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1.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 245-250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. OBJECTIVE: To know the frequency at which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. RESULTS: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
3.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(9): 753-761, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which any upper respiratory virus, including SARS-CoV-2, impairs chemosensory function are not known. COVID-19 is frequently associated with olfactory dysfunction after viral infection, which provides a research opportunity to evaluate the natural course of this neurological finding. Clinical trials and prospective and histological studies of new-onset post-viral olfactory dysfunction have been limited by small sample sizes and a paucity of advanced neuroimaging data and neuropathological samples. Although data from neuropathological specimens are now available, neuroimaging of the olfactory system during the acute phase of infection is still rare due to infection control concerns and critical illness and represents a substantial gap in knowledge. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: The active replication of SARS-CoV-2 within the brain parenchyma (ie, in neurons and glia) has not been proven. Nevertheless, post-viral olfactory dysfunction can be viewed as a focal neurological deficit in patients with COVID-19. Evidence is also sparse for a direct causal relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and abnormal brain findings at autopsy, and for trans-synaptic spread of the virus from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Taken together, clinical, radiological, histological, ultrastructural, and molecular data implicate inflammation, with or without infection, in either the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory bulb, or both. This inflammation leads to persistent olfactory deficits in a subset of people who have recovered from COVID-19. Neuroimaging has revealed localised inflammation in intracranial olfactory structures. To date, histopathological, ultrastructural, and molecular evidence does not suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is an obligate neuropathogen. WHERE NEXT?: The prevalence of CNS and olfactory bulb pathosis in patients with COVID-19 is not known. We postulate that, in people who have recovered from COVID-19, a chronic, recrudescent, or permanent olfactory deficit could be prognostic for an increased likelihood of neurological sequelae or neurodegenerative disorders in the long term. An inflammatory stimulus from the nasal olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and connected brain regions might accelerate pathological processes and symptomatic progression of neurodegenerative disease. Persistent olfactory impairment with or without perceptual distortions (ie, parosmias or phantosmias) after SARS-CoV-2 infection could, therefore, serve as a marker to identify people with an increased long-term risk of neurological disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Prospective Studies , Smell/physiology
4.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 1010-1018, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the association between olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment and disease severity and radiological findings in coronavirus disease-2019. The secondary goal was to assess the prevalence, severity and course of olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHOD: This prospective observational cohort study evaluated patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 between April 1 and 1 May 2020. Olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment were evaluated by two questionnaires. Chest computed tomography findings and coronavirus disease-2019 severity were assessed. RESULTS: Among 133 patients, 23.3 per cent and 30.8 per cent experienced olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment, respectively, and 17.2 per cent experienced both. The mean age was 56.03 years, and 64.7 per cent were male and 35.3 per cent were female. No statistically significant association was found between olfactory dysfunction (p = 0.706) and taste impairment (p = 0.35) with either disease severity or chest computed tomography grading. CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment does not have prognostic importance in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Taste Disorders/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 947-952, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569183

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To outline the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Five databases were searched for articles referring to the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The search was conducted for the period from November 2019 to April 2021. The search was conducted over one month (May 2021). RESULTS: Four studies that met the objective were included. Altogether, there were 1045 patients. Various questionnaires were used to assess quality of life. Overall, the quality of life deficit affected 67.7 per cent of patients. Quality of life domains investigated include overall quality of life (four studies), food and taste dysfunction (two studies), mental health (two studies), cognitive function (one study), functional outcome (one study) and safety domains (one study). CONCLUSION: Quality of life deficit was reported to be 67.7 per cent among coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The high prevalence of persistent olfactory dysfunction prompts more serious research, as the long-standing consequences of olfactory dysfunction are detrimental.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cost of Illness , Olfaction Disorders/psychology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506148

ABSTRACT

Olfactory loss has been identified as one of the common symptoms related to COVID-19 infection. Although olfactory loss is recognized, our understanding of both the extent of loss and time to olfactory recovery following infection is less well known. Similarly, knowledge of potential impactful patient factors and therapies that influence olfactory recovery is desirable but is not overtly clear in the literature. Our systematic review sought to fill this knowledge gap. We included studies that: involved either an observational or an interventional design that reported data on patients with olfactory dysfunction due to Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) diagnosed COVID-19 infection; and reported data regarding olfactory recovery measured by an objective olfactory test, Likert scale and/or visual analog scale (VAS). The study methods were determined a priori and registered in PROSPERO (Registration Number CRD42020204354). An information specialist searched Medline, Embase, LitCovid and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to March 2021, and two reviewers were involved in all aspects of study selection and data collection. After screening 2788 citations, a total of 44 studies of assorted observational designs were included. Patients had undergone objective COVID-19 testing, and most were adult patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Olfactory recovery was found to occur as early as 7 days, with most patients recovering olfaction within 30 days. Few studies included prolonged follow-up to 6 months or longer duration. Poor olfaction at initial presentation was associated with poor recovery rates. Only a small number of studies assessed olfactory retraining and steroid therapy. Additional trials are underway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Smell/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Visual Analog Scale
7.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103259, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comprehensively evaluate olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding onset, course, associated symptoms, prognosis and relation to patients' demographics, treatment received and other symptoms. PATIENTS& METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted on patients proven to be infected with COVID-19 and with olfactory/gustatory dysfunction symptoms. Detailed history was taken from each patient about the onset of this dysfunction, associated symptoms. Then follow-up survey was done after 6 months to evaluate the prognosis. RESULTS: 1031 patients were included in the study, aged 18 to 69 years old, with 31.8% were male. Olfactory/gustatory dysfunctions occurred after other COVID-19 symptoms in 43.5% of cases, occurred suddenly in 80.4% and gradually in 19.6%. These dysfunctions were anosmia & ageusia in 50.2%, hyposmia & hypogeusia in 23.3%, anosmia alone in 17.7%, phantosmia in 18%, Parosmia in 28.4%. In terms of recovery 6-month follow up, 680 patients (66%) recovered completely, 22.1% recovered partially while 11.9% did not recover. Most improvement occurred in the first two weeks. Headache, malaise, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea were the commonest COVID-19 symptoms associated. CONCLUSION: Most recovery of olfactory/gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 infection occurs at the first two weeks and is unrelated to patient demographics, treatment or olfactory training. Parosmia is an independent predictor for complete recovery, while phantosmia is significantly associated with lower probability of complete recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1252-1260, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With millions of SARS-CoV-2 infections worldwide, increasing numbers of patients are coming forward with long-term clinical effects of the disease lasting several weeks to months. OBJECTIVE: To characterize symptoms 7 to 9 months after diagnosis of COVID-19. DESIGN: Self-reported surveys and semistructured telephone interviews at enrollment and 30 to 45 days and 7 to 9 months from diagnosis. SETTING: From 18 March to 15 May 2020, symptomatic persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the Geneva University Hospitals were followed by CoviCare, a virtual, clinical, outpatient follow-up program. Persons were contacted again at 30 to 45 days and 7 to 9 months from diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: Persons who were a part of the CoviCare program from 18 March to 15 May 2020. MEASUREMENTS: A standardized interview of symptoms consistent with COVID-19, with grading of intensity. RESULTS: Of the 629 participants in the study who completed the baseline interviews, 410 completed follow-up at 7 to 9 months after COVID-19 diagnosis; 39.0% reported residual symptoms. Fatigue (20.7%) was the most common symptom reported, followed by loss of taste or smell (16.8%), dyspnea (11.7%), and headache (10.0%). LIMITATION: Limitations include generalizability and missing data for 34.8% of participants. CONCLUSION: Residual symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are common among otherwise young and healthy persons followed in an outpatient setting. These findings contribute to the recognition of long-term effects in a disease mostly counted by its death toll to date by promoting communication on postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 and encouraging physicians to continue long-term monitoring of their patients. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Headache/virology , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Telephone , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103239, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415180

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors (demographic, symptoms, comorbidities, and treatments) are associated with recovery of smell in patients with COVID-19 associated olfactory loss. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal questionnaires. SETTING: National survey. METHODS: A longitudinal web-based nationwide survey of adults with COVID-19 associated smell and taste loss was launched April 10, 2020. After completing an initial entry survey, participants received detailed follow-up questionnaires 14 days, and 1, 3 and 6 months later. RESULTS: As of June 25, 2021, 798 participants met study inclusion criteria and completed 6-month questionnaires. Of demographic characteristics only age <40 years was positively associated with smell recovery (p < .003). Of symptoms, difficulty breathing was negatively associated with smell recovery (p < .004), and nasal congestion positively associated with smell recovery (p < .03). Of pre-existing comorbidities only previous head injury (p < .017) was negatively associated with smell recovery. None of the queried medications used to treat COVID were associated with better rates of smell recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Age <40 and presence of nasal congestion at time of COVID-19 infection were predictive of improved rates of smell recovery, while difficulty breathing at time of COVID-19 infection, and prior head trauma predicted worsened rates of recovery. Further study will be required to identify potential mechanisms for the other observed associations. Such information can be used by clinicians to counsel patients suffering COVID-19 associated smell loss as to prognosis for recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Recovery of Function , Adult , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 953-957, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the rapidly emerging reports of olfactory dysfunction amongst adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019, cases involving children and adolescents are scarcely reported. The literature was reviewed to elucidate olfactory dysfunction amongst children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: A search of the literature published from 1 December 2019 to 30 April 2021 was conducted using four databases, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The search was performed over one month (May 2021). RESULTS: Only 9 articles were identified, with a total of 316 laboratory confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 positive children and adolescents, of whom 156 reported olfactory dysfunction. Four studies reported olfactory dysfunction based on subjective tests; four studies carried out objective assessment. Most studies reported on olfaction recovery. CONCLUSION: The literature review revealed an olfactory dysfunction rate of 49 per cent amongst children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019. Persistence of olfactory dysfunction was reported in 7.1 per cent of the patients. Further studies involving objective measures need to be carried out in children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male
12.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: New-onset olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OGD) represents a well-acknowledged COVID-19 red flag. Nevertheless, its clinical, virological and serological features are still a matter of debate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cohort study, 170 consecutive subjects with new-onset OGD were consecutively recruited. Otolaryngological examination, OGD subjective grading, nasopharyngeal swabs (NS) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and serum samples (SS) collection for SARS-CoV-2 IgG quantification were conducted at baseline and after one (T1), two (T2) and four weeks (T3). RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 79% of patients. Specifically, 43% of positive patients were detected only by SS analysis. The OGD was the only clinical complaint in 10% of cases. Concurrent sinonasal symptoms were reported by 45% of patients. Subjective improvement at T3 was reported by 97% of patients, with 40% recovering completely. Hormonal disorders and RNA detectability in NS were the only variables associated with OGD severity. Recovery rate was higher in case of seasonal influenza vaccination, lower in patients with systemic involvement and severe OGD. Not RNA levels nor IgG titers were correlated with recovery. CONCLUSION: Clinical, virological and serological features of COVID-19 related OGD were monitored longitudinally, offering valuable hints for future research on the relationship between host characteristics and chemosensory dysfunctions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/immunology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1331-1338, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between viral load and the incidence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD and GD), the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and the recovery of OD and GD in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted on 599 outpatients' cases in Golestan province between February and June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence, severity (complete or partial) and recovery time of OD and GD and their associations with cycle threshold (CT) values of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction were assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 38.27 ± 13.62 years. The incidence of general symptoms included myalgia 70.1%, headache 51.8%, fever 47.7% and dyspnoea 21.4%. 41.9% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain 26.5%, diarrhoea 25.2%, nausea 20.5% and vomiting 12.9%. 12.2% of patients had comorbidity. The trimester recovery rates of OD and GD were 93.94% and 94.74% respectively. The mean recovery time of OD and GD was 14.56 ± 13.37 and 13.8 ± 3.77 days respectively. The mean CT value in all patients was 27.45 ± 4.55. There were significant associations between the mean of CT value with headache (p = 0.04), GD (p = 0.002) and OD (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this study indicates a possible association between viral load with incidence of OD and GD in COVID-19 patient's cases and assures the recovery of OD/GD in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Viral Load , Adult , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/virology
14.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(8): 786-790, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are a limited number of studies investigating the changes in olfactory bulb volume (OBV) and olfactory sulcus depth (OSD) values in the acute and subacute periods after COVID-19 infection, there are no studies conducted in the chronic period. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to reveal the changes in OBV and OSD after COVID-19 in the chronic period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 83 people were included in our study, including 42 normal healthy individuals (control group) and 41 patients with COVID-19 infection (10-12 months after infection). RESULTS: The COVID-19 group included 41 patients with the mean age 40.27 ± 14.5 years and the control group included 42 individuals with the mean age 40.27 ± 14.4. The mean OBV was 67.97 ± 14.27 mm3 in the COVID-19 group and 94.21 ± 7.56 mm3 in the control group. The mean OSD was 7.98 ± 0.37 mm in the COVID-19 group and 8.82 ± 0.74 mm in the control group. Left, right, and mean OBVs and OSD were significantly lower in patients with COVID- 19 than the control individuals (all p < .05). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that COVID-19 infection causes a significant decrease in the OBV and OSD measurements in the chronic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies
15.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(7): 2445-2456, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319213

ABSTRACT

In the absence of an efficient drug treatment or a vaccine, the control of the COVID-19 pandemic relies on classic infection control measures. Since these means are socially disruptive and come with substantial economic loss for societies, a better knowledge of the epidemiology of the new coronavirus epidemic is crucial to achieve control at a sustainable cost and within tolerable restrictions of civil rights.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Masks , Models, Theoretical , Molecular Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Singapore , United States/epidemiology
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 612, 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unexpected outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused more than 49 million cases and an estimated 2,000,000 associated deaths worldwide. In Germany, there are currently more than 2,000,000 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases including 51,800 deaths. However, regional differences also became apparent and with the second wave of infections, the detailed characterization of COVID-19 patients is crucial to early diagnosis and disruption of chains of infections. METHODS: Handing out detailed questionnaires to all individuals tested for COVID-19, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of negative and positive tested individuals. Expression of symptoms, symptom duration and association between predictor variables (i.e. age, gender) and a binary outcome (olfactory and gustatory dysfunction) were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the most common symptoms among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were fatigue, headache, and cough. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were also reported by many SARS-CoV-2 negative individuals, more than 20% of SARS-CoV-2 negative tested individuals in our study reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. Independent of SARS-CoV-2 status, more females displayed symptoms of gustatory (29.8%, p = 0.0041) and olfactory dysfunction (22.9%, p = 0.0174) compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: Bringing early SARS-CoV-2 tests to the populations at risk must be a main focus for the upcoming months. The reliability of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 negative tested individuals requires deeper investigation in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Characteristics , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Young Adult
18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 254(2): 71-80, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262562

ABSTRACT

Olfactory disorders are one of the characteristic symptoms of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which causes infection and inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract. To our knowledge, there are no treatments for COVID-19-related olfactory disorder. Here, we report five olfactory disorder cases in COVID-19, treated using the Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. We treated five patients with mild COVID-19 at an isolation facility using Kampo medicine, depending on their symptoms. Patients with the olfactory disorder presented with a blocked nose, nasal discharge or taste impairment. Physical examination using Kampo medicine showed similar findings, such as a red tongue with red spots and sublingual vein congestion, which presented as blood stasis and inflammation; thus, we prescribed the Kampo medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. After administration, the numeric rating scale scores of the smell impairment improved within 3 days from 9 to 3 in case 1, from 10 to 0 in case 2, from 9 to 0 in case 3, from 5 to 0 in case 4, and from 9 to 0 within 5 days in case 5. Following the treatment, other common cold symptoms were also alleviated. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i can be used for treating nasal congestion, rhinitis, and inflammation in the nasal mucosa. The olfactory disorder in COVID-19 has been reportedly associated with inflammation and congestion, especially in the olfactory bulb and olfactory cleft. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i may be one of the treatment alternatives for the olfactory disorder with rhinitis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Kampo/methods , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Rhinitis/complications , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smell/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 983-994, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196427

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a sample of Italian patients and to investigate the occurrence of smell and taste disorders. Infected individuals with suspected (clinical diagnosis) or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were recruited. Patients completed a survey-based questionnaire with the aim of assessing their epidemiological and clinical characteristics, general otorhinolaryngological symptoms, and smell and taste disorders. A total of 294 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 completed the survey (147 females). The most prevalent general symptoms included fever, myalgia, cough, and headache. A total of 70.4% and 59.2% of patients reported smell and taste disorders, respectively. A significant association between the two above-mentioned disorders was found (rs: 0.412; P < .001). Smell disorders occurred before the other symptoms in 11.6% of patients and was not significantly associated with nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea. Interestingly, our statistical analysis did not show any significant difference, either for general symptoms or otorhinolaryngological features, between the clinical diagnosis group and the laboratory-confirmed diagnosis (polymerase chain reaction) group. The structural equation model confirmed significant standardized paths (P < .05) between general symptoms, comorbidities, and general otorhinolaryngological complaints in the absence of a significant correlation between these elements and smell and taste alterations. The prevalence of smell and taste disorders in mild-to-moderate Italian COVID-19 patients is significant both in suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases and reveals a strong correlation between these clinical signs regardless of the presence of general or otorhinolaryngological symptoms, such as nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Models, Statistical , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rhinorrhea/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
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