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Int J Biol Macromol ; 193(Pt B): 1885-1897, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509845


The spike (S) protein is a leading vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The S1 domain of S protein, which contains a critical receptor-binding domain (RBD) antigen, potentially induces protective immunoreactivities against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we presented preclinical evaluations of a novel insect cell-derived SARS-CoV-2 recombinant S1 (rS1) protein as a potent COVID-19 vaccine candidate. The native antigenicity of rS1 was characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD antigen. To improve its immunogenicity, rS1-adjuvanted with fucoidan/trimethylchitosan nanoparticles (FUC-TMC NPs) and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) were investigated using a mouse model. The S1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers, FluoroSpot assay, pseudovirus- and prototype SARS-CoV-2-based neutralization assays were assessed. The results showed that the rS1/CpG/ FUC-TMC NPs (rS1/CpG/NPs) formulation induced a broad-spectrum IgG response with potent, long-lasting, and cross-protective neutralizing activity against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, along with a Th1-biased cellular response. Thus, the rS1/CpG/NPs formulation presents a promising vaccination approach against COVID-19.

Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nanoparticles , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Th1 Cells/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/chemistry , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304664


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main triggers of chronic liver disease. Despite tremendous progress in the HCV field, there is still no vaccine against this virus. Potential vaccines can be based on its recombinant proteins. To increase the humoral and, especially, cellular immune response to them, more effective adjuvants are needed. Here, we evaluated a panel of compounds as potential adjuvants using the HCV NS5B protein as an immunogen. These compounds included inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis and urea cycle, the mTOR pathway, antioxidants, and cellular receptors. A pronounced stimulation of cell proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in response to concanavalin A was shown for antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), and TLR9 agonist CpG ODN 1826 (CpG). Their usage during the immunization of mice with the recombinant NS5B protein significantly increased antibody titers, enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production. NAC and CpG decreased relative Treg numbers; CpG increased the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), whereas neither NAC nor DFMO affected MDSC counts. NAC and DFMO suppressed NO and interleukin 10 (IL-10) production by splenocytes, while DFMO increased the levels of IL-12. This is the first evidence of immunomodulatory activity of NAC and DFMO during prophylactic immunization against infectious diseases.

Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Eflornithine/pharmacology , Hepatitis C/immunology , Immunity, Active/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Female , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred DBA , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/drug effects , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology
Mol Immunol ; 120: 52-60, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2404


Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly infectious and contagious viral disease of chickens caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belonging to the genus Coronavirus and family Coronaviridae. It can affect all age groups of birds. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of innate immune pattern recognition receptors that have a key role in immune response and defense against various infections.The TLRs are essential for initiation of innate immune responses and in the development of adaptive immune responses. An in ovo model was employed to study the antiviral activity of TLR ligands (Pam3CSK4, LPS and CpG ODN) on replication of IBV. It was hypothesized that optimum dose and specific timing of TLR ligands may reduce viral load of IBV in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Further, the mechanism involved in the TLR-mediated antiviral response in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of ECEs was investigated. The ECEs of 9-11 days old were treated with different doses (high, intermediate and low) of TLR-2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR-4 (LPS) and TLR-21 (CpG ODN) ligands. In addition, to know the timing of TLR ligand treatment, six time intervals were analyzed viz. 36, 24 and 12 h prior to infection, time of infection (co-administration of TLR ligands and avian IBV) and 12 and 24 h post-IBV infection. For studying the relative expression of immuno-stimulatory genes (IFN-α, IFN-ß, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, iNOS and OAS) in CAM, TLR ligands were administered through intra-allantoicroute and CAM were collected at 4, 8 and 16 h post treatment. The results demonstrated that intermediate dose of all the three TLR ligands significantly reduced virus titers and used in the present study. However, the LPS reduced virus titer pre- and post-IBV infection but Pam3CSK4 and CpG ODN reduced only pre-IBV infection. Further analysis showed that TLR ligands induced IFN-γ, IL-1ß and IFN stimulated genes viz. iNOS and OAS genes in CAM. The present study pointed towards the novel opportunities for rational design of LPS as immuno-stimulatory agent in chickens with reference to IBV. It may be speculated that in ovo administration of these TLR ligands may enhance resistance against viral infection in neonatal chicken and may contribute towards the development of more effective and safer vaccines including in ovo vaccines.

Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Avian Proteins/agonists , Avian Proteins/immunology , Chick Embryo , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Expression/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Ligands , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/immunology