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1.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(11): e15820, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029317

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) a global pandemic. This has led to the rapid development and emergency approval of vaccines to overcome the alarming spread of the virus. Data on the cutaneous side effects related to the COVID-19 vaccine remains limited. In this prospective observational study, which was conducted from June 20 to September 20, 2021, we evaluated the incidence and various patterns of cutaneous side effects reported post COVID-19 vaccination in Al Buraimi Governorate in Oman. All vaccinated individuals aged 12 years and older, who had a skin reaction within 4 weeks following any dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, were enrolled in the study. The demographic data, medical history, vaccine-related information of all the patients were documented and the analysis was performed using the SPSS version 23 software. In total, 67 cutaneous reactions were reported by 55 patients accounting for 0.11% of all vaccinated individuals. The mean age of the patients was 33.3 years, 80.6% were females, 61.2% of the reactions were reported after the first vaccine dose, and 38.8% were reported after the second dose. We observed a wide range of cutaneous reactions and categorized them into three major patterns: local injection site reaction (2%), new onset rash (81.6%), and flare up of pre-existing dermatological conditions (16.4%). Notably, urticaria was the most common reaction overall, followed by generalized pruritus and maculopapular rash. In general, we reported a diversity of cutaneous side effects that healthcare workers should be aware of as some reactions may be overlooked and not linked to the COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Exanthema , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Exanthema/chemically induced , Exanthema/epidemiology , Oman/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Prospective Studies
2.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604474, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023035

ABSTRACT

Objective: Studies from the past decades have shown that mood disorders are common during childhood and adolescence. This study aimed to estimate the point prevalence of depression in Omani children and adolescents during social distancing and lockdown and identify the risk factors for developing depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in May 2020, in which all young Omani people attending a mainstream school aged 8-18 years old were eligible to participate. Parents were asked to complete the online survey, which consisted of the parent version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-Parent). In addition, the option of a self-reported version (MFQ-Self) was provided in cases where children preferred to fill out the survey themselves. Logistic regression was used to identify the contributing socio-demographic variables associated with depressive symptoms. Results: A total of 445 participants completed the MFQ, out of which 72.1% were parents, and 27.9% were children, adolescents and young people. 13.9% of children and adolescents exhibited depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in Oman. The presence of depressive symptoms was associated with increased food intake (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.00-3.29, p-value <0.05), longer use of smartphones (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.56-4.73, p-value <0.001), whereas additional entertainment activities during lockdown were protective against depression (OR 0.35 95% CI 0.19-0.64, p-value <0.001). Conclusion: This study from Oman concurs with recent reports of depression being common during the COVID-19 pandemic. Concerted efforts are needed to mitigate this trend and identify high-risk groups during the lockdown period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents , Prevalence
3.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269204, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Environmental factors can influence the epidemiological dynamics of COVID-19. To estimate the true impact of these factors on COVID-19, climate and disease data should be monitored and analyzed over an extended period of time. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are particularly lacking in such studies. This ecological study investigates the association between climate parameters and COVID-19 cases and deaths in the GCC. METHODS: Data on temperature, wind-speed and humidity and COVID-19 cases and deaths from the six countries of the GCC were collected between 29/1/2020 and 30/3/2021. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, we examined associations between climate parameters and COVID-19 cases and deaths by month, over four different time periods. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted to identify distinct clusters of data using climate parameters and linear regression analysis to determine which climate parameters predicted COVID-19 new cases and deaths. RESULTS: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) had the highest cumulative number of COVID-19 cases while Bahrain had the highest prevalence rate per 100,000. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) reported the highest cumulative number of deaths while Oman recorded the highest death rate per 100,000. All GCC countries, except the UAE, reported a positive correlation between temperature and cases and deaths. Wind speed was positively correlated with cases in Qatar, but negatively correlated with cases in the UAE and deaths in KSA. Humidity was positively correlated with cases and deaths in Oman, negatively correlated in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and KSA but there was no correlation in the UAE. The most significant predictors in cluster analysis were temperature and humidity, while in the regression analysis, temperature, humidity and wind speed predicted new COVID-19 cases and deaths. CONCLUSION: This study provides comprehensive epidemiological information on COVID-19 and climate parameters and preliminary evidence that climate may play a key role in the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. This study will assist decision makers in translating findings into specific guidelines and policies for the prevention and elimination of COVID-19 transmission and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate , Humans , Humidity , Incidence , Kuwait/epidemiology , Oman/epidemiology , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 3)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909733

ABSTRACT

In April 2020, the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Oman, a high-income country in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), implemented a robust contact tracing (CT) system for COVID-19. To capitalise on Oman's experience, EMRO has developed a case study presenting the methodology used to conduct the CT activities, main functions of the system, challenges encountered, lessons learnt, and the way forward. To develop the case study, a key informant interview was conducted virtually with the CT focal point in the MoH, using a semistructured questionnaire adapted from the WHO questionnaire for the assessment of CT activities. The Oman MoH launched a CT system based on three complementary digital tools: Tarassud plus, Medical Scout and HMushrif applications. Oman's CT strategy classifies contacts into close and casual contacts. Only close contacts are listed using the Tarassud plus application, while casual contacts are requested to self-monitor for 14 days using the other two applications. With the evolution of the outbreak, Oman MoH implemented stricter policies and prioritised the follow-up of close contacts to keep the CT activity manageable. Community health workers and volunteers facilitated the CT activities through sensitisation of the local community to the follow-up process and reducing the COVID-19-associated stigma. Challenges encountered revolved around contact data management, given the offline in-operability of the applications, and lack of national risk communication guidelines to address community concerns and widespread rumours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Oman/epidemiology
5.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 28(4): 239-244, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of coronavirus infection disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic on ophthalmic referrals within an academic tertiary center in Oman. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of internal referrals received and evaluated by the ophthalmology department between March 1and August 31, 2020 (COVID-19 period) compared to a corresponding period in 2019 (pre COVID-19). Data included patient demographics, referral details, ocular diagnosis, intervention, and discharge plan. RESULTS: Referral volume significantly decreased by 58.2%; from 2019 prepandemic to 510 (P = 0.001), with the lowest in April and May 2020. Patient demographics did not differ significantly, but "urgent" referrals reduced by 96.2% (P < 0.001). Main reasons for referrals were reduced vision and screening in both periods. During pandemic, referrals for screening purposes increased from 30.3% to 37.9% (P = 0.013) and for reduced vision decreased from 30% to 23.3% (P = 0.021). Dry eye syndrome increased in frequency during 2020 (from 2.9% to 7.3%, P = 0.002) but cataracts and conjunctivitis both decreased (from 4.7% to 2.1%, P = 0.046 and from 2.3% to 0.3%, P = 0.013, respectively). Ocular trauma remained stable (from 0.8% to 0.3%, P = 0.456), but the proportion of chemical injuries increased by 13.7% (P = 0.025). There was a drastic decrease in interventions from 37% to 26.1% (P < 0.001) and an increase in discharge rate from 61.2% to 75.8% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ophthalmic referrals within a tertiary academic centre in oman referral reductions and changes in pattern and characteristics as an epiphenomenon of COVID-19 reflect the extent of impact specifically in an Omani context. This information is vital for planning proper resource utilization, the adoption of innovative care delivery, and improving referral system pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vision, Low , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 1-6, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734111

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among health care workers (HCWs) is widely reported. Here we report on the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy and the factors associated with it in a sample of non-vaccinated HCWs. Data from 433 not vaccinated medical and non-medical HCWs from various health care facilities after the introduction of COVID-19 vaccination in Oman were analyzed. Most of the participants were nurses (41.5%) followed by physicians (37.5%) and non-medical HCWs (21%). Forty percent of HCWs were willing to uptake the COVID-19 vaccines. Physicians and male HCWs had more positive attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccines than nurses and female HCWs. Concerns about the COVID-19 vaccines including unknown health issues, efficacy and safety were stated by the participants. Our results show a low level of willingness to uptake the COVID-19 vaccines among HCWs, an issue that must be urgently addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 779654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686564

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to study the perceptions of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on behaviors related to diet and food shopping on a sample of 356 adults in Oman. The study is based on the results of an Arabic-language online survey conducted between September 15 and October 10, 2020, using the Survey Monkey platform. The questionnaire had 25 questions (multiple options and one option), subdivided into three parts. Respondents were asked to disseminate the survey to their networks as part of the study's snowball sampling method. Descriptive statistics and various statistical tests (e.g., U-Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square) have been used to evaluate the study results. The study showed a significant shift in the attitude and behavior of respondents regarding food and health. Indeed, the paper findings indicated (i) a shift to healthier diets, as shown by the fact that 45.5% of the participants increased their intake of fruits and vegetables, 42.4% ate more healthy foods, and 53.1% reduced their intake of unhealthy foods; (ii) an increase in the consumption of local products, owing to food safety concerns, with 25.8% of the cohort stating that they purchase more local food items; (iii) a shift in grocery shopping behaviors, especially with 28.1% of the participants buying more groceries online; (iv) the absence of panic buying in Oman, since 62.36% of the participants said they did not stockpile food items; and (v) a reduction of food waste. Indeed, 78.9% of the participants specified they were not wasting more food than average since the beginning of the pandemic, and 74.72% indicated they were more aware of how much food they were wasting. Surprisingly, COVID-19 appears to bring many beneficial adjustments in Oman to make food consumption more sustainable and healthier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Food , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 269-277, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Oman and longitudinal changes in antibody levels over time within the first 11 months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as a four-cycle serosurvey using a multi-stage stratified sampling method from July to November 2020. A questionnaire was used and included demographics, history of acute respiratory infection and list of symptoms, COVID-19 contact, previous diagnosis or admission, travel history and risk factors. RESULTS: In total, 17,457 participants were surveyed. Thirty percent were female and 66.3% were Omani. There was a significant increase in seroprevalence throughout the study cycles, from 5.5% (4.8-6.2%) in Cycle 1 to 22% (19.6-24.6%) in Cycle 4. There was no difference in seroprevalence between genders, but significant differences were found between age groups. There was a transition of seroprevalence from being higher in non-Omanis than Omanis in Cycle 1 [9.1% (7.6-10.9%) vs 3.2% (2.6-3.9%)] to being higher in Omanis than non-Omanis in Cycle 4 [24.3% (21.0-27.9%) vs 16.8% (14.9-18.9%)]. There was remarkable variation in the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 according to governorate. Close contacts of people with COVID-19 had a 96% higher risk of having the disease [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.64-2.34]. Labourers had 58% higher risk of infection compared with office workers (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.35). CONCLUSION: This study showed a wide variation in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 across governorates in Oman, with higher estimated seroprevalence in migrants in the first two cycles. Prevalence estimates remain low and are insufficient to provide herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 770946, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591003

ABSTRACT

Despite the apparent challenges inflicted by COVID-19 globally, the pandemic provided an opportunity to utilize and expand existing public health capacities for a more adaptive and resilient system during and after each wave of the disease. This paper provides a narrative review of Oman's public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic from January 2020 to July 2021, and the challenges it faced for a more rapid and efficient response. The review demonstrates that the three main pillars influencing the direction of the pandemic and aiding the control are Oman's unified governmental leadership, the move to expand the capacity of the health care system at all levels, and community partnership in all stages of the response including the COVID-19 vaccination campaign. The opportunities identified during response stages in the harmonization of the multisectoral response, streamlining communication channels, addressing vulnerable communities (dormitories, residences at border regions), and providing professional technical leadership provide an excellent precursor for expediting the transformation of Oman's health care system to one with a multisectoral holistic approach. Some of the major challenges faced are the shortage of the public health cadre, lack of a fully integrated digital platform for surveillance, and the scarcity of experts in risk communication and community engagement. A future health system where the center for diseases surveillance and control acts as a nucleus for multisectoral expertise and leadership, which includes community representatives, is crucial to attain optimum health. The destruction inflicted by this prolong COVID-19 pandemic at all levels of human life had valued the importance of investing on preventive and preparedness strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Services , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(16): 23407-23418, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527495

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at investigating aircraft noise exposure levels, their annoyance, and potential health effects among communities living within airport catchment areas during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both field measurements and an online survey approach were used to investigate aircraft noise exposure levels, annoyance, and general health effects among residents living near Muscat International Airport (MCT) in Muscat, Oman, amid the COVID-19 period. The study found a drastic decline in aircraft noise levels due to the introduction of COVID-19 intervention measures such as lockdowns, social distancing, and closure of airports. In June 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, average daily aircraft noise levels of LAeq (39.9 dB(A)) and Lmax (49.7 dB(A)) was observed compared to the previous year (April-May 2019) of 58.5 and 76.8 dB(A), indicating aircraft noise reductions level of 32% and 35%, respectively. The results of the online social survey among 187 participants showed that most (58.8%) of the respondents did not feel that the level of noise produced by aircraft causes annoyance. During the day, the vast majority of the interviewees did not complain of any annoyance during the morning (45.5%), afternoon (39.6%), and evening (31%) with only < 4% of residents have reported a very high degree of annoyance of during COVID-19 pandemic period. Very few people (17%) did complain of experiencing general health problems while 29% did not know of any potential health effects that could be attributed to aircraft noise exposures. Aircraft noise annoyance complaints among the As-Seeb residents during the pre-COVID-19 pandemic periods were reported to be extremely high reaching about 84% compared to 41% during this current COVID-19 pandemic period. These findings support the need to develop future sustainable noise mitigation policies in order to help reduce noise exposures and improve human health during post-COVID-19 pandemic periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noise, Transportation , Aircraft , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2563-2570, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of coronavirus infection in cancer patients along with their demographics, laboratory findings and outcomes in a tertiary care setting. METHODS: The study was conducted in Muscat, Oman, from March 24 to October 23, 2020. The data was collected from the cancer registry of the Directorate-General of Non-Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Oman. Data of inpatient coronavirus cases were retrieved from the electronic medical records system of the Royal Hospital, Muscat, all tertiary hospitals linked electronically to the registry and the coronavirus registry of Oman. The data of cancer patients infected with coronavirus was analysed and compared with non-cancer coronavirus-infected patients. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS 2019 v26. RESULTS: Of the 16,260 cancer patients, 77(0.47%) were infected with COVID-19 compared to 111,837(2.17%) in the national population. Mortality among cancer patients with COVID-19 was high 27(35.1%) compared to 1,147(1.03%) in the national population. Cancer patients with COVID-19 also had diabetes 15(20%), hypertension 20(26%), renal complications 15(20%) and cardiac issues 9(12%). Of the total, 32(41.6%) cancer patients with COVID-19 had received active cancer treatment within the preceding 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The data on coronavirus infection outcome is emerging at a rapid pace focussing on the impact of underlying diseases, and the capacity of healthcare systems. Oncologists should customise cancer management, while cancer patients must practise social distancing, and seek prompt evaluation of suspicious symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasms , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Oman/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1578-1584, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persistence among HCWs and specifically among asymptomatic HCWs. A secondary objective is to determine the duration of persistent SARS-CoV-2 antibodies post infection and factors affecting this duration. The findings are expected to open the door for further research into the role of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: HCWs were divided into high, intermediate, and low risk based on their type and location of work. All participants filled a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained for SARS-CoV-2 IgG/total antibodies. A documented SARS-CoV-2 PCR or Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/total antibodies defined the primary outcome. The probability of persistence of antibody was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Logistic and Cox regression were used where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1111 HCWs were included. The median age 37 years (IQR: 31-43). More than half (67.2%) were females. The primary outcome was seen in 373 (33.6%) participants with a median age of 36 years (IQR: 29-41). Only 37.2% of those with documented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR had reactive serology, while only 16.2% of those with reactive serology had documented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Male gender (OR 0.44, P < 0.001) and older age (OR 0.98, P < 0.019) were associated with a lower risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. The probability of persistent SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at six months was 60.2% (95% CI: 49.5%-73.1%). Omanis had a higher probability of losing the antibody than others (HR 2.63, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: We report a high prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among HCWs in Oman, specifically among asymptomatic HCWs. Community was the most likely source of infection. Therefore, the society must adhere to the roles and regulations set to reduce the risk of transmission. We demonstrate a high percentage of seroconversion post initial infection, and the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at six months in more than half of those previously infected. We demonstrated a new interesting finding of fast decline of SARS-CoV2 antibody levels over time among different nationalities and this requires further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1590-1594, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Oman, many extended families tend to live in one household. Some families can include 20-30 individuals with the majority of them being children. This study investigates the role of children in spreading SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 within family clusters in Oman. METHODS: This retrospective study includes data of 1026 SARS-CoV-2 positive children (≤18 years) collected from the national surveillance database for COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 30 May 2020. RESULTS: We included 1026 patients. Most, 842 were Omani (82%), 52% male, and 28.5% asymptomatic. Close to the half of symptomatic 419 (40%), patients presented with fever associated with other respiratory symptoms. Fifty pediatric patients were index cases who transmitted the virus to 107 patients in total (86 adults and 21 children) with a mode of 1. There is no statistical significance of all studied risk factors in the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus including age, gender, and cycle threshold (CT) value. CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, children are not to be considered a significant driver of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Oman.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(4): 326-337, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of the first 69,382 patients with COVID-19 infection in Oman. METHODS: A retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Oman from 24 February to 23 July 2020. The data were obtained from the National surveillance COVID-19 network. RESULTS: The overall mean age of patients was 34 (± 14) years, 74% (n = 51,391) were males, 40,859 (59%) were Omani citizens, and 28,523 (41%) were foreign-born individuals. The most common symptoms at presentation were fever 50% (n = 34,600), cough 46% (n = 32,062), sore throat 46% (n = 31,953) and shortness of breath (SOB) 35% (n = 24,567). Overall, 8,960 (12.9%) patients required hospitalization with 1189 (13.3%) individuals requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and mechanical ventilation (MV). Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection were mostly Omani nationals and males between 30 and 39 years old (p < 0.001). The mortality rate was 7.7 per 100,000 population (n = 359) with rates of 9.4 (n = 278) and 4.8 (n = 81) deaths per 100,000 population in Omani nationals and foreign-born individuals, respectively. Females hospitalized with COVID-19 had a mean age of 64 (± 18) years versus a mean age of 55 (± 17) years in males. Mean age of patients with COVID-19-related mortality was 58 (± 18) years with significant differences in mean age between females and males 64 (± 18) versus 55 (± 17) years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Young Omani males accounted for the highest incidence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, while mortality rates were higher among males and the older age (> 50 years). Identifying the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19-infected patients is essential for developing targeted intervention strategies and preparing for the resurgence of anticipated second and third waves of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(7): e975-e978, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, WHO announced Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic. During this pandemic, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have been placed in the "high-risk" category of the population. Although there are numerous publications describing COVID-19 in adult patients, pediatric data are still limited. OBSERVATION: Herein, we report case series of 5 sickle cell disease Omani children who got infected with COVID-19; illustrating their different ways of presentation, management and highlighting the outcomes. CONCLUSION: Although SCD patients are considered as a high-risk group, all of the observed patients, and whose cases are reported here, have recovered. A large scale of SCD cases should be studied to reach more conclusive results.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/virology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology
16.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 27(6): e12998, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345964

ABSTRACT

AIM: Despite the much heralded epidemic of adjustment difficulties, health-care workers (HCW), who are likely to be at risk and impacted with mental health issues, have received scant attention. This study aimed to determine whether definable profiles exist in a cohort of HCWs associated with demographic and mental health problems. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Oman. Demographic and mental health data were collected from 8 to 17 April 2020. A total of 1132 participants returned their completed questionnaire. A two-step cluster analysis was used to split the sample into three clusters. RESULTS: Cluster A (n = 416) was from HCW in non-frontline roles, and constituted "low-risk and least-impacted". Cluster B (n = 412) and Cluster C (n = 304) were from frontline HCW and constituted 'high-risk and moderate-impacted' and 'high-risk and high-impacted' groups, respectively. HCWs in Cluster C reported more depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), stress (P < 0.001) and clinical insomnia (P < 0.001) compared with those in the other clusters. HCWs in Cluster C were at the highest risk for mental health problems during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Early psychological interventions targeting this vulnerable group may be beneficial. Management should develop different tailor-made strategic plans to address different mental health needs for each profile group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Health Personnel , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e195-e202, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe COVID-19's epidemiological characteristics in Oman during the initial stages of the outbreak and compare findings with other countries' reports. METHODS: Data were drawn from a descriptive, records-based review of reported cases of COVID-19 collected through the national COVID-19 Surveillance System from February to April 2020. RESULTS: A total of 2,443 confirmed cases were reported during the study period. The overall first-time testing rate for this period was 851.7 per 100,000, the positivity rate was 53.1 (confidence intervals [CI]: 51.0-55.2) and the death rate was 0.32 (CI: 0.20-0.54) per 100,000 population, respectively. The overall national positive ratio was 5.7% and ranged from 2.2-7.1% across various governorates. Muscat Governorate had the highest positive ratio (12.5%). People in the 51-60 year old age group (RR = 1.97), males (RR = 1.24), non-Omanis (RR = 2.33) and those living in Muscat (RR = 2.14) emerged as categories with significant demographic risk for COVID-19 cases when compared to the national average. The mean age was 35.6 ± 13.4. Asymptomatic cases accounted for nearly 16%. CONCLUSION: The overall rate of COVID-19 cases and deaths were low in Oman compared to the rest of the world during the study period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Oman/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Geospat Health ; 16(1)2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232619

ABSTRACT

Local, bivariate relationships between coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection rates and a set of demographic and socioeconomic variables were explored at the district level in Oman. To limit multicollinearity a principal component analysis was conducted, the results of which showed that three components together could explain 65% of the total variance that were therefore subjected to further study. Comparison of a generalized linear model (GLM) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) indicated an improvement in model performance using GWR (goodness of fit=93%) compared to GLM (goodness of fit=86%). The local coefficient of determination (R2) showed a significant influence of specific demographic and socioeconomic factors on COVID-19, including percentages of Omani and non-Omani population at various age levels; spatial interaction; population density; number of hospital beds; total number of households; purchasing power; and purchasing power per km2. No direct correlation between COVID- 19 rates and health facilities distribution or tobacco usage. This study suggests that Poisson regression using GWR and GLM can address unobserved spatial non-stationary relationships. Findings of this study can promote current understanding of the demographic and socioeconomic variables impacting the spatial patterns of COVID-19 in Oman, allowing local and national authorities to adopt more appropriate strategies to cope with this pandemic in the future and also to allocate more effective prevention resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e044102, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To generate cross-national forecasts of COVID-19 trajectories and quantify the associated impact on essential critical care resources for disease management in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. DESIGN: Population-level aggregate analysis. SETTING: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We applied an extended time-dependent SEICRD compartmental model to predict the flow of people between six states, susceptible-exposed-infected-critical-recovery-death, accounting for community mitigation strategies and the latent period between exposure and infected and contagious states. Then, we used the WHO Adaptt Surge Planning Tool to predict intensive care unit (ICU) and human resources capacity based on predicted daily active and cumulative infections from the SEICRD model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predicted COVID-19 infections, deaths, and ICU and human resources capacity for disease management. RESULTS: COVID-19 infections vary daily from 498 per million in Bahrain to over 300 per million in UAE and Qatar, to 9 per million in Saudi Arabia. The cumulative number of deaths varies from 302 per million in Oman to 89 in Qatar. UAE attained its first peak as early as 21 April 2020, whereas Oman had its peak on 29 August 2020. In absolute terms, Saudi Arabia is predicted to have the highest COVID-19 mortality burden, followed by UAE and Oman. The predicted maximum number of COVID-19-infected patients in need of oxygen therapy during the peak of emergency admissions varies between 690 in Bahrain, 1440 in Oman and over 10 000 in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSION: Although most GCC countries have managed to flatten the epidemiological curve by August 2020, trends since November 2020 show potential increase in new infections. The pandemic is predicted to recede by August 2021, provided the existing infection control measures continue effectively and consistently across all countries. Current health infrastructure including the provision of ICUs and nursing staff seem adequate, but health systems should keep ICUs ready to manage critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Bahrain/epidemiology , Critical Care , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qatar , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
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