Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 361
Filter
1.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604658, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789438

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to explore topics and sentiments using tweets from Ontario, Canada, during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Tweets were collected from December 5, 2020, to March 6, 2021, excluding non-individual accounts. Dates of vaccine-related events and policy changes were collected from public health units in Ontario. The daily number of COVID-19 cases was retrieved from the Ontario provincial government's public health database. Latent Dirichlet Allocation was used for unsupervised topic modelling. VADER was used to calculate daily and average sentiment compound scores for topics identified. Results: Vaccine, pandemic, business, lockdown, mask, and Ontario were six topics identified from the unsupervised topic modelling. The average sentiment compound score for each topic appeared to be slightly positive, yet the daily sentiment compound scores varied greatly between positive and negative emotions for each topic. Conclusion: Our study results have shown a slightly positive sentiment on average during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, along with six topics. Our research has also demonstrated a social listening approach to identify what the public sentiments and opinions are in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265744, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial disease prevalence has been estimated at 1 in 4000 in the United States, and 1 in 5000 worldwide. Prevalence in Canada has not been established, though multi-linked health administrative data resources present a unique opportunity to establish robust population-based estimates in a single-payer health system. This study used administrative data for the Ontario, Canada population between April 1988 and March 2019 to measure mitochondrial disease prevalence and describe patient characteristics and health care costs. RESULTS: 3069 unique individuals were hospitalized with mitochondrial disease in Ontario and eligible for the study cohort, representing a period prevalence of 2.51 per 10,000 or 1 in 3989. First hospitalization was most common between ages 0-9 or 50-69. The mitochondrial disease population experiences a high need for health care and incurred high costs (mean = CAD$24,023 in 12 months before first hospitalization) within the single-payer Ontario health care system. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides needed insight into mitochondrial disease in Canada, and demonstrates the high health burden on patients. The methodology used can be adapted across jurisdictions with similar routine collection of health data, such as in other Canadian provinces. Future work should seek to validate this approach via record linkage of existing disease cohorts in Ontario, and identify specific comorbidities with mitochondrial disease that may contribute to high health resource utilization.


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs , Mitochondrial Diseases , Canada , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mitochondrial Diseases/epidemiology , Mitochondrial Diseases/therapy , Ontario/epidemiology , Prevalence
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265549, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779753

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 global pandemic that began in March 2020 was not fully mitigated through governmental Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) and continued to infect people and take lives through 2021. Since many countries were affected by the second, third, and fourth waves of Covid-19, governments extended and strengthened NPIs, but these actions led to citizen protests and fatigue. In this study, we investigate the effect of a lockdown policy on Covid-19 third wave implemented by the province of Ontario, Canada, on April 3rd 2021, followed by a stay-at-home order on April 7th 2021 while free Covid-19 testing and vaccination were in progress. Herein, the effect of both NPIs and vaccination are considered simultaneously. We used the prevalence of Covid-19 cases, tests, and administered vaccines data reported publicly by the Government of Ontario on their website. Because mobility changes can reflect the behaviors and adherence of residents with a stay-at-home order, Covid-19 community mobility data for Ontario provided by Google was also considered. A statistical method called interrupted time series was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that, although vaccinations helped to control the Covid-19 infection rate during this time, the stay-at-home order caused a rate reduction by decreasing the trend of the Covid-19 prevalence by 13 (±0.8962) persons per million daily and the level by 33 (±7.6854) persons per million. Furthermore, the stay-at-home order resulted in approximately a 37% reduction in Covid-19 prevalence one week after the intervention's effective date. Therefore, Ontario's strict lockdown policy, including several NPIs, mitigated the Covid-19 surge during the third wave. The results show that even when vaccination is in progress, strict NPIs such as lockdown is required to control Covid-19 waves, and early re-openings should be avoided. These results may also be useful for other countries that have implemented delayed vaccination schedules.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(10): 1405-1416, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777848

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic, urgent strategies to alleviate shortages are required. Evaluation of the feasibility, practicality, and value of drug conservation strategies and therapeutic alternatives requires a collaborative approach at the provincial level. The Ontario COVID-19 ICU Drug Task Force was directed to create recommendations suggesting drug conservation strategies and therapeutic alternatives for essential drugs at risk of shortage in the intensive care unit during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations were rapidly developed using a modified Delphi method and evaluated on their ease of implementation, feasibility, and supportive evidence. This article describes the recommendations for drug conservation strategies and therapeutic alternatives for drugs at risk of shortage that are commonly used in the care of critically ill patients. Recommendations are identified as preferred and secondary ones that might be less desirable. Although the impetus for generating this document was the COVID-19 pandemic, recommendations should also be applicable for mitigating drug shortages outside of a pandemic. Proposed provincial strategies for drug conservation and therapeutic alternatives may not all be appropriate for every institution. Local implementation will require consultation from end-users and hospital administrators. Competing equipment shortages and available resources should be considered when evaluating the appropriateness of each strategy.


RéSUMé: Pendant la pandémie mondiale du coronavirus (COVID-19), des stratégies urgentes pour réduire les pénuries sont nécessaires. L'évaluation de la faisabilité, de l'aspect pratique et du mérite des stratégies de préservation des médicaments et des alternatives thérapeutiques nécessite une approche collaborative au niveau provincial. Le Groupe de travail ontarien sur les médicaments à l'USI pendant la COVID-19 a reçu comme mandat d'élaborer des recommandations proposant des stratégies de préservation des médicaments et des alternatives thérapeutiques pour les médicaments essentiels utilisés dans les unités de soins intensifs courant un risque de pénurie pendant la pandémie de COVID-19. Des recommandations ont été rapidement élaborées en utilisant une méthode Delphi modifiée, puis évaluées selon leur facilité de mise en œuvre, leur faisabilité et les données probantes les préconisant. Cet article décrit les recommandations quant aux stratégies de préservation des médicaments et aux alternatives thérapeutiques aux médicaments possiblement à risque de pénurie fréquemment utilisés pour les soins des patients en état critique. Les recommandations sont identifiées comme 'à privilégier' ou 'secondaires' si moins souhaitables. Bien que la pandémie de la COVID-19 ait été l'impulsion incitant la création de ce document, ces recommandations devraient également être applicables pour réduire les pénuries de médicaments en contexte normal. Les stratégies provinciales proposées pour la préservation des médicaments et les alternatives thérapeutiques pourraient ne pas être adaptées pour toutes les institutions. La mise en œuvre locale nécessitera la consultation des utilisateurs et des administrateurs hospitaliers. Il faudrait tenir compte des pénuries de matériel concurrentes et des ressources disponibles lors de l'évaluation de la faisabilité de chaque stratégie.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Advisory Committees , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Ontario , Pandemics
5.
Can J Public Health ; 113(2): 185-195, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776739

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in education workers and the factors associated with infection between March 2020 and July 2021. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of education workers working ≥8 h per week in Ontario, Canada. Participants self-reported results of tests for SARS-CoV-2 and completed online surveys about demographic information, exposures, and vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2. Participants submitted self-collected dried blood spots. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike, the receptor binding domain of spike, and nucleocapsid were assessed. Multivariable regression was used to assess risk factors for infection. RESULTS: Of 2834 participants, 85% were female, 81% were teaching staff, and 86% had received at least one dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Of the 1983 who had been tested via a respiratory specimen, 4.9% reported a positive test. Five additional participants had serologic testing suggestive of a previous infection (3.6% overall incidence). In multivariable regression analysis, risk factors for infection included exposure to a SARS-CoV-2 infected adult (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 13.6; 95% confidence interval 8.6, 21.3) or child (aIRR 2.3; 1.3, 4.2) in the household, or school student (aIRR 1.9; 1.2, 3.2), or travel outside the province within 14 days of testing (aIRR 6.0; 1.5, 23.6). CONCLUSION: In the first 18 months of the pandemic, education workers had a similar risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 as other Ontario residents. Practicing protective measures whenever any household member has been exposed to a possible case and at all times when exposed to anyone from outside the home would help reduce the risk of infection.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Estimer l'incidence du SRAS-CoV-2 chez les travailleuses et les travailleurs en éducation et les facteurs associés à l'infection entre mars 2020 et juillet 2021. MéTHODE: Étude prospective de cohortes auprès de travailleuses et de travailleurs en éducation travaillant ≥8 heures par semaine en Ontario, au Canada. Les participants ont autodéclaré les résultats de tests de dépistage du SRAS-CoV-2 et répondu à des questionnaires en ligne portant sur leurs données démographiques, leurs expositions au SRAS-CoV-2 et leurs vaccins contre le virus. Les participants ont soumis des gouttes de sang séché autoprélevées. Les anticorps à la protéine S du SRAS-CoV-2, le domaine de liaison aux récepteurs de la protéine S et la nucléocapside ont été évalués. Une régression multivariée a servi à évaluer les facteurs de risque d'infection. RéSULTATS: Sur les 2 834 participants, 85 % étaient des femmes, 81 % étaient des enseignants et 86 % avaient reçu au moins une dose de vaccin contre le SRAS-CoV-2. Sur les 1 983 personnes ayant été testées au moyen d'un prélèvement respiratoire, 4,9 % ont déclaré un test positif. Chez cinq autres participants, un test sérologique a indiqué une infection antérieure (incidence globale de 3,6 %). Selon l'analyse de régression multivariée, les facteurs de risque d'infection étaient l'exposition à un adulte infecté par le SRAS-CoV-2 (rapport de taux d'incidence ajusté [RTIa] 13,6; intervalle de confiance de 95 % 8,6, 21,3) ou à un enfant infecté (RTIa 2,3; 1,3, 4,2) au sein du ménage, l'exposition à un élève infecté (RTIa 1,9; 1,2, 3,2) ou un déplacement hors province dans les 14 jours ayant précédé le test (RTIa 6,0; 1,5, 23,6). CONCLUSION: Au cours des 18 premiers mois de la pandémie, le risque d'infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les travailleuses et les travailleurs en éducation était semblable au risque des autres résidents de l'Ontario. L'application de mesures de protection chaque fois qu'un membre du ménage a été exposé à un cas possible, et en tout temps lorsqu'on est exposé à une personne de l'extérieur du ménage, contribuerait à réduire le risque d'infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776218

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the lives and well-being of long-term care home residents. This mixed-method study examined the health equity implications of the COVID-19 lockdown and visitation strategies in long-term care homes in Ontario. We recruited long-term care home residents, their family members and designated caregivers, as well as healthcare workers from 235 homes in Ontario, Canada. We used online surveys and virtual interviews to assess the priority, feasibility, and acceptability of visitation strategies, and to explore the lived experiences of participants under the lockdown and thereafter. A total of n = 201 participants completed a survey and a purposive sample of n = 15 long-term care home residents and their family members completed an interview. The initial lockdown deteriorated residents' physical, mental, and cognitive well-being, and disrupted family and community ties. Transitional visitation strategies, such as virtual visits, were criticised for lack of emotional value and limited feasibility. Designated caregiver programs emerged as a prioritised and highly acceptable strategy, one that residents and family members demanded continuous and unconditional access to. Our findings suggest a series of equity implications that highlight a person-centred approach to visitation strategies and promote emotional connection between residents and their loved ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 702162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775959

ABSTRACT

Background: Adolescence is often considered a period of heightened stress, and healthy active living behaviors may help those experiencing it to better cope with life stressors and increase their self-esteem. The 24-h movement guidelines for children and adolescents recommend ≥60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, ≤ 2-h per day of recreational screen time, and 9-11-h of sleep per night for school-aged children or 8-10-h per night for adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the association of meeting the 24-h movement guidelines with life stress and self-esteem among students in Ontario, Canada. Methods: Self-reported data on movement behaviors, life stress and self-esteem were derived from the 2019 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a cross-sectional and province-wide survey of students in grades 7-12 aged 11 to 20 years (N = 6,932). Multivariable ordered logistic regression analyses were adjusted for the complex sample design of the survey and for important covariates. Results: Overall, meeting all combinations of movement behavior recommendations were associated with lower life stress and better self-esteem compared with meeting none of the recommendations, except meeting the physical activity only or screen time only recommendations that were not associated with lower life stress. Meeting all 3 recommendations was associated with lower life stress (OR: 0.40; 95 CI: 0.30-0.53) and better self-esteem (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.21-0.40). There was a dose-response gradient between the number of recommendations met (3 > 2 > 1) and lower life stress (p < 0.001) and higher self-esteem (p < 0.001), with meeting all 3 recommendations being the best combination. Conclusions: These findings suggest that meeting the recommendations of the 24-h movement guidelines is associated with lower life stress and better self-esteem among adolescents.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Self Concept , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ontario , Screen Time , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266160, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare home care episode, standardised assessment, and service patterns in Ontario's publicly funded home care system during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., March to September 2020) using the previous year as reference. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We plotted monthly time series data from March 2019 to September 2020 for home care recipients in Ontario, Canada. Home care episodes were linked to interRAI Home Care assessments, interRAI Contact Assessments, and home care services. Health status measures from the patient's most recent interRAI assessment were used to stratify the receipt of personal support, nursing, and occupational or physical therapy services. Significant level and slope changes were detected using Poisson, beta, and linear regression models. RESULTS: The March to September 2020 period was associated with significantly fewer home care admissions, discharges, and standardised assessments. Among those assessed with the interRAI Home Care assessment, significantly fewer patients received any personal support services. Among those assessed with either interRAI assessment and identified to have rehabilitation needs, significantly fewer patients received any therapy services. Among patients receiving services, patients received significantly fewer hours of personal support and fewer therapy visits per month. By September 2020, the rate of admissions and services had mostly returned to pre-pandemic levels, but completion of standardised assessments lagged behind. CONCLUSION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with substantial changes in Ontario's publicly funded home care system. Although it may have been necessary to prioritise service delivery during a crisis situation, standardised assessments are needed to support individualised patient care and system-level monitoring. Given the potential disruptions to home care services, future studies should examine the impact of the pandemic on the health and well-being of home care recipients and their caregiving networks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Home Care Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 571, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759731

ABSTRACT

This study aims to understand the experiences of street-involved individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding substance use patterns and service access. With the collision of the COVID-19 pandemic and Canadian opioid epidemic came an increase in opioid related overdoses and increased barriers in accessing essential services since March 2020. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in June and July 2021, with 30 street-involved individuals in Kingston, Ontario. Analysis followed a phenomenological approach to qualitative research. Themes were coded by two independent researchers using NVIVO12. COVID-19 had detrimental effects on the lives of street-involved folks who use substances. Increased substance use to combat feelings of isolation and hopelessness related to loss of income and housing was commonly described. Increased fentanyl usage was considered the major contributor to the rise in overdoses over the pandemic. Restrictions on public access to businesses and services disproportionately impacted individuals with limited means. Harm reduction services and mental health support were considered extremely important throughout the pandemic. The coinciding COVID-19 pandemic and opioid epidemic place street-involved individuals who use substances in a uniquely dangerous position. As such, it is imperative that public policy decision-makers consider the differential needs of street-involved community members to provide safe, relevant, and compassionate solutions in future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
10.
CMAJ ; 194(11): E408-E414, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the declaration of the global pandemic, surgical slowdowns were instituted to conserve health care resources for anticipated surges in patients with COVID-19. The long-term implications on survival of these slowdowns for patients with cancer in Canada is unknown. METHODS: We constructed a microsimulation model based on real-world population data on cancer care from Ontario, Canada, from 2019 and 2020. Our model estimated wait times for cancer surgery over a 6-month period during the pandemic by simulating a slowdown in operating room capacity (60% operating room resources in month 1, 70% in month 2, 85% in months 3-6), as compared with simulated prepandemic conditions with 100% resources. We used incremental differences in simulated wait times to model survival using per-day hazard ratios for risk of death. Primary outcomes included life-years lost per patient and per cancer population. We conducted scenario analyses to evaluate alternative, hypothetical scenarios of different levels of surgical slowdowns on risk of death. RESULTS: The simulated model population comprised 22 799 patients waiting for cancer surgery before the pandemic and 20 177 patients during the pandemic. Mean wait time to surgery prepandemic was 25 days and during the pandemic was 32 days. Excess wait time led to 0.01-0.07 life-years lost per patient across cancer sites, translating to 843 (95% credible interval 646-950) life-years lost among patients with cancer in Ontario. INTERPRETATION: Pandemic-related slowdowns of cancer surgeries were projected to result in decreased long-term survival for many patients with cancer. Measures to preserve surgical resources and health care capacity for affected patients are critical to mitigate unintended consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics , Time-to-Treatment , Delayed Diagnosis , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Uncertainty , Waiting Lists
11.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 29, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Opioid-related harms, including fatal and non-fatal overdoses, rose dramatically during the COVID-19 pandemic and presented unique challenges during outbreaks in congregate settings such as shelters. People who are deprived of permanent housing have a high prevalence of substance use and substance use disorders, and need nimble, rapid, and portable harm reduction interventions to address the harms of criminalized substance use in an evidence-based manner. CASE STUDY: In February 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak was declared at an emergency men's shelter in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Building on pre-existing relationships, community and hospital-based addictions medicine providers and a local harm reduction group collaborated to establish a shelter-based opioid agonist treatment and safer supply program, and a volunteer run safer drug use space that also distributed harm reduction supplies. In the 4 weeks preceding the program, the rate of non-fatal overdoses was 0.93 per 100 nights of shelter bed occupancy. During the 26 days of program operation, there were no overdoses in the safer use space and the rate of non-fatal overdoses in the shelter was 0.17 per 100 nights of shelter bed occupancy. The odds ratio of non-fatal overdose pre-intervention to during intervention was 5.5 (95% CI 1.63-18.55, p = 0.0059). We were not able to evaluate the impact of providing harm reduction supplies and did not evaluate the impact of the program on facilitating adherence to public health isolation and quarantine orders. The program ended as the outbreak waned, as per the direction from the shelter operator. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant reduction in the non-fatal overdose rate after the safer drug use and safer supply harm reduction program was introduced. Pre-existing relationships between shelter providers, harm reduction groups, and healthcare providers were critical to implementing the program. This is a promising approach to reducing harms from the criminalization of substance use in congregate settings, particularly in populations with a higher prevalence of substance use and substance use disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergency Shelter , Humans , Male , Ontario , Pandemics/prevention & control
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e055289, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752877

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recovery colleges (RCs) are mental health centres aimed at equipping people with skills to live a meaningful life despite the presence of mental distress. Unique to them is the aspect of cocreation; RCs are designed collaboratively with people of lived experiences of mental health and addictions and care providers. Despite established benefits, there remains a lack of empirical evidence on how RCs work and on their impact. AIMS: We aim to address this gap by designing a cocreated evaluation framework for RCs. This will be accomplished by engaging RC student/facilitators to provide perspectives on RCs/RC evaluation and cocreate a scoping review identifying evaluation gaps in the literature. Themes identified through these processes will form the evaluation framework. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two methodologies will be used to explore RC evaluation: student/facilitator engagement and a scoping review of current published and grey literature on RC evaluation. Engagement will be achieved using a participatory action research approach consisting of informant interviews of ~25 RC students/facilitators across Canada, which will be thematically analysed. The scoping review will follow methodology described by Arksey and O'Malley modified to support cocreation. Concurrent conducting of the engagement process and scoping review will allow RC students and peer facilitators the opportunity to shape RC evaluations, address gaps in the literature and codesign an evaluation framework focused on recovery-oriented processes and outcomes mattering most to RCs students/facilitators. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was received for the RC student/facilitator engagement component from the Centre for Addictions and Mental Health Research Ethics Board (#042-2020) and Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences (#20-013-B). Scoping review results will be copresented through national and international medical education conferences and published in open-access peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, a dissemination strategy on evaluation for the national RC community will be created.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Stakeholder Participation , Humans , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health , Ontario , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
13.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(4): 472-484, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750850

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Canadian intensive care unit (ICU) workers. METHODS: Between June and August 2020, we distributed a cross-sectional online survey of ICU workers evaluating the impact of the pandemic, coping strategies, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Impact of Events Scale-Revised), and psychological distress, anxiety, and depression (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale). We performed regression analyses to determine the predictors of psychological symptoms. RESULTS: We analyzed responses from 455 ICU workers (80% women; 67% from Ontario; 279 nurses, 69 physicians, and 107 other healthcare professionals). Respondents felt that their job put them at great risk of exposure (60%), were concerned about transmitting COVID-19 to family members (76%), felt more stressed at work (67%), and considered leaving their job (37%). Overall, 25% had probable PTSD and 18% had minimal or greater psychological distress. Nurses were more likely to report PTSD symptoms (33%) and psychological distress (23%) than physicians (5% for both) and other health disciplines professionals (19% and 14%). Variables associated with PTSD and psychological distress included female sex (beta-coefficient [B], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 2.10 and B, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.79 to 5.78, respectively; P < 0.001 for differences in scores across groups) and perceived increased risk due to PPE shortage or inadequate PPE training (B, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.31 and B, 4.88; 95% CI, 3.34 to 6.43, respectively). Coping strategies included talking to friends/family/colleagues (80%), learning about COVID-19 (78%), and physical exercise (68%). Over half endorsed the following workplace strategies as valuable: hospital-provided scrubs, clear communication and protocols by hospitals, knowing their voice is heard, subsidized parking, and gestures of appreciation from leadership. CONCLUSIONS: This survey study shows that ICU workers have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic with high levels of stress and psychological burden. Respondents endorsed communication, protocols, and appreciation from leadership as helpful mitigating strategies.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Évaluer l'impact de la pandémie de COVID-19 sur les travailleurs canadiens des unités de soins intensifs (USI). MéTHODE: Entre juin et août 2020, nous avons fait parvenir un sondage transversal en ligne aux travailleurs des soins intensifs pour évaluer l'impact de la pandémie, les stratégies d'adaptation et les symptômes de stress post-traumatique (SPT; Échelle révisée de l'impact de l'événement - IES-R), ainsi que la détresse psychologique, l'anxiété et la dépression (Échelle de détresse psychologique de Kessler). Nous avons réalisé des analyses de régression pour déterminer les prédicteurs de symptômes psychologiques. RéSULTATS: Nous avons analysé les réponses de 455 travailleurs des soins intensifs (80 % de femmes; 67 % de l'Ontario; 279 infirmières/infirmiers, 69 médecins et 107 autres professionnels de la santé). Les répondants ont estimé que leur emploi les plaçait face à un risque élevé d'exposition (60 %), craignaient de transmettre la COVID-19 aux membres de leur famille (76 %), se sentaient plus stressés au travail (67 %) et avaient envisagé de quitter leur emploi (37 %). Dans l'ensemble, 25 % souffraient probablement d'un SPT et 18 % présentaient une détresse psychologique minimale ou supérieure. Les infirmières et infirmiers étaient plus susceptibles de rapporter des symptômes de SPT (33 %) et de détresse psychologique (23 %) que les médecins (5 % pour les deux) et les professionnels de la santé des autres disciplines (19 % et 14 %). Les variables associées à un SPT et à la détresse psychologique comprenaient le sexe féminin (coefficient bêta [B], 1,59; intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 %, 1,20 à 2,10 et B, 3,79; IC 95 %, 1,79 à 5,78, respectivement; P < 0,001 pour les différences de scores entre les groupes) et la perception d'un risque accru en raison des pénuries d'EPI ou d'une formation inadéquate en EPI (B, 1,87; IC 95 %, 1,51 à 2,31 et B, 4,88; IC 95 %, 3,34 à 6,43, respectivement). Les stratégies d'adaptation comprenaient le fait de parler aux amis, à la famille ou aux collègues (80 %), l'acquisition de connaissances concernant la COVID-19 (78 %) et l'exercice physique (68 %). Plus de la moitié ont estimé que les stratégies de travail suivantes étaient utiles : des uniformes fournis par les hôpitaux, une communication et des protocoles clairs de la part des hôpitaux, le fait de savoir que leur voix est entendue, un stationnement subventionné et des gestes d'appréciation de la part des dirigeants. CONCLUSION: Cette étude montre que les travailleurs des soins intensifs ont été touchés par la pandémie de COVID-19 avec des niveaux élevés de stress et de fardeau psychologique. Les répondants ont déclaré que la communication, les protocoles et les gestes d'appréciation de la direction constituaient des stratégies d'atténuation utiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
JAMA ; 327(9): 846-855, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750254

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, modified guidance for opioid agonist therapy (OAT) allowed prescribers to increase the number of take-home doses to promote treatment retention. Whether this was associated with an increased risk of overdose is unclear. Objective: To evaluate whether increased take-home doses of OAT early in the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with treatment retention and opioid-related harm. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective propensity-weighted cohort study of 21 297 people actively receiving OAT on March 21, 2020, in Ontario, Canada. Changes in OAT take-home dose frequency were assessed between March 22, 2020, and April 21, 2020, and individuals were observed for up to 180 days to assess outcomes (last date of follow-up, October 18, 2020). Exposures: Exposure was defined as extended take-home doses in the first month of the pandemic within each of 4 cohorts based on OAT type and baseline take-home dose frequency (daily dispensed methadone, 5-6 take-home doses of methadone, daily dispensed buprenorphine/naloxone, and 5-6 take-home doses of buprenorphine/naloxone). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were opioid overdose, interruption in OAT, and OAT discontinuation. Results: Among 16 862 methadone and 4435 buprenorphine/naloxone recipients, the median age ranged between 38 and 42 years, and 29.1% to 38.2% were women. Among individuals receiving daily dispensed methadone (n = 5852), initiation of take-home doses was significantly associated with lower risks of opioid overdose (6.9% vs 9.5%/person-year; weighted hazard ratio [HR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.96]), treatment discontinuation (51.0% vs 63.6%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.72-0.90]), and treatment interruption (19.0% vs 23.9%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.67-0.95]) compared with no change in take-home doses. Among individuals receiving daily dispensed buprenorphine/naloxone (n = 662), there was no significant difference in any outcomes between exposure groups. Among individuals receiving weekly dispensed OAT (n = 11 010 for methadone; n = 3773 for buprenorphine/naloxone), extended take-home methadone doses were significantly associated with lower risks of OAT discontinuation (14.1% vs 19.6%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.62-0.84]) and interruption in therapy (5.1% vs 7.4%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.90]), and extended take-home doses of buprenorphine/naloxone were significantly associated with lower risk of interruption in therapy (9.5% vs 12.9%/person-year; weighted HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.56-0.99]) compared with no change in take-home doses. Other primary outcomes were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In Ontario, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic, dispensing of increased take-home doses of opioid agonist therapy was significantly associated with lower rates of treatment interruption and discontinuation among some subsets of patients receiving opioid agonist therapy, and there were no statistically significant increases in opioid-related overdoses over 6 months of follow-up. These findings may be susceptible to residual confounding and should be interpreted cautiously.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Narcotic Antagonists/administration & dosage , Opiate Overdose/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Buprenorphine/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Medication Adherence , Methadone/administration & dosage , Naloxone/administration & dosage , Ontario/epidemiology , Opiate Substitution Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies
15.
Curr Oncol ; 29(3): 1877-1889, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742359

ABSTRACT

Emergency department (ED) use is a concern for surgery patients, physicians and health administrators particularly during a pandemic. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the pandemic on ED use following cancer-directed surgeries. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing cancer-directed surgeries comparing ED use from 7 January 2018 to 14 March 2020 (pre-pandemic) and 15 March 2020 to 27 June 2020 (pandemic) in Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression models were used to (1) determine the association between pandemic vs. pre-pandemic periods and the odds of an ED visit within 30 days after discharge from hospital for surgery and (2) to assess the odds of an ED visit being of high acuity (level 1 and 2 as per the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale). Of our cohort of 499,008 cancer-directed surgeries, 468,879 occurred during the pre-pandemic period and 30,129 occurred during the pandemic period. Even though there was a substantial decrease in the general population ED rates, after covariate adjustment, there was no significant decrease in ED use among surgical patients (OR 1.002, 95% CI 0.957-1.048). However, the adjusted odds of an ED visit being of high acuity was 23% higher among surgeries occurring during the pandemic (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.33). Although ED visits in the general population decreased substantially during the pandemic, the rate of ED visits did not decrease among those receiving cancer-directed surgery. Moreover, those presenting in the ED post-operatively during the pandemic had significantly higher levels of acuity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/surgery , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
16.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(3): 100-103, 2022 Mar.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737528

ABSTRACT

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) deployed 2595 regular and reserve force personnel on Operation (Op) LASER, the CAF's mission to provide support to civilian staff at longterm care facilities in Ontario and in the Centres d'hébergement de soins de longue durée in Quebec. An online longitudinal survey and in-depth virtual discussions were conducted by a multidisciplinary team of researchers with complementary expertise. This paper highlights the challenges encountered in conducting this research and their impact on the design and implementation of the study, and provides lessons learned that may be useful to researchers responding to similar public health crises in the future.


There are a number of challenges involved in conducting longitudinal research in an applied military setting during a global public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic. These challenges include but are not limited to a sudden transition to a distributed remote work environment, tight timelines, the need to obtain approvals from different agencies and departments, having to prioritize multiple study objectives, and survey fatigue. To overcome these challenges in future public health crises, it is important to (1) develop and maintain collaborative networks across government, academia and industry; (2) develop a standard set of pre-deployment demographic and health indicators to establish a baseline; and (3) use mixed methods approaches for a richer understanding of mental health trajectories following stressful events.


La réalisation d'une enquête longitudinale dans un contexte militaire concret pendant une crise mondiale de santé publique, comme la pandémie de COVID-19, vient avec son lot de défis. Parmi ces défis, on peut relever une transition subite vers un environnement de travail à distance, des délais serrés, la nécessité d'obtenir des approbations de différents organismes et ministères, la nécessité de prioriser plusieurs objectifs d'étude et la lassitude à l'égard des enquêtes. Pour relever ces défis au cours des futures crises de santé publique, il sera essentiel : 1) de créer et d'entretenir des réseaux de collaboration qui relieront le gouvernement, le milieu universitaire et les divers secteurs d'activité, 2) de créer un ensemble normalisé d'indicateurs démographiques et sanitaires avant le déploiement, en vue de l'obtention de données de référence et 3) de recourir à des méthodes mixtes pour mieux comprendre les trajectoires en matière de santé mentale à la suite d'événements stressants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Lasers , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E190-E195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the largest city in Canada, Toronto has played an important role in the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Ontario, and the burden of disease across Toronto neighbourhoods has shown considerable heterogeneity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial variation of sporadic SARS-CoV-2 cases in Toronto neighbourhoods by detecting clusters of increased risk and investigating effects of neighbourhood-level risk factors on rates. METHODS: Data on sporadic SARS-CoV-2 cases, at the neighbourhood level, for Jan. 25 to Nov. 26, 2020, were obtained from the City of Toronto COVID-19 dashboard. We used a flexibly shaped spatial scan to detect clusters of increased risk of sporadic COVID-19. We then used a generalized linear geostatistical model to investigate whether average household size, population density, dependency ratio and prevalence of low-income households were associated with sporadic SARS-CoV-2 rates. RESULTS: We identified 3 clusters of elevated risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with standardized morbidity ratios ranging from 1.59 to 2.43. The generalized linear geostatistical model found that average household size (relative risk [RR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.80-2.61) and percentage of low-income households (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04) were significant predictors of sporadic SARS-CoV-2 cases at the neighbourhood level. INTERPRETATION: During the study period, 3 clusters of increased risk of sporadic SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified, and average household size and percentage of low-income households were found to be associated with sporadic SARS-CoV-2 rates at the neighbourhood level. The findings of this study can be used to target resources and create policy to address inequities that are shown through heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 cases at the neighbourhood level in Toronto, Ontario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spatial Analysis
18.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E173-E182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical delay may result in unintended harm to patients needing cardiac surgery, who are at risk for death if their condition is left untreated. Our objective was to derive and internally validate a clinical risk score to predict death among patients awaiting major cardiac surgery. METHODS: We used the CorHealth Ontario Registry and linked ICES health administrative databases with information on all Ontario residents to identify patients aged 18 years or more who were referred for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valvular procedures, combined CABG-valvular procedures or thoracic aorta procedures between Oct. 1, 2008, and Sept. 30, 2019. We used a hybrid modelling approach with the random forest method for initial variable selection, followed by backward stepwise logistic regression modelling for clinical interpretability and parsimony. We internally validated the logistic regression model, termed the CardiOttawa Waitlist Mortality Score, using 200 bootstraps. RESULTS: Of the 112 266 patients referred for cardiac surgery, 269 (0.2%) died while awaiting surgery (118/72 366 [0.2%] isolated CABG, 81/24 461 [0.3%] valvular procedures, 63/12 046 [0.5%] combined CABG-valvular procedures and 7/3393 [0.2%] thoracic aorta procedures). Age, sex, surgery type, left main stenosis, Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, dialysis, psychosis and operative priority were predictors of waitlist mortality. The model discriminated (C-statistic 0.76 [optimism-corrected 0.73]). It calibrated well in the overall cohort (Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.2) and across surgery types. INTERPRETATION: The CardiOttawa Waitlist Mortality Score is a simple clinical risk model that predicts the likelihood of death while awaiting cardiac surgery. It has the potential to provide data-driven decision support for managing access to cardiac care and preserve system capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic, the recovery period and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Adolescent , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(4): 839-849, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination studies in the hemodialysis population have demonstrated decreased antibody response compared with healthy controls, but vaccine effectiveness for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease is undetermined. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in the province of Ontario, Canada, between December 21, 2020, and June 30, 2021. Receipt of vaccine, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and related severe outcomes (hospitalization or death) were determined from provincial health administrative data. Receipt of one and two doses of vaccine were modeled in a time-varying cause-specific Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for baseline characteristics, background community infection rates, and censoring for non-COVID death, recovered kidney function, transfer out of province, solid organ transplant, and withdrawal from dialysis. RESULTS: Among 13,759 individuals receiving maintenance dialysis, 2403 (17%) were unvaccinated and 11,356 (83%) had received at least one dose by June 30, 2021. Vaccine types were BNT162b2 (n=8455, 74%) and mRNA-1273 (n=2901, 26%); median time between the first and second dose was 36 days (IQR 28-51). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe outcomes for one dose compared with unvaccinated was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.76) and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.77), respectively, and for two doses compared with unvaccinated was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.42) and 0.17 (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.3), respectively. There were no significant differences in vaccine effectiveness among age groups, dialysis modality, or vaccine type. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination is effective in the dialysis population to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe outcomes, despite concerns about suboptimal antibody responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
CMAJ ; 194(8): E297-E305, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Differences in immunogenicity between mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have not been well characterized in patients undergoing dialysis. We compared the serologic response in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study at 2 academic centres in Toronto, Canada, from Feb. 2, 2021, to July 20, 2021, which included 129 and 95 patients who received the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, respectively. We measured SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G antibodies to the spike protein (anti-spike), receptor binding domain (anti-RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (anti-NP) at 6-7 and 12 weeks after the second dose of vaccine and compared those levels with the median convalescent serum antibody levels from 211 controls who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: At 6-7 weeks after 2-dose vaccination, we found that 51 of 70 patients (73%) who received BNT162b2 and 83 of 87 (95%) who received mRNA-1273 attained convalescent levels of anti-spike antibody (p < 0.001). In those who received BNT162b2, 35 of 70 (50%) reached the convalescent level for anti-RBD compared with 69 of 87 (79%) who received mRNA-1273 (p < 0.001). At 12 weeks after the second dose, anti-spike and anti-RBD levels were significantly lower in patients who received BNT162b2 than in those who received mRNA-1273. For anti-spike, 70 of 122 patients (57.4%) who received BNT162b2 maintained the convalescent level versus 68 of 71 (96%) of those who received mRNA-1273 (p < 0.001). For anti-RBD, 47 of 122 patients (38.5%) who received BNT162b2 maintained the anti-RBD convalescent level versus 45 of 71 (63%) of those who received mRNA-1273 (p = 0.002). INTERPRETATION: In patients undergoing hemodialysis, mRNA-1273 elicited a stronger humoral response than BNT162b2. Given the rapid decline in immunogenicity at 12 weeks in patients who received BNT162b2, a third dose is recommended in patients undergoing dialysis as a primary series, similar to recommendations for other vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL