Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 345
Filter
1.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(10): 421-430, 2022 10 12.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146154

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study explores the relationship between emotional support, perceived risk and mental health outcomes among health care workers, who face high rates of burnout and mental distress since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicentred online survey of health care workers in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic evaluated coping strategies, confidence in infection control, impact of previous work during the 2003 SARS outbreak and emotional support. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Of 3852 participants, 8.2% sought professional mental health services while 77.3% received emotional support from family, 74.0% from friends and 70.3% from colleagues. Those who felt unsupported in their work had higher odds ratios of experiencing moderate and severe symptoms of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.69), PTSD (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.58-2.25) and depression (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.57-2.25). Nearly 40% were afraid of telling family about the risks they were exposed to at work. Those who were able to share this information demonstrated lower risk of anxiety (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.48-0.69), PTSD (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.41-0.56) and depression (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.47-0.65). CONCLUSION: Informal sources of support, including family, friends and colleagues, play an important role in mitigating distress and should be encouraged and utilized more by health care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(4): 839-849, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination studies in the hemodialysis population have demonstrated decreased antibody response compared with healthy controls, but vaccine effectiveness for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease is undetermined. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in the province of Ontario, Canada, between December 21, 2020, and June 30, 2021. Receipt of vaccine, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and related severe outcomes (hospitalization or death) were determined from provincial health administrative data. Receipt of one and two doses of vaccine were modeled in a time-varying cause-specific Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for baseline characteristics, background community infection rates, and censoring for non-COVID death, recovered kidney function, transfer out of province, solid organ transplant, and withdrawal from dialysis. RESULTS: Among 13,759 individuals receiving maintenance dialysis, 2403 (17%) were unvaccinated and 11,356 (83%) had received at least one dose by June 30, 2021. Vaccine types were BNT162b2 (n=8455, 74%) and mRNA-1273 (n=2901, 26%); median time between the first and second dose was 36 days (IQR 28-51). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe outcomes for one dose compared with unvaccinated was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.76) and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.77), respectively, and for two doses compared with unvaccinated was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.42) and 0.17 (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.3), respectively. There were no significant differences in vaccine effectiveness among age groups, dialysis modality, or vaccine type. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination is effective in the dialysis population to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe outcomes, despite concerns about suboptimal antibody responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy
3.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 294, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a rapid shift to virtual care in primary care practices around the globe. There has been little focus on the experiences of interprofessional teams through the lens of primary care practice leaders. The objective of this study was to examine the experience of primary care teams during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of primary care leadership. METHODS: Qualitative study using qualitative description methods. Executive Directors of interprofessional primary care teams belonging to the Association of Family Health Teams of Ontario (AFHTO) were invited to participate. Executive Directors were interviewed and the interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-one Executive Directors from across all regions of Ontario were interviewed for the study, representing 37% of the AFHTO member clinics. Four themes were identified in the data: i) Complexities of Virtual Care, ii) Continuation of In-person Care, iii) Supporting Patients at Risk, and iv) Stepping up and into New Roles. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care teams rapidly mobilized to deliver the majority of their care virtually, while continuing to provide in-person and home care as required. Major challenges to virtual care included technological infrastructure and unfamiliarity with virtual platforms. Advantages to virtual care included convenience and time savings. Virtual care will likely continue to be an important mode of primary care delivery moving forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Primary Health Care
4.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 300, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a rapid shift in primary health care from predominantly in-person to high volumes of virtual care. The pandemic afforded the opportunity to conduct a deep regional examination of virtual care by family physicians in London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada that would inform the foundation for virtual care in our region post-pandemic. OBJECTIVES: (1) to determine volumes of in-person and virtual family physicians visits and characteristics of the family physicians and patients using them during the early COVID-19 pandemic; (2) to determine how virtual visit volumes changed over the pandemic, compared to in-person; and (3) to explore family physicians' experience in virtual visit adoption and implementation. METHODS: We conducted a concurrent mixed-methods study of family physicians from March to October 2020. The quantitative component examined mean weekly number of total, in-person and virtual visits using health administrative data. Differences in outcomes according to physician and practice characteristics for pandemic periods were compared to pre-pandemic. The qualitative study employed Constructivist Grounded Theory, conducting semi-structured family physicians interviews; analyzing data iteratively using constant comparative analysis. We mapped themes from the qualitative analysis to quantitative findings. RESULTS: Initial volumes of patients decreased, driven by fewer in-person visits. Virtual visit volumes increased dramatically; family physicians described using telephone almost entirely. Rural family physicians reported video connectivity issues. By early second wave, total family physician visit volume returned to pre-pandemic volumes. In-person visits increased substantially; family physicians reported this happened because previously scarce personal protective equipment became available. Patients seen during the pandemic were older, sicker, and more materially deprived. CONCLUSION: These results can inform the future of virtual family physician care including the importance of continued virtual care compensation, the need for equitable family physician payment models, and the need to attend to equity for vulnerable patients. Given the move to virtual care was primarily a move to telephone care, the modality of care delivery that is acceptable to both family physicians and their patients must be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians, Family , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Ontario/epidemiology
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e26409, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of a successful COVID-19 control strategy requires a thorough understanding of the trends in geographic and demographic distributions of disease burden. In terms of the estimation of the population prevalence, this includes the crucial process of unravelling the number of patients who remain undiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the period prevalence of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and November 30, 2020, and the proportion of the infected population that remained undiagnosed in the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia. METHODS: A model-based mathematical framework based on a disease progression and transmission model was developed to estimate the historical prevalence of COVID-19 using provincial-level statistics reporting seroprevalence, diagnoses, and deaths resulting from COVID-19. The framework was applied to three different age cohorts (< 30; 30-69; and ≥70 years) in each of the provinces studied. RESULTS: The estimates of COVID-19 period prevalence between March 1, 2020, and November 30, 2020, were 4.73% (95% CI 4.42%-4.99%) for Quebec, 2.88% (95% CI 2.75%-3.02%) for Ontario, 3.27% (95% CI 2.72%-3.70%) for Alberta, and 2.95% (95% CI 2.77%-3.15%) for British Columbia. Among the cohorts considered in this study, the estimated total number of infections ranged from 2-fold the number of diagnoses (among Quebecers, aged ≥70 years: 26,476/53,549, 49.44%) to 6-fold the number of diagnoses (among British Columbians aged ≥70 years: 3108/18,147, 17.12%). CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates indicate that a high proportion of the population infected between March 1 and November 30, 2020, remained undiagnosed. Knowledge of COVID-19 period prevalence and the undiagnosed population can provide vital evidence that policy makers can consider when planning COVID-19 control interventions and vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Undiagnosed Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Alberta/epidemiology , British Columbia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Ontario/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quebec/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 20(11): 1190-1192, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110728

ABSTRACT

No population-based study exists to demonstrate the full-spectrum impact of COVID-19 on hindering incident cancer detection in a large cancer system. Building upon our previous publication in JNCCN, we conducted an updated analysis using 12 months of new data accrued in the pandemic era (extending the study period from September 26, 2020, to October 2, 2021) to demonstrate how multiple COVID-19 waves affected the weekly cancer incidence volume in Ontario, Canada, and if we have fully cleared the backlog at the end of each wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology
7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(11): e763-e768, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between the perceived adequacy of infection control practices (ICPs) and symptoms of anxiety among educators in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Data from 4947 educators were collected in December 2020. Modified Poisson models assessed the association between adequacy of ICPs and moderate or severe anxiety symptoms, adjusting for a range of covariates. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of respondents reported moderate or severe anxiety symptoms. Two-thirds (66.5%) of the sample had less than half of their ICP needs met. Respondents with less than half their ICP needs met were more than three times more likely to have moderate or severe anxiety, compared with respondents with their ICP needs met. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the importance of adequate administrative and engineering controls in schools, not only to minimize risk of infection, but also for educator's mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Schools , Infection Control
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During major pandemics such as COVID-19, the fear of being infected, uncertain prognoses, and the imposition of restrictions may result in greater odds of emotional and psychological distress. Hence, the present study examines the predictors of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, and how they differ by gender. METHODS: Data of 2,756 adults aged 18 years and above from a cross-sectional online survey conducted between July and October 2020 was used for this study. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out. The results were presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with their respective confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Lower odds of psychological distress were found among males compared to females and among individuals aged 45-64 or 65-84 years compared to those aged 18-44. The odds of psychological distress decreased with a rise in income, with individuals whose annual income was greater than or equal to $100,000 being less likely to experience psychological distress compared to those whose income was less than $20,000. The odds of psychological distress were higher among residents of Ontario compared to residents of Quebec. Similarly, the odds of psychological distress were higher among individuals who reported experiencing COVID-19 symptoms compared to those who did not report any COVID-19 symptoms. The disaggregated results by gender showed that age, province, and self-reported COVID-19 symptoms had significant associations with psychological distress in both males and females, but these effects were more pronounced among females compared to males. In addition, income was negatively associated with psychological distress for both males and females, with this effect being stronger among males. CONCLUSION: Five exposure variables (gender, age, province, experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, and total annual income in 2019) significantly predicted the likelihood of reporting psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. Clearly, there is an imminent need to provide mental health support services to vulnerable groups. Additionally, interventions and policies aimed at combating psychological distress during pandemics such as COVID-19 should be gender specific.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Ontario/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0271397, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116714

ABSTRACT

Collaboration across sectors is critical to address complex health problems, particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the ability to collaborate during the pandemic as part of a baseline evaluation of an intersectoral network of healthcare and community organizations established to improve the collective response to transgender (trans) persons who have been sexually assaulted (the trans-LINK Network). A validated social network analysis survey was sent to 119 member organizations in Ontario, Canada. Survey respondents were asked, 'Has COVID-19 negatively affected your organization's ability to collaborate with other organizations on the support of trans survivors of sexual assault?' and 'How has COVID-19 negatively affected your organization's ability to collaborate within the trans-LINK Network?'. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Seventy-eight member organizations participated in the survey (response rate = 66%). Most organizations (79%) indicated that the pandemic had affected their ability to collaborate with others in the network, citing most commonly, increased workload (77%), increased demand for services (57%), and technical and digital challenges (50%). Survey findings were shared in a stakeholder consultation with 22 representatives of 21 network member organizations. Stakeholders provided suggestions to prevent and address the challenges, barriers, and disruptions in serving trans survivors experienced during the pandemic, which were organized into themes. Seven themes were generated and used as a scaffold for the development of recommendations to advance the network, including: increase communication and knowledge exchange among member organizations through the establishment of a network discussion forum and capacity building group workshops; enhance awareness of network organizations by developing a member-facing directory of member services, their contributions, and ability to provide specific supports; strengthen capacity to provide virtual and in-person services and programs through enhanced IT support and increased opportunities for knowledge sharing and skill development; and adopt a network wide syndemic approach that addresses co-occurring epidemics (COVID-19 + racism, housing insecurity, transphobia, xenophobia) that impact trans survivors of sexual assault.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transgender Persons , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Network Analysis , Ontario/epidemiology
10.
AIDS ; 36(15): F17-F26, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116555

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: People with HIV were underrepresented in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine clinical trials. We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection for the BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and ChAdOx1 vaccines among a population-based cohort of people with HIV in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Test-negative design. METHODS: We identified people with HIV aged ≥19 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR between December 14, 2020 (first availability of COVID-19 vaccines) and November 21, 2021 (pre-Omicron circulation). Outcomes included any infection, symptomatic infection, and COVID-19-related hospitalization/death. We compared the odds of vaccination between test-positive cases and test-negative controls using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, region, calendar time, SARS-CoV-2 test histories, influenza vaccination, comorbidities, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status. VE was derived as (1 - adjusted odds ratio) × 100%. RESULTS: Among 21 023 adults living with HIV, there were 801 (8.3%) test-positive cases and 8,879 (91.7%) test-negative controls. 20.1% cases and 47.8% of controls received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose; among two-dose recipients, 93.4% received ≥1 mRNA dose. Two-dose VE ≥7 days before specimen collection was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 74-87%) against any infection, 94% (95% CI = 82-98%) against symptomatic infection, and 97% (95% CI = 85-100%) against hospitalization/death. Against any infection, VE declined from 86% (95% CI = 77-92%) within 7-59 days after the second dose to 66% (95% CI = -15-90%) after ≥180 days; we did not observe evidence of waning protection for other outcomes. CONCLUSION: Two doses of COVID-19 vaccine offered substantial protection against symptomatic illness and hospitalization/death in people with HIV prior to the emergence of the Omicron variant. Our findings do not support a broad conclusion that COVID-19 VE is lower among people with HIV in populations that, for the most part, are attending HIV care, taking antiretroviral medication, and are virally suppressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Ontario/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116225

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a large influence on children's physical activity (i.e., play and sport) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' perspectives of their children's (ages 0-12) physical activity experiences during the pandemic (i.e., since the onset in March 2020 until follow-up survey completion date [between August to December 2021]). As part of the 'Return to Play' study conducted in Ontario, Canada, two-parent report surveys were completed online via Qualtrics. Surveys measured parents' perspectives regarding their children's physical activity since the onset of the pandemic (n = 17 items) and collected demographic information (n = 16 items). Open-ended questions were included to gather a rich understanding of parents' experiences (i.e., supports, challenges) with facilitating their children's physical activity. Descriptive statistics were calculated to describe parents' perspectives of their children's physical activity experiences and to determine parent demographics. Open-ended questions were analyzed via deductive content analysis. Parents (n = 382) reported that they noticed behavior changes in their children because of the pandemic (65.9%), and most (73.7%) reported challenges with supporting their children's activity during periods when public health measures were in place. Many parents (44.5%) stated that their children asked about returning to play/sport more than three times per week during periods when play/sport facilities were closed in Ontario. Qualitative data identified common supports parents used (e.g., getting active outdoors, forming mini social 'bubbles'), and challenges they faced (e.g., work, children's increased screen time, and home schooling), pertaining to their children's physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Exercise
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e38604, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virtual care use increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of that shift on patient and provider experiences is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient and provider experiences with virtual visits across an academic, ambulatory hospital in Toronto, Canada and assessed predictors of positive experience with virtual care. METHODS: Survey data were analyzed from consenting patients who attended at least one virtual visit (video or telephone) and from consenting providers who delivered at least one virtual visit. Distributions for demographic variables and responses to survey questions are reported, with statistical significance assessed using chi-square tests and t tests. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to identify any patient predictors of responses. RESULTS: During the study period, 253 patients (mean age 45.1, SD 15.6 years) completed 517 video visit surveys, and 147 patients (mean age 41.6, SD 16.4 years) completed 209 telephone visit surveys. A total of 75 and 94 providers completed the survey in June 2020 and June 2021, respectively. On a scale from 1 to 10 regarding likelihood to recommend virtual care to others, fewer providers rated a score of 8 or above compared with patients (providers: 62/94, 66% for video and 49/94, 52% for telephone; patients: 415/517, 80% for video and 150/209, 72% for telephone). Patients of non-White ethnicity had lower odds of rating a high score of 9 or 10 compared with White patients (odds ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Patient experiences with virtual care were generally positive, but provider experiences were less so. Findings suggest potential differences in patient experience by ethnicity, warranting further investigation into equity concerns with virtual care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ontario/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care , Hospitals
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0264240, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109283

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the demographic and clinical characteristics, in-hospital care, and outcomes of long-term care residents admitted to general medicine wards for non-COVID-19 reasons. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of long-term care residents admitted to general medicine wards, for reasons other than COVID-19, in four hospitals in Toronto, Ontario between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020. We used an autoregressive linear model to estimate the change in monthly admission volumes during the pandemic period (March-December 2020) compared to the previous two years, adjusting for any secular trend. We summarized and compared differences in the demographics, comorbidities, interventions, diagnoses, imaging, psychoactive medications, and outcomes of residents before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: Our study included 2,654 long-term care residents who were hospitalized for non-COVID-19 reasons between January 2018 and December 2020. The crude rate of hospitalizations was 79.3 per month between March-December of 2018-2019 and 56.5 per month between March-December of 2020. The was an adjusted absolute difference of 27.0 (95% CI: 10.0, 43.9) fewer hospital admissions during the pandemic period, corresponding to a relative drop of 34%. Residents admitted during the pandemic period had similar demographics and clinical characteristics but were more likely to be admitted for delirium (pandemic: 7% pre-pandemic: 5%, p = 0.01) and were less likely to be admitted for pneumonia (pandemic: 3% pre-pandemic: 6%, p = 0.004). Residents admitted during the pandemic were more likely to be prescribed antipsychotics (pandemic: 37%, pre-pandemic: 29%, p <0.001) and more likely to die in-hospital (pandemic:14% pre-pandemic: 10%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Better integration between long-term care and hospitals systems, including programs to deliver urgent medical care services within long-term care homes, is needed to ensure that long-term care residents maintain equitable access to acute care during current and future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Ontario/epidemiology , Hospitalization
14.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1133, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic greatly impacted primary care and cancer care. We studied how primary care utilization in Ontario, Canada changed for patients who were newly diagnosed with cancer just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic compared to those diagnosed in non-pandemic years. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used linked healthcare databases to compare outcomes for patients with a new malignancy diagnosed within the year prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, between July 1 and September 30, 2019 (COVID-19 cohort) to those diagnosed in the same months in 2018 and 2017 (pre-pandemic cohort). We used Poisson regression models to compare rates of in-person and virtual visits to patients' usual primary care physician (PCP), emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations, all reported per person-year of follow-up. RESULTS: In-person visits to usual PCPs decreased from 4.07/person-year in the pre-pandemic cohort to 2.58 in the COVID-19 cohort (p < 0.0001). Virtual visits to usual PCPs increased from 0.00 to 1.53 (p < 0.0001). Combined in-person and virtual visits to patients' usual PCPs was unchanged from 4.07 to 4.12 (p = 0.89). The rate of ED visits decreased from 0.99/person-year to 0.88 (p < 0.0001). Non-elective hospitalizations remained unchanged, from 0.49/person-year to 0.47 (p = 0.1675). CONCLUSION: There was a sizeable shift in primary care visits for cancer patients from in-person to virtual during the pandemic, although there was no resultant increase in hospitalizations. This suggests that early in the pandemic, virtual care allowed for continuity in utilization of primary care, though further studies are required to confirm this persisted later in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Primary Health Care , Ontario/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099535

ABSTRACT

The current study aimed to identify demographic and COVID experience predictors for COVID-19 risk perception among Chinese residents in Canada. A final sample of 653 participants aged 18 and up completed an online survey in simplified Chinese during the peak of the first wave of COVID-19 (25 April-10 June 2020). After removing those with missing data on demographic covariates, as missing data cannot be imputed, 444 were included in the structural equation model, and COVID-19 risk perception was indexed by three outcome variables: self-infection risk perception (i.e., likelihood of personal infection of COVID-19); threat perception (i.e., whether the pandemic is a real threat); and future infection rate prediction (i.e., a latent variable for community, Ontario, Canada, and World infection rate predictions). Predictors included demographic (i.e., income, gender, education, age, household size, employment status, and life satisfaction) and COVID experience variables (i.e., personal connection with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, self-isolation experience, perceived anti-Chinese discrimination, and confusion over COVID-19 information). In the structural equation model, we found increased risk perception for the following demographic and COVID experience predictors; women, relatively higher education, living alone, working in a medical field, lower in life satisfaction, having personal connection with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, with perceived anti-Chinese discrimination, or showing high confusion over COVID-19 information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Perception , Demography , Ontario/epidemiology
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e066190, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088817

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous negative effect on the mental health and well-being of Canadians. These mental health challenges are especially acute among vulnerable Canadian populations. People living in Canada's most populous province, Ontario, have spent prolonged time in lockdown and under public health measures and there is a gap in our understanding of how this has impacted the mental health system. This protocol describes the Mental health and Addictions Service and Care Study that will use a repeated cross-sectional design to examine the effects, impacts, and needs of Ontario adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cross-sectional survey of Ontario adults 18 years or older, representative of the provincial population based on age, gender and location was conducted using Delvinia's AskingCanadians panel from January to March 2022. Study sample was 2500 in phases 1 and 2, and 5000 in phase 3. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test and Diagnostic Statistical Manual-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure-Adult were used to assess for substance and mental health concerns. Participants were asked about mental health and addiction service-seeking and/or accessing prior to and during the pandemic. Analyses to be conducted include: predictors of service access (ie, sociodemographics, mental illness and/or addiction, and social supports) before and during the pandemic, and χ2 tests and logistic regressions to analyse for significant associations between variables and within subgroups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Sunnybrook Research Ethics Board. Dissemination plans include scientific publications and conferences, and online products for stakeholders and the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Ontario/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate associations between COVID-19 incidence and mortality with neighbourhood-level immigration, race, housing, and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of 28,808 COVID-19 cases in the provincial reportable infectious disease surveillance systems (Public Health Case and Contact Management System) which includes all known COVID-19 infections and deaths from Ontario, Canada reported between January 23, 2020 and July 28, 2020. Residents of congregate settings, Indigenous communities living on reserves or small neighbourhoods with populations <1,000 were excluded. Comparing neighbourhoods in the 90th to the 10th percentiles of socio-demographic characteristics, we estimated the associations between 18 neighbourhood-level measures of immigration, race, housing and socio-economic characteristics and COVID-19 incidence and mortality using Poisson generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS: Neighbourhoods with the highest proportion of immigrants (relative risk (RR): 4.0, 95%CI:3.5-4.5) and visible minority residents (RR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.9-3.7) showed the strongest association with COVID-19 incidence in adjusted models. Among individual race groups, COVID-19 incidence was highest among neighbourhoods with the high proportions of Black (RR: 2.4, 95%CI:2.2-2.6), South Asian (RR: 1.9, 95%CI:1.8-2.1), Latin American (RR: 1.8, 95%CI:1.6-2.0) and Middle Eastern (RR: 1.2, 95%CI:1.1-1.3) residents. Neighbourhoods with the highest average household size (RR: 1.9, 95%CI:1.7-2.1), proportion of multigenerational families (RR: 1.8, 95%CI:1.7-2.0) and unsuitably crowded housing (RR: 2.1, 95%CI:2.0-2.3) were associated with COVID-19 incidence. Neighbourhoods with the highest proportion of residents with less than high school education (RR: 1.6, 95%CI:1.4-1.8), low income (RR: 1.4, 95%CI:1.2-1.5) and unaffordable housing (RR: 1.6, 95%CI:1.4-1.8) were associated with COVID-19 incidence. Similar inequities were observed across neighbourhood-level sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19 mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Neighbourhood-level inequities in COVID-19 incidence and mortality were observed in Ontario, with excess burden experienced in neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of immigrants, racialized populations, large households and low socio-economic status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Ontario/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Family Characteristics , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273903, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anecdotally there are reports of newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection shortly after vaccination. This has led some to speculate that vaccination itself might inadvertently increase the short-term risk of COVID potentially due to airborne spread at mass vaccination clinics or relaxation of precautions following vaccination. We explored whether receipt of vaccination was associated with a short-term increase in the risk of being diagnosed with COVID-19 and if differences exist between vaccination settings. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in Ontario, Canada to compare the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection within 21 days of receiving a first vaccination, according to the setting in which vaccines were administered between March 1, 2021 and May 6, 2021. We used linked population-wide vaccination, laboratory testing, and health administrative databases. We created a 1:1 matched comparison group of unexposed individuals. We reported the overall risk of infection calculated at 3, 7, 10, 14, 18, and 21 days. This was completed overall and by setting of vaccine receipt. RESULTS: We identified 4,798,430 Ontario residents who received their first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. In the primary analysis, the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly lower among vaccine recipients vs non-recipients at all the post-vaccination time points. Analysis stratified by vaccination setting found that mass vaccination clinics, pharmacies, and physician offices were consistent with the main findings. Individuals who received their first vaccine dose in congregate residential settings had a higher rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection at 7 days (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.00-1.83) and 10 days (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03-2.15). CONCLUSION: In this population-based cohort study, we found that there was no increased risk of SARS-CoV2 infection after vaccination suggesting no broad transmission of disease at time of vaccination. Some evidence of increased risk among those vaccinated in congregate settings, highlighting the need to consider opportunities for supporting safe vaccine administration in these settings. Given ongoing and future immunization programs, the results support the need for continued vigilance during any mass vaccination processes and education regarding the delayed nature of protection following vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Ontario/epidemiology
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2237545, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074862

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is a growing focus on environmental sustainability in health care. Objective: To estimate the environmental and patient-level financial benefits associated with the widespread adoption of virtual care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study obtained data from linked administrative databases in the universal health care system of Ontario, Canada, from March 2020 to December 2021. Participants included all people with a physician claim for at least 1 episode of virtual care. Exposures: Patients were stratified by age, socioeconomic status quintiles, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and area of residence (rural or urban). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were total travel distance and estimated travel-related carbon dioxide emissions avoided owing to virtual care visits. Different model assumptions were used to account for electric and hybrid vehicles and public transit use. The secondary outcomes were estimated patient costs (gasoline, parking, or public transit expenses) avoided. Results: During the 22-month study period, 10 146 843 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.1 [23.1] years; 5 536 611 women [54.6%]) had 63 758 914 physician virtual care visits. These visits were associated with avoidance of 3.2 billion km of travel distance and between 545 and 658 million kg of carbon dioxide emissions. Patients avoided an estimated total of $569 to $733 million (Canadian [US $465-$599 million]) in parking, public transit, and gasoline costs. Carbon dioxide emission avoidance and patient cost savings were more apparent in patients living in rural areas, those with higher comorbidity, and those who were older than 65 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that virtual care was associated with a large amount of carbon dioxide emissions avoided owing to reduced patient travel and with millions of dollars saved in parking, gasoline, or public transit costs. These benefits are likely to continue as virtual care is maintained as part of the health care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Travel , Adult , Female , Humans , Carbon Dioxide , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gasoline , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL