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1.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 1-6, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734111

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among health care workers (HCWs) is widely reported. Here we report on the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy and the factors associated with it in a sample of non-vaccinated HCWs. Data from 433 not vaccinated medical and non-medical HCWs from various health care facilities after the introduction of COVID-19 vaccination in Oman were analyzed. Most of the participants were nurses (41.5%) followed by physicians (37.5%) and non-medical HCWs (21%). Forty percent of HCWs were willing to uptake the COVID-19 vaccines. Physicians and male HCWs had more positive attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccines than nurses and female HCWs. Concerns about the COVID-19 vaccines including unknown health issues, efficacy and safety were stated by the participants. Our results show a low level of willingness to uptake the COVID-19 vaccines among HCWs, an issue that must be urgently addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 779654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686564

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to study the perceptions of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on behaviors related to diet and food shopping on a sample of 356 adults in Oman. The study is based on the results of an Arabic-language online survey conducted between September 15 and October 10, 2020, using the Survey Monkey platform. The questionnaire had 25 questions (multiple options and one option), subdivided into three parts. Respondents were asked to disseminate the survey to their networks as part of the study's snowball sampling method. Descriptive statistics and various statistical tests (e.g., U-Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square) have been used to evaluate the study results. The study showed a significant shift in the attitude and behavior of respondents regarding food and health. Indeed, the paper findings indicated (i) a shift to healthier diets, as shown by the fact that 45.5% of the participants increased their intake of fruits and vegetables, 42.4% ate more healthy foods, and 53.1% reduced their intake of unhealthy foods; (ii) an increase in the consumption of local products, owing to food safety concerns, with 25.8% of the cohort stating that they purchase more local food items; (iii) a shift in grocery shopping behaviors, especially with 28.1% of the participants buying more groceries online; (iv) the absence of panic buying in Oman, since 62.36% of the participants said they did not stockpile food items; and (v) a reduction of food waste. Indeed, 78.9% of the participants specified they were not wasting more food than average since the beginning of the pandemic, and 74.72% indicated they were more aware of how much food they were wasting. Surprisingly, COVID-19 appears to bring many beneficial adjustments in Oman to make food consumption more sustainable and healthier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Food , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 269-277, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Oman and longitudinal changes in antibody levels over time within the first 11 months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as a four-cycle serosurvey using a multi-stage stratified sampling method from July to November 2020. A questionnaire was used and included demographics, history of acute respiratory infection and list of symptoms, COVID-19 contact, previous diagnosis or admission, travel history and risk factors. RESULTS: In total, 17,457 participants were surveyed. Thirty percent were female and 66.3% were Omani. There was a significant increase in seroprevalence throughout the study cycles, from 5.5% (4.8-6.2%) in Cycle 1 to 22% (19.6-24.6%) in Cycle 4. There was no difference in seroprevalence between genders, but significant differences were found between age groups. There was a transition of seroprevalence from being higher in non-Omanis than Omanis in Cycle 1 [9.1% (7.6-10.9%) vs 3.2% (2.6-3.9%)] to being higher in Omanis than non-Omanis in Cycle 4 [24.3% (21.0-27.9%) vs 16.8% (14.9-18.9%)]. There was remarkable variation in the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 according to governorate. Close contacts of people with COVID-19 had a 96% higher risk of having the disease [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.64-2.34]. Labourers had 58% higher risk of infection compared with office workers (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.35). CONCLUSION: This study showed a wide variation in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 across governorates in Oman, with higher estimated seroprevalence in migrants in the first two cycles. Prevalence estimates remain low and are insufficient to provide herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 770946, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591003

ABSTRACT

Despite the apparent challenges inflicted by COVID-19 globally, the pandemic provided an opportunity to utilize and expand existing public health capacities for a more adaptive and resilient system during and after each wave of the disease. This paper provides a narrative review of Oman's public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic from January 2020 to July 2021, and the challenges it faced for a more rapid and efficient response. The review demonstrates that the three main pillars influencing the direction of the pandemic and aiding the control are Oman's unified governmental leadership, the move to expand the capacity of the health care system at all levels, and community partnership in all stages of the response including the COVID-19 vaccination campaign. The opportunities identified during response stages in the harmonization of the multisectoral response, streamlining communication channels, addressing vulnerable communities (dormitories, residences at border regions), and providing professional technical leadership provide an excellent precursor for expediting the transformation of Oman's health care system to one with a multisectoral holistic approach. Some of the major challenges faced are the shortage of the public health cadre, lack of a fully integrated digital platform for surveillance, and the scarcity of experts in risk communication and community engagement. A future health system where the center for diseases surveillance and control acts as a nucleus for multisectoral expertise and leadership, which includes community representatives, is crucial to attain optimum health. The destruction inflicted by this prolong COVID-19 pandemic at all levels of human life had valued the importance of investing on preventive and preparedness strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Services , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(16): 23407-23418, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527495

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at investigating aircraft noise exposure levels, their annoyance, and potential health effects among communities living within airport catchment areas during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both field measurements and an online survey approach were used to investigate aircraft noise exposure levels, annoyance, and general health effects among residents living near Muscat International Airport (MCT) in Muscat, Oman, amid the COVID-19 period. The study found a drastic decline in aircraft noise levels due to the introduction of COVID-19 intervention measures such as lockdowns, social distancing, and closure of airports. In June 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, average daily aircraft noise levels of LAeq (39.9 dB(A)) and Lmax (49.7 dB(A)) was observed compared to the previous year (April-May 2019) of 58.5 and 76.8 dB(A), indicating aircraft noise reductions level of 32% and 35%, respectively. The results of the online social survey among 187 participants showed that most (58.8%) of the respondents did not feel that the level of noise produced by aircraft causes annoyance. During the day, the vast majority of the interviewees did not complain of any annoyance during the morning (45.5%), afternoon (39.6%), and evening (31%) with only < 4% of residents have reported a very high degree of annoyance of during COVID-19 pandemic period. Very few people (17%) did complain of experiencing general health problems while 29% did not know of any potential health effects that could be attributed to aircraft noise exposures. Aircraft noise annoyance complaints among the As-Seeb residents during the pre-COVID-19 pandemic periods were reported to be extremely high reaching about 84% compared to 41% during this current COVID-19 pandemic period. These findings support the need to develop future sustainable noise mitigation policies in order to help reduce noise exposures and improve human health during post-COVID-19 pandemic periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noise, Transportation , Aircraft , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2563-2570, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of coronavirus infection in cancer patients along with their demographics, laboratory findings and outcomes in a tertiary care setting. METHODS: The study was conducted in Muscat, Oman, from March 24 to October 23, 2020. The data was collected from the cancer registry of the Directorate-General of Non-Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Oman. Data of inpatient coronavirus cases were retrieved from the electronic medical records system of the Royal Hospital, Muscat, all tertiary hospitals linked electronically to the registry and the coronavirus registry of Oman. The data of cancer patients infected with coronavirus was analysed and compared with non-cancer coronavirus-infected patients. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS 2019 v26. RESULTS: Of the 16,260 cancer patients, 77(0.47%) were infected with COVID-19 compared to 111,837(2.17%) in the national population. Mortality among cancer patients with COVID-19 was high 27(35.1%) compared to 1,147(1.03%) in the national population. Cancer patients with COVID-19 also had diabetes 15(20%), hypertension 20(26%), renal complications 15(20%) and cardiac issues 9(12%). Of the total, 32(41.6%) cancer patients with COVID-19 had received active cancer treatment within the preceding 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The data on coronavirus infection outcome is emerging at a rapid pace focussing on the impact of underlying diseases, and the capacity of healthcare systems. Oncologists should customise cancer management, while cancer patients must practise social distancing, and seek prompt evaluation of suspicious symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasms , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Oman/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e62, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the unprecedented spread of the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, primary healthcare workers (PHCWs) are having to shoulder the increasing weight of this ongoing pandemic. AIMS: This study explored the rate and covariates of depressive symptoms among PHCWs in the Muscat governorate. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from 10 May to 10 June 2020 among PHCWs working in all primary healthcares across the Muscat governorate. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors of having at least one underlying physical health condition, a psychiatric history, family history of psychiatric disorders, and direct involvement with COVID-19 positive patients were sought. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was then used to solicit the presence of depressive symptoms. Those with a cutoff point ≥10 were considered as showing depressive symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with depressive symptoms in PHCWs after adjusting for all sociodemographic factors. FINDINGS: A total of 432 (72%) out of 600 PHCWs with an average age of 39.2 years (SD = 7.8 years) ranging between 25.0 and 75.0 years responded to the survey. There were more females (n = 281, 65.3%) than males, and more than 45% (n = 195) of them were physicians. Additionally, more than 78% (n = 338) had been in contact with COVID-19 patients. There was a significant association between different age groups and profession (P < .001), having at least one underlying physical health condition (P = 0.001) and depressive symptom status (P = 0.038). A total of 78 out of the 423 subjects (18.1%) were considered to have depressive symptoms. After adjusting for all factors, the logistic regression model showed that an age of 34 years or below (OR = 2.079, P = 0.021) and having at least one underlying physical health condition (OR = 2.216, P = 0.007) were factors contributing significantly to depressive symptoms among the PHCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman , Pandemics
8.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211051930, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has led to health service modification and temporary disruption of the routine care provided to patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in primary care. This was done to minimize outpatient visits, permit physical distancing, and ensure patients' and healthcare providers safety. There is no evidence that explored or measured the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes services and patients' glycemic outcome in Oman. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the accessibility of DM services in primary care after COVID-19 pandemic announcement, and measure patients' glycemic outcome. METHODS: Before and after, retrospective cohort study using Al-Shifa healthcare database in primary care. One thousand adult patients with diabetes who attended DM clinic before pandemic announcement in 2019 were randomly selected and followed up until end of 2020. Patients aged ≥18 years and had at least 2 visits in 2019 were included. Access to DM services was identified by number of patients received care, frequency of consultations, mode of consultation, and type of intervention given to patients. Patients' glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and other glycemic parameters after pandemic announcement in 2020 were determined and compared with the same parameters before pandemic in 2019. Association between patients' HbA1c and mode of consultation was measured using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 937 patients continued to follow and received DM care after pandemic announcement. Median number of consultations was 2 with interquartile range (IQR): 3-2. 57.4% had face-to-face alone, 32.4% had combined face to face and telephone consultation, and 10% had telephone consultation alone. Mean difference in HbA1c (%) before and after pandemic announcement was 0.2 ± 1.4 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.3), P = .002. With multivariable linear regression, the mean difference in HbA1c was -0.3 (-2.3 to 1.5), P = .734 for telephone consultation alone, -0.5 (-2.4 to 1.4), P = .613 for face-to-face alone, and -0.5 (-2.4 to 1.3), P = .636 for combined consultations, compared to those who did not receive any formal consultation. CONCLUSION: Despite service modification and disruption of comprehensive care in primary care after COVID-19 pandemic announcement, DM services were accessible as majority of patients maintained follow up. There was an overall increase in mean glycated hemoglobin, however, it was a less than 1 unit increase. After adjusting for multivariable, glycated hemoglobin was reduced among those who received consultation including telephone consultation compared to those who did not, however evidence was unconvincing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adolescent , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Oman , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1578-1584, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persistence among HCWs and specifically among asymptomatic HCWs. A secondary objective is to determine the duration of persistent SARS-CoV-2 antibodies post infection and factors affecting this duration. The findings are expected to open the door for further research into the role of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: HCWs were divided into high, intermediate, and low risk based on their type and location of work. All participants filled a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained for SARS-CoV-2 IgG/total antibodies. A documented SARS-CoV-2 PCR or Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/total antibodies defined the primary outcome. The probability of persistence of antibody was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Logistic and Cox regression were used where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1111 HCWs were included. The median age 37 years (IQR: 31-43). More than half (67.2%) were females. The primary outcome was seen in 373 (33.6%) participants with a median age of 36 years (IQR: 29-41). Only 37.2% of those with documented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR had reactive serology, while only 16.2% of those with reactive serology had documented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Male gender (OR 0.44, P < 0.001) and older age (OR 0.98, P < 0.019) were associated with a lower risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. The probability of persistent SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at six months was 60.2% (95% CI: 49.5%-73.1%). Omanis had a higher probability of losing the antibody than others (HR 2.63, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: We report a high prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among HCWs in Oman, specifically among asymptomatic HCWs. Community was the most likely source of infection. Therefore, the society must adhere to the roles and regulations set to reduce the risk of transmission. We demonstrate a high percentage of seroconversion post initial infection, and the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at six months in more than half of those previously infected. We demonstrated a new interesting finding of fast decline of SARS-CoV2 antibody levels over time among different nationalities and this requires further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1590-1594, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Oman, many extended families tend to live in one household. Some families can include 20-30 individuals with the majority of them being children. This study investigates the role of children in spreading SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 within family clusters in Oman. METHODS: This retrospective study includes data of 1026 SARS-CoV-2 positive children (≤18 years) collected from the national surveillance database for COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 30 May 2020. RESULTS: We included 1026 patients. Most, 842 were Omani (82%), 52% male, and 28.5% asymptomatic. Close to the half of symptomatic 419 (40%), patients presented with fever associated with other respiratory symptoms. Fifty pediatric patients were index cases who transmitted the virus to 107 patients in total (86 adults and 21 children) with a mode of 1. There is no statistical significance of all studied risk factors in the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus including age, gender, and cycle threshold (CT) value. CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, children are not to be considered a significant driver of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Oman.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 2, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449273

ABSTRACT

In response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, numerous commercial assays have been developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 for use in the clinical diagnostic laboratories. To date, there is limited comparison of testing methods performed in different hospital laboratory sites. The aims of the study were to evaluate the analytical performance of Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 when compared to RT-PCR. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 155 nasopharyngeal swabs were taken in duplicate from patients presenting with suspected COVID-19 to 8 hospitals in Oman. One swab was tested by the hospital laboratory and the duplicate swab was sent to the national Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) for testing. We compared the analytical performance of the commercially available point of care Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay which was used in the 8 different hospitals with assays including Liferiver, Sansure, TIB MOL BIOL, Kingfisher and COBAS 6800 by Roche which were performed at the CPHL. Testing of the duplicate swabs revealed excellent agreement of results with the viral loads of Ct values ranging from 16-43 for the E gene, 18-44 for the N gene and 17-44 for the ORF gene using the Liferiver assay. The overall sample sensitivity and specificity of the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay were both 100% and there was 100% agreement across specimens. We conclude that the rapid GeneXpert and RT-PCR kits assessed in this study may be used for routine diagnostic testing of COVID-19 patients by experienced clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. Our results highlight the importance of rapid molecular testing at different sites within a country in a public health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Oman , Point-of-Care Testing , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
12.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(4): 326-337, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of the first 69,382 patients with COVID-19 infection in Oman. METHODS: A retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Oman from 24 February to 23 July 2020. The data were obtained from the National surveillance COVID-19 network. RESULTS: The overall mean age of patients was 34 (± 14) years, 74% (n = 51,391) were males, 40,859 (59%) were Omani citizens, and 28,523 (41%) were foreign-born individuals. The most common symptoms at presentation were fever 50% (n = 34,600), cough 46% (n = 32,062), sore throat 46% (n = 31,953) and shortness of breath (SOB) 35% (n = 24,567). Overall, 8,960 (12.9%) patients required hospitalization with 1189 (13.3%) individuals requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and mechanical ventilation (MV). Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection were mostly Omani nationals and males between 30 and 39 years old (p < 0.001). The mortality rate was 7.7 per 100,000 population (n = 359) with rates of 9.4 (n = 278) and 4.8 (n = 81) deaths per 100,000 population in Omani nationals and foreign-born individuals, respectively. Females hospitalized with COVID-19 had a mean age of 64 (± 18) years versus a mean age of 55 (± 17) years in males. Mean age of patients with COVID-19-related mortality was 58 (± 18) years with significant differences in mean age between females and males 64 (± 18) versus 55 (± 17) years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Young Omani males accounted for the highest incidence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, while mortality rates were higher among males and the older age (> 50 years). Identifying the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19-infected patients is essential for developing targeted intervention strategies and preparing for the resurgence of anticipated second and third waves of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(7): e975-e978, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, WHO announced Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic. During this pandemic, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have been placed in the "high-risk" category of the population. Although there are numerous publications describing COVID-19 in adult patients, pediatric data are still limited. OBSERVATION: Herein, we report case series of 5 sickle cell disease Omani children who got infected with COVID-19; illustrating their different ways of presentation, management and highlighting the outcomes. CONCLUSION: Although SCD patients are considered as a high-risk group, all of the observed patients, and whose cases are reported here, have recovered. A large scale of SCD cases should be studied to reach more conclusive results.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/virology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology
14.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 27(6): e12998, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345964

ABSTRACT

AIM: Despite the much heralded epidemic of adjustment difficulties, health-care workers (HCW), who are likely to be at risk and impacted with mental health issues, have received scant attention. This study aimed to determine whether definable profiles exist in a cohort of HCWs associated with demographic and mental health problems. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Oman. Demographic and mental health data were collected from 8 to 17 April 2020. A total of 1132 participants returned their completed questionnaire. A two-step cluster analysis was used to split the sample into three clusters. RESULTS: Cluster A (n = 416) was from HCW in non-frontline roles, and constituted "low-risk and least-impacted". Cluster B (n = 412) and Cluster C (n = 304) were from frontline HCW and constituted 'high-risk and moderate-impacted' and 'high-risk and high-impacted' groups, respectively. HCWs in Cluster C reported more depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), stress (P < 0.001) and clinical insomnia (P < 0.001) compared with those in the other clusters. HCWs in Cluster C were at the highest risk for mental health problems during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Early psychological interventions targeting this vulnerable group may be beneficial. Management should develop different tailor-made strategic plans to address different mental health needs for each profile group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Health Personnel , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e302-e307, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296286

ABSTRACT

On 27 April 2020, the National Health Service England issued an emergency alert for a new condition owing to the observation of an increasing number of cases of a COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Some of the presenting symptoms appeared similar to the Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome. We report the cases of six children fitting the criteria of MIS-C, admitted to Royal Hospital and Sohar Hospital, Oman, between the months of June and July in 2020. Four of these patients required admission at the paediatric intensive care unit for inotropic support while two were admitted to the paediatric ward on suspicion of appendicitis. MIS-C has been reported in a small number of individuals below the age of 21 years with a median age of 9-10 years. Five of the current patients were aged less than the median age reported in the existing literature. All of the patients showed complete recovery with supportive management, intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids, with one patient requiring interleukin-6 inhibitor (tocilizumab).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Shock, Septic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Oman , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
17.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e195-e202, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe COVID-19's epidemiological characteristics in Oman during the initial stages of the outbreak and compare findings with other countries' reports. METHODS: Data were drawn from a descriptive, records-based review of reported cases of COVID-19 collected through the national COVID-19 Surveillance System from February to April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 2,443 confirmed cases were reported during the study period. The overall first-time testing rate for this period was 851.7 per 100,000, the positivity rate was 53.1 (confidence intervals [CI]: 51.0-55.2) and the death rate was 0.32 (CI: 0.20-0.54) per 100,000 population, respectively. The overall national positive ratio was 5.7% and ranged from 2.2-7.1% across various governorates. Muscat Governorate had the highest positive ratio (12.5%). People in the 51-60 year old age group (RR = 1.97), males (RR = 1.24), non-Omanis (RR = 2.33) and those living in Muscat (RR = 2.14) emerged as categories with significant demographic risk for COVID-19 cases when compared to the national average. The mean age was 35.6 ± 13.4. Asymptomatic cases accounted for nearly 16%. CONCLUSION: The overall rate of COVID-19 cases and deaths were low in Oman compared to the rest of the world during the study period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Oman/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e191-e194, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296284

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has gripped the world with lightning speed. Since the onset of the pandemic, activity throughout the world came to a grinding halt. However, business had to continue and people have to learn to live with the virus while the pandemic continues to rage. Medical education is no exception and may even deserve special mention, as it prepares frontline workers against the endemics of tomorrow. We discuss here the journey of medical education at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, as the pandemic struck the world and Oman. This work suggests a roadmap for changes, discusses challenges and proposes measures to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on medical schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curriculum , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/trends , Schools, Medical , Artificial Intelligence , Computer Simulation , Humans , Internship and Residency , Oman , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Schools, Medical/trends
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11984, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260947

ABSTRACT

The present novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection has engendered a worldwide crisis on an enormous scale within a very short period. The effective solution for this pandemic is to recognize the nature and spread of the disease so that appropriate policies can be framed. Mathematical modelling is always at the forefront to understand and provide an adequate description of the transmission of any disease. In this research work, we have formulated a deterministic compartmental model (SEAMHCRD) including various stages of infection, such as Mild, Moderate, Severe and Critical to study the spreading of COVID-19 and estimated the model parameters by fitting the model with the reported data of ongoing pandemic in Oman. The steady-state, stability and final pandemic size of the model has been proved mathematically. The various transmission as well as transition parameters are estimated during the period from June 4th to July 30th, 2020. Based on the currently estimated parameters, the pandemic size is also predicted for another 100 days. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the key model parameters, and the parameter gamma due to contact with the symptomatic moderately infected is found to be more significant in spreading the disease. Accordingly, the corresponding basic reproduction number has also been computed using the Next Generation Matrix (NGM) method. As the value of the basic reproduction number (R0) is 0.9761 during the period from June 4th to July 30th, 2020, the disease-free equilibrium is stable. Isolation and tracing the contact of infected individuals are recommended to control the spread of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Basic Reproduction Number , Humans , Oman , Quarantine
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