological examination, OGD subjective grading, nasopharyngeal swabs (NS) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and serum samples (SS) collection for SARS-CoV-2 IgG quantification were conducted at baseline and after one (T1), two (T2) and four weeks (T3). RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 79% of patients. Specifically, 43% of positive patients were detected only by SS analysis. The OGD was the only clinical complaint in 10% of cases. Concurrent sinonasal symptoms were reported by 45% of patients. Subjective improvement at T3 was reported by 97% of patients, with 40% recovering completely. Hormonal disorders and RNA detectability in NS were the only variables associated with OGD severity. Recovery rate was higher in case of seasonal influenza vaccination, lower in patients with systemic involvement and severe OGD. Not RNA levels nor IgG titers were correlated with recovery. CONCLUSION: Clinical, virological and serological features of COVID-19 related OGD were monitored longitudinally, offering valuable hints for future research on the relationship between host characteristics and chemosensory dysfunctions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/immunology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(5): 1704-1719, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract viruses are the second most common cause of olfactory dysfunction. As we learn more about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with the recognition that olfactory dysfunction is a key symptom of this disease process, there is a greater need than ever for evidence-based management of postinfectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to provide an evidence-based practical guide to the management of PIOD (including post-coronavirus 2019 cases) for both primary care practitioners and hospital specialists. METHODS: A systematic review of the treatment options available for the management of PIOD was performed. The written systematic review was then circulated among the members of the Clinical Olfactory Working Group for their perusal before roundtable expert discussion of the treatment options. The group also undertook a survey to determine their current clinical practice with regard to treatment of PIOD. RESULTS: The search resulted in 467 citations, of which 107 articles were fully reviewed and analyzed for eligibility; 40 citations fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 11 of which were randomized controlled trials. In total, 15 of the articles specifically looked at PIOD whereas the other 25 included other etiologies for olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The Clinical Olfactory Working Group members made an overwhelming recommendation for olfactory training; none recommended monocycline antibiotics. The diagnostic role of oral steroids was discussed; some group members were in favor of vitamin A drops. Further research is needed to confirm the place of other therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Consensus , Evidence-Based Medicine , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Practice Guidelines as Topic
3.
Cytokine ; 141: 155456, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD/GD) are now recognized as typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, their pathogenesis remains unclear and no clear prognostic factors have been identified. We have analyzed a cohort of mild/moderate hospitalized patients to identify possible clinical or immunological predictors of recovery from OD/GD. METHODS: Clinical and biological parameters were reviewed along with associated comorbidities. Chemosensory Complaint Score was administered on admission and 30 days after the first negative swab. Unpaired Wilcoxon and chi-squared tests were used to compare the variables in the patients who recovered versus those who did not. RESULTS: From a cohort of 119 hospitalized patients, 43 (36%) reported OD/GD on admission. 60.6% had a full recovery from OD and 69.2% from GD. Only the concentration of IL-10 on admission emerged as significantly associated with recovery of taste (p = 0.041) while allergic respiratory disease was more prevalent in the group who did not recover from OD (p = 0.049) and GD (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that COVID-19 associated OD/GD is an inflammatory-mediated condition and that clinical and immunological parameters could predict the evolution of these symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-10/blood , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/blood , Prognosis , Recovery of Function/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/blood
4.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 631-641, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739689

ABSTRACT

A subset of patients with coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) experience neurological complications. These complications include loss of sense of taste and smell, stroke, delirium, and neuromuscular signs and symptoms. The etiological agent of COVID-19 is SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), an RNA virus with a glycoprotein-studded viral envelope that uses ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) as a functional receptor for infecting the host cells. Thus, the interaction of the envelope spike proteins with ACE2 on host cells determines the tropism and virulence of SARS-CoV-2. Loss of sense of taste and smell is an initial symptom of COVID-19 because the virus enters the nasal and oral cavities first and the epithelial cells are the receptors for these senses. Stroke in COVID-19 patients is likely a consequence of coagulopathy and injury to cerebral vascular endothelial cells that cause thrombo-embolism and stroke. Delirium and encephalopathy in acute and post COVID-19 patients are likely multifactorial and secondary to hypoxia, metabolic abnormalities, and immunological abnormalities. Thus far, there is no clear evidence that coronaviruses cause inflammatory neuromuscular diseases via direct invasion of peripheral nerves or muscles or via molecular mimicry. It appears that most of neurologic complications in COVID-19 patients are indirect and as a result of a bystander injury to neurons.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Stroke/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Brain/blood supply , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , Bystander Effect , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/pathology , Stroke/virology
5.
Rev Neurosci ; 31(7): 691-701, 2020 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707640

ABSTRACT

Just before 2020 began, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), brought for humans a potentially fatal disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The world has thoroughly been affected by COVID-19, while there has been little progress towards understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Patients with a severe phenotype of disease and those who died from the disease have shown hyperinflammation and were more likely to develop neurological manifestations, linking the clinical disease with neuroimmunological features. Anosmia frequently occurs early in the course of COVID-19. The prevalence of anosmia would be influenced by self-diagnosis as well as self-misdiagnosis in patients with COVID-19. Despite this, the association between anosmia and COVID-19 has been a hope for research, aiming to understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Studies have suggested differently probable mechanisms for the development of anosmia in COVID-19, including olfactory cleft syndrome, postviral anosmia syndrome, cytokine storm, direct damage of olfactory sensory neurons, and impairment of the olfactory perception center in the brain. Thus, the observation of anosmia would direct us to find the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in the central nervous system, and this is consistent with numerous neurological manifestations related to COVID-19. Like other neurotropic viruses, SARS-CoV-2 might be able to enter the central nervous system via the olfactory epithelium and induce innate immune responses at the site of entry. Viral replication in the nonneural olfactory cells indirectly causes damage to the olfactory receptor nerves, and as a consequence, anosmia occurs. Further studies are required to investigate the neuroimmunology of COVID-19 in relation to anosmia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/immunology , Olfactory Mucosa/physiopathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology
6.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108545, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670405

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 rapidly turned to a global pandemic posing lethal threats to overwhelming health care capabilities, despite its relatively low mortality rate. The clinical respiratory symptoms include dry cough, fever, anosmia, breathing difficulties, and subsequent respiratory failure. No known cure is available for COVID-19. Apart from the anti-viral strategy, the supports of immune effectors and modulation of immunosuppressive mechanisms is the rationale immunomodulation approach in COVID-19 management. Diet and nutrition are essential for healthy immunity. However, a group of micronutrients plays a dominant role in immunomodulation. The deficiency of most nutrients increases the individual susceptibility to virus infection with a tendency for severe clinical presentation. Despite a shred of evidence, the supplementation of a single nutrient is not promising in the general population. Individuals at high-risk for specific nutrient deficiencies likely benefit from supplementation. The individual dietary and nutritional status assessments are critical for determining the comprehensive actions in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Cough/diet therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/immunology , Cough/pathology , Disease Management , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/diet therapy , Fever/immunology , Fever/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/diet therapy , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diet therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
7.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 785-789, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647060

ABSTRACT

Over the course of the pandemic due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple new clinical manifestations, as the consequence of the tropism of the virus, have been recognized. That includes now the neurological manifestations and conditions, such as headache, encephalitis, as well as olfactory and taste disorders. We present a series of ten cases of RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients diagnosed with viral-associated olfactory and taste loss from four different countries.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/complications , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/complications , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/immunology , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe , Female , Headache/immunology , Headache/pathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North America , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Time Factors
8.
Neuroscientist ; 27(3): 214-221, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640850

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an ongoing viral pandemic that emerged from East Asia and quickly spread to the rest of the world. SARS-CoV-2 is the virus causing COVID-19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is definitely one of the main clinically relevant consequences in patients with COVID-19. Starting from the earliest reports of the COVID-19 pandemic, two peculiar neurological manifestations (namely, hyposmia/anosmia and dysgeusia) were reported in a relevant proportion of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. At present, the physiopathologic mechanisms accounting for the onset of these symptoms are not yet clarified. CXCL10 is a pro-inflammatory chemokine with a well-established role in the COVID-19-related cytokine storm and in subsequent development of ARDS. CXCL10 is also known to be involved in coronavirus-induced demyelination. On these bases, a role for CXCL10 as the common denominator between pulmonary and olfactory dysfunctions could be envisaged. The aim of the present report will be to hypothesize a role for CXCL10 in COVID-19 olfactory dysfunctions. Previous evidences supporting our hypothesis, with special emphasis to the role of CXCL10 in coronavirus-induced demyelination, the anatomical and physiological peculiarity of the olfactory system, and the available data supporting their link during COVID-19 infections, will be overviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109881, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-449130

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), loss of smell has increasingly been reported as a frequent clinical sign. Understanding the underlying mechanism and the prognostic value of this symptom will help better manage patients. SARS-CoV-2, as SARS-CoV-1, may likely spread to the central nervous system (CNS) via the olfactory nerve, a known gateway for respiratory neurotropic viruses. We hypothesise that sudden loss of smell due to COVID-19 is the consequence of a protective host defence mechanism involving apoptosis of olfactory receptor neurons. Sacrificing smelling over neuroprotection is a logical strategy, even more so as olfaction is the only sense with the ability to regenerate in adults. Induced apoptosis of olfactory neurons has been shown in mice, successfully preventing neuroinvasion. On the other hand, adult olfactory neurogenesis has been shown to be regulated in part by the immune system, allowing to restore olfactory function. Understanding anosmia as part of a defence mechanism would support the concept of sudden anosmia as being a positive prognostic factor in the short term. Also, it may orient research to investigate the risk of future neurodegenerative disease linked to persisting coronavirus in neurons.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Mice , Models, Immunological , Models, Neurological , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/pathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/physiology , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
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