Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14856, 2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493156

ABSTRACT

The problem of indoor odors can greatly affect a room's occupants. To identify odorants and comprehensively evaluate emissions from wooden materials, emissions and odors from Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill with different moisture content percentages and lacquer treatments were investigated in this study. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/olfactometry was used to analyze the release characteristics. In total, 11 key odor-active compounds were identified as moisture content gradually decreased, concentrating between 15 and 33 min. Total volatile organic compounds, total very volatile organic compounds, and total odor intensity decreased as moisture content decreased. In addition, 35 odor-active compounds, including aromatics, alkenes, aldehydes, esters, and alcohols, were identified in the odor control list. Polyurethane (PU), ultraviolet (UV), and waterborne coatings had a good inhibitory effect on eight odor characteristics, but some scents arose after lacquer treatment. For equilibrium moisture content, the major characteristics of Choerospondias axillaris were fragrant (9.4) and mint-like (3.0) compared with the fragrant (8.2), fruity (7.8), and pleasant (5.8) characteristics of PU coating; the flowery (5.9), fragrant (5.0), glue-like (4.3), and pineapple-like (4.3) characteristics of UV coating; and the antiseptic solution (3.6), fragrant (2.9), cigarette-like (2.8), and fruity (2.5) characteristics of waterborne coating. Based on multicomponent evaluation, a Choerospondias axillaris board with waterborne coating was suggested for use indoors.


Subject(s)
Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Odorants/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Wood/chemistry , China , Humans , Lacquer , Olfactory Perception
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256998, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qualitative olfactory (smell) dysfunctions are a common side effect of post-viral illness and known to impact quality of life and health status. Evidence is emerging that taste and smell loss are common symptoms of Covid-19 that may emerge and persist long after initial infection. The aim of the present study was to document the impact of post Covid-19 alterations to taste and smell. METHODS: We conducted exploratory thematic analysis of user-generated text from 9000 users of the AbScent Covid-19 Smell and Taste Loss moderated Facebook support group from March 24 to 30th September 2020. RESULTS: Participants reported difficulty explaining and managing an altered sense of taste and smell; a lack of interpersonal and professional explanation or support; altered eating; appetite loss, weight change; loss of pleasure in food, eating and social engagement; altered intimacy and an altered relationship to self and others. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest altered taste and smell with Covid-19 may lead to severe disruption to daily living that impacts on psychological well-being, physical health, relationships and sense of self. More specifically, participants reported impacts that related to reduced desire and ability to eat and prepare food; weight gain, weight loss and nutritional insufficiency; emotional wellbeing; professional practice; intimacy and social bonding; and the disruption of people's sense of reality and themselves. Our findings should inform further research and suggest areas for the training, assessment and treatment practices of health care professionals working with long Covid.


Subject(s)
Anosmia , COVID-19 , Olfactory Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders , Taste Perception , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/psychology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/psychology , Time Factors
3.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(2): 192-198, May-Aug. 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1370027

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In adults, olfactory loss is one of the earliest and most frequent acute clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The number of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 is relatively small, perhaps due to the lower expression of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) in children compared to adults. Little is known about foetal impairment in mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. This paper describes an ongoing scientific project on smell perception in infantsOBJECTIVE: The goal of the study is to develop and validate a behavioural evaluative scale of olfactory perception in healthy newborns and to apply this scale to newborn children of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy comparing to newborn children of women without COVID-19 infection history, in order to compare these groupsMETHODS: This is a retrospective comparative analytical cohort study of 300 newborns exposed and unexposed to COVID-19 during pregnancy. The data collection will follow the experimental procedure in a previous study that explored odours of the maternal breastmilk, vanilla (sweet) and distilled water (neutral). A coffee smell was implemented as an addition to this previous study in order to include acid/bitterness category to the categories of stimuliDISCUSSION: It is feasible to argue the hypothesis of the involvement of the foetus' olfactory bulb as one of the indelible pathophysiological manifestations to the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 with neurosensory olfactory deficit in foetuses and newborns affected by intrauterine infection. This study aims to investigate if newborn children of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy have olfactory sensory changes. The clinical trial was registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC- RBR-65qxs2


INTRODUÇÃO: Em adultos, a perda olfativa é uma das manifestações clínicas agudas mais precoces e frequentes da infecção por SARS-CoV-2. O número de crianças infectadas com SARS-CoV-2 é pequeno, talvez devido à menor expressão da Enzima Conversora da Angiotensina 2 (ACE2) em crianças em comparação com adultos. Pouco se sabe sobre o comprometimento fetal em mães infectadas com SARS-CoV-2. Este artigo descreve um projeto em andamento sobre a percepção olfativa em bebês recém-nascidosOBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo é desenvolver e validar uma escala de avaliação comportamental da percepção olfativa em recém-nascidos saudáveis e aplicá-la a recém-nascidos de mulheres infectadas com COVID-19 durante a gravidez e comparar a recém-nascidos de mulheres sem histórico de infecção por COVID-19MÉTODO: Este é um estudo de coorte analítico comparativo retrospectivo de 300 recém-nascidos expostos e não expostos ao COVID-19 durante a gravidez. A coleta de dados seguirá o procedimento experimental de estudo anterior que explorou odores do leite materno, baunilha (doce) e água destilada (neutro). Um cheiro de café foi implementado como um complemento a este estudo anterior, a fim de incluir a categoria ácido / amargo nas categorias de estímulosDISCUSSÃO: É possível argumentar a hipótese do envolvimento do bulbo olfatório do feto durante a vida intrauterina como uma das manifestações fisiopatológicas indeléveis para o diagnóstico clínico de COVID-19 com déficit olfatório neurossensorial em fetos e recém-nascidos afetados por infecção intrauterina. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar se filhos recém-nascidos de mulheres infectadas com COVID-19 durante a gravidez apresentam alterações sensoriais olfativas. O ensaio clínico foi registrado no Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (ReBEC- RBR-65qxs2


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn , SARS Virus , Olfactory Perception , COVID-19
4.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(7): 725-740, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321878

ABSTRACT

Anecdotal evidence suggests that the severity of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is likely to be distinguished by variations in loss of smell (LOS). Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 articles that include a total of 42,120 COVID-19 patients from 17 different countries to demonstrate that severely ill or hospitalized COVID-19 patients have a lesser chance of experiencing LOS than non-severely ill or non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients (odds ratio = 0.527 [95% CI 0.373-0.744; p < 0.001] and 0.283 [95% CI 0.173-0.462; p < 0.001], respectively). We also proposed a possible mechanism underlying the association of COVID-19 severity with anosmia, which may explain why patients without sense of smell develop severe COVID-19. Variations in LOS according to the severity of COVID-19 is a global phenomenon, with few exceptions. Since severely ill patients have a lower rate of anosmia, patients without anosmia should be monitored more closely in the early stages of COVID-19, for early diagnosis of severity of illness. An understanding of how the severity of COVID-19 infection and LOS are associated has profound implications for the clinical management and mitigation strategies for the disease.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Odorants , Olfactory Perception , Smell , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 880, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315615

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a collective scientific effort to study its viral causing agent SARS-CoV-2. Research is focusing in particular on its infection mechanisms and on the associated-disease symptoms. Interestingly, this environmental pathogen directly affects the human chemosensory systems leading to anosmia and ageusia. Evidence for the presence of the cellular entry sites of the virus, the ACE2/TMPRSS2 proteins, has been reported in non-chemosensory cells in the rodent's nose and mouth, missing a direct correlation between the symptoms reported in patients and the observed direct viral infection in human sensory cells. Here, mapping the gene and protein expression of ACE2/TMPRSS2 in the mouse olfactory and gustatory cells, we precisely identify the virus target cells to be of basal and sensory origin and reveal the age-dependent appearance of viral entry-sites. Our results propose an alternative interpretation of the human viral-induced sensory symptoms and give investigative perspectives on animal models.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Age Factors , Ageusia/virology , Animals , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Male , Mice , Olfactory Perception , Taste Perception
6.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 25(6): 419-420, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253683
7.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(6): e625-e626, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052234

ABSTRACT

Many reports by physicians and patients during the 2019 to 2020 pandemic indicate that COVID-19 is associated with elevated levels of odor and taste perception disorders (anosmia, hyposmia, ageusia, and/or dysgeusia). Recent increase in olfactory dysfunction in patients referred to ear nose and throat clinics and COVID-19 infection at the same time encouraged us to examine anosmic/hyposmic patients to establish any association between these signs. It has been shown that the COVID-19 virus exploits the uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor to obtain cell entry. This result increases the interest to examine the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in neurological tissue, and to assess the possible contribution of damage. This mini review provides fundamental knowledge on coincidence of COVID-19 infection and smell-taste perception disorders from an objective perspective.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Taste Disorders/etiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Olfactory Perception , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Perception
8.
Laryngoscope ; 131(5): 1095-1100, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: With the COVID-19 pandemic, chemosensory dysfunction are among the most prevalent symptoms. Most reports are subjective evaluations, which have been suggested to be unreliable. The objective is to test chemosensory dysfunction and recovery based on extensive psychophysical tests in COVID-19 during the course of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 111 patients from four centers participated in the study. All tested positive for SARS-COV-2 with RT-PCR. They were tested within 3 days of diagnosis and 28 to 169 days after infection. Testing included extensive olfactory testing with the Sniffin' Sticks test for threshold, discrimination and identification abilities, and with the Taste Sprays and Taste Strips for gustatory function for quasi-threshold and taste identification abilities. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in olfactory function during and after infection. During infection 21% were anosmic, 49% hyposmic, and 30% normosmic. After infection only 1% were anosmic, 26% hyposmic, and 73% normosmic. For gustatory function, there was a difference for all taste qualities, but significantly in sour, bitter, and total score. Twenty-six percent had gustatory dysfunction during infection and 6.5% had gustatory dysfunction after infection. Combining all tests 22% had combined olfactory and gustatory dysfunction during infection. After infection no patients had combined dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Chemosensory dysfunction is very common in COVID-19, either as isolated smell or taste dysfunction or a combined dysfunction. Most people regain their chemosensory function within the first 28 days, but a quarter of the patients show persisting dysfunction, which should be referred to specialist smell and taste clinics for rehabilitation of chemosensory function. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:1095-1100, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Psychophysics/methods , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/rehabilitation , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Perception/physiology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Taste Disorders/rehabilitation , Taste Disorders/virology , Taste Perception/physiology
9.
Neuroscientist ; 27(6): 582-603, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760471

ABSTRACT

In recent months it has emerged that the novel coronavirus-responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic-causes reduction of smell and taste in a large fraction of patients. The chemosensory deficits are often the earliest, and sometimes the only signs in otherwise asymptomatic carriers of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The reasons for the surprisingly early and specific chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 are now beginning to be elucidated. In this hypothesis review, we discuss implications of the recent finding that the prevalence of smell and taste dysfunction in COVID-19 patients differs between populations, possibly because of differences in the spike protein of different virus strains or because of differences in the host proteins that enable virus entry, thus modifying infectivity. We review recent progress in defining underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the virus-induced anosmia, with a focus on the emerging crucial role of sustentacular cells in the olfactory epithelium. We critically examine the current evidence whether and how the SARS-CoV-2 virus can follow a route from the olfactory epithelium in the nose to the brain to achieve brain infection, and we discuss the prospects for using the smell and taste dysfunctions seen in COVID-19 as an early and rapid diagnostic screening tool.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/complications , Anosmia/virology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Olfactory Perception , Animals , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Smell
11.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 38(2): 69-77, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610528

ABSTRACT

During the initial pandemic wave of COVID-19, apart from common presenting symptoms (cough, fever, and fatigue), many countries have reported a sudden increase in the number of smell and taste dysfunction patients. Smell dysfunction has been reported in other viral infections (parainfluenza, rhinovirus, SARS, and others), but the incidence is much lower than SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathophysiology of post-infectious olfactory loss was hypothesized that viruses may produce an inflammatory reaction of the nasal mucosa or damage the olfactory neuroepithelium directly. However, loss of smell could be presented in COVID-19 patients without other rhinologic symptoms or significant nasal inflammation. This review aims to provide a brief overview of recent evidence for epidemiology, pathological mechanisms for the smell, and taste dysfunction in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Furthermore, prognosis and treatments are reviewed with scanty evidence. We also discuss the possibility of using "smell and taste loss" as a screening tool for COVID-19 and treatment options in the post-SARS-CoV-2 infectious olfactory loss.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Incidence , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfactory Mucosa/drug effects , Olfactory Mucosa/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Olfactory Perception/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Quinoxalines/therapeutic use , Remission, Spontaneous , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Perception/drug effects , Vitamin A/therapeutic use
12.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 34(5): 686-693, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is defined by an association of multiple symptoms, including frequently reported olfactory and gustatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of these neurosensory impairments in patients with Covid-19, and to assess short-term recovery. METHODS: We performed a multicenter case series study during the Covid-19 epidemic. All patients presenting a RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included, whether hospitalized or treated at home. To analyze the prevalence and features of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, a phone interview was conducted 5 days after the positive PCR result. The questionnaire was submitted again 10 days later to patients having reported olfactory and gustatory disorders, in order to assess their recovery. RESULTS: 115 patients were included in our study. 81 patients (70%) reported olfactory and gustatory disorders without nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea. These impairments were more frequently reported in the female population, young people, and house-bound patients with mild symptomatic forms. Short-term recovery assessed at Day 15 was complete for 64% of the patients, and incomplete in 33%. Median recovery time was 15 days (4-27 days) after olfactory or gustatory symptom onset. CONCLUSION: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions related to Covid-19 are frequently reported and prevalent in mild symptomatic forms of the disease. Recovery in most cases seems rapid and complete.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfactory Perception/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Recovery of Function , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Perception/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
13.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(12): 3519-3523, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526632

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 displays a variety of clinical manifestations; in pauci-symptomatic patients olfactory (OD) and gustatory dysfunctions (GD) may represent the first or only symptom. This topic is currently arousing great interest, and a growing number of papers are being published. Aim of this study is to investigate the timing of recovery from OD and GD in a real-life population hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We followed up by a phone interview the first 100 patients discharged a month earlier from three Italian non-intensive care wards. RESULTS: All 100 patients were Caucasian, mean age was 65 years, 60% were males. Forty-two patients (mean age 63 years) experienced subjective chemosensory dysfunctions (29 OD and 41 GD): the male/female ratio was 2:1; 83% reported a complete or near complete recovery at follow-up. The recovery rate was not significantly different between males and females. The mean duration of OD and GD was 18 and 16 days, respectively. The mean recovery time from OD or GD resulted significantly longer for females than for males (26 vs 14 days, P = 0.009). Among the 42 symptomatic, the mean age of males was significantly higher than that of females (66 vs 57 years, P = 0.04), while the opposite was observed in the 58 asymptomatic patients (60 vs 73 years, P = 0.0018). CONCLUSIONS: Recovery from OD or GD was rapid, occurring within 4 weeks in most patients. Chemosensory dysfunctions in women was less frequent, but longer lasting. The value of our study is its focus on a population of hospitalized patients significantly older than those previously described, and the additional data on gender differences.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Perception/physiology , Aged , Ageusia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfactory Perception/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Smell , Symptom Assessment/methods , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
14.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(8): 944-950, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 influenza A virus subtype H1N1 influenza outbreak. The symptoms presently recognized by the World Health Organization are cough, fever, tiredness, and difficulty breathing. Patient-reported smell and taste loss has been associated with COVID-19 infection, yet no empirical olfactory testing on a cohort of COVID-19 patients has been performed. METHODS: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a well-validated 40-odorant test, was administered to 60 confirmed COVID-19 inpatients and 60 age- and sex-matched controls to assess the magnitude and frequency of their olfactory dysfunction. A mixed effects analysis of variance determined whether meaningful differences in test scores existed between the 2 groups and if the test scores were differentially influenced by sex. RESULTS: Fifty-nine (98%) of the 60 patients exhibited some smell dysfunction (mean [95% CI] UPSIT score: 20.98 [19.47, 22.48]; controls: 34.10 [33.31, 34.88]; p < 0.0001). Thirty-five of the 60 patients (58%) were either anosmic (15/60; 25%) or severely microsmic (20/60; 33%); 16 exhibited moderate microsmia (16/60; 27%), 8 mild microsmia (8/60; 13%), and 1 normosmia (1/60; 2%). Deficits were evident for all 40 UPSIT odorants. No meaningful relationships between the test scores and sex, disease severity, or comorbidities were found. CONCLUSION: Quantitative smell testing demonstrates that decreased smell function, but not always anosmia, is a major marker for SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggests the possibility that smell testing may help, in some cases, to identify COVID-19 patients in need of early treatment or quarantine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Olfaction Disorders , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Rhinitis , Sino-Nasal Outcome Test , Sinusitis , Adult , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Differential Threshold , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odorants , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Perception , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Smell
15.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(7): 814-820, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46241

ABSTRACT

Early reports have suggested that smell loss may be an early symptom associated with the pandemic known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The possibility that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might cause olfactory dysfunction is certainly plausible. Patients presenting to specialized smell clinics are commonly diagnosed with upper respiratory infection (URI)-associated olfactory loss and most are presumed to be viral related. In acute phases of infection, it is common to experience some smell loss as a result of nasal inflammation, mucosal edema, and obstruction of airflow into the olfactory cleft. In most cases, these episodes of smell loss are self-limiting and coincide with resolution of URI symptoms. However, in some cases the smell loss persists for months to years and this is presumed to occur through a more direct olfactory insult by the virus. It remains too early to know whether infection with SARS-CoV-2 causes persistent olfactory dysfunction. However, given the scale of this pandemic, if SARS-CoV-2 does cause chronic olfactory loss in even a small portion of those infected, then the overall population prevalence could be quite large. This review provides a brief, practical overview of viral-associated olfactory loss, realizing that evidence related to COVID-19 will likely not be clear for some time. Our goal is to highlight the existence and importance of this condition and provide information geared for both providers and patients. Practical suggestions regarding evaluation and treatment will be provided, realizing that there may be constraints on medical resources and the nature of this pandemic remains dynamic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/rehabilitation , Olfactory Perception/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/physiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL