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1.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928475

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a high mutation rate and many variants have emerged in the last 2 years, including Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma and Omicron. Studies showed that the host-genome similarity (HGS) of SARS-CoV-2 is higher than SARS-CoV and the HGS of open reading frame (ORF) in coronavirus genome is closely related to suppression of innate immunity. Many works have shown that ORF 6 and ORF 8 of SARS-CoV-2 play an important role in suppressing IFN-ß signaling pathway in vivo. However, the relation between HGS and the adaption of SARS-CoV-2 variants is still not clear. This work investigates HGS of SARS-CoV-2 variants based on a dataset containing more than 40,000 viral genomes. The relation between HGS of viral ORFs and the suppression of antivirus response is studied. The results show that ORF 7b, ORF 6 and ORF 8 are the top 3 genes with the highest HGS. In the past 2 years, the HGS values of ORF 8 and ORF 7B of SARS-CoV-2 have increased greatly. A remarkable correlation is discovered between HGS and inhibition of antivirus response of immune system, which suggests that the similarity between coronavirus and host gnome may be an indicator of the suppression of innate immunity. Among the five variants (Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma and Omicron), Delta has the highest HGS and Omicron has the lowest HGS. This finding implies that the high HGS in Delta variant may indicate further suppression of host innate immunity. However, the relatively low HGS of Omicron is still a puzzle. By comparing the mutations in genomes of Alpha, Delta and Omicron variants, a commonly shared mutation ACT > ATT is identified in high-HGS strain populations. The high HGS mutations among the three variants are quite different. This finding strongly suggests that mutations in high HGS strains are different in different variants. Only a few common mutations survive, which may play important role in improving the adaptability of SARS-CoV-2. However, the mechanism for how the mutations help SARS-CoV-2 escape immunity is still unclear. HGS analysis is a new method to study virus-host interaction and may provide a way to understand the rapid mutation and adaption of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910676

ABSTRACT

Tracking temporal and spatial genomic changes and evolution of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are among the most urgent research topics worldwide, which help to elucidate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis and the effect of deleterious variants. Our current study concentrates genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 variants in Uzbekistan and their associations with COVID-19 severity. Thirty-nine whole genome sequences (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from PCR-positive patients from Tashkent, Uzbekistan for the period of July-August 2021, were generated and further subjected to further genomic analysis. Genome-wide annotations of clinical isolates from our study have revealed a total of 223 nucleotide-level variations including SNPs and 34 deletions at different positions throughout the entire genome of SARS-CoV-2. These changes included two novel mutations at the Nonstructural protein (Nsp) 13: A85P and Nsp12: Y479N, which were unreported previously. There were two groups of co-occurred substitution patterns: the missense mutations in the Spike (S): D614G, Open Reading Frame (ORF) 1b: P314L, Nsp3: F924, 5`UTR:C241T; Nsp3:P2046L and Nsp3:P2287S, and the synonymous mutations in the Nsp4:D2907 (C8986T), Nsp6:T3646A and Nsp14:A1918V regions, respectively. The "Nextstrain" clustered the largest number of SARS-CoV-2 strains into the Delta clade (n = 32; 82%), followed by two Alpha-originated (n = 4; 10,3%) and 20A (n = 3; 7,7%) clades. Geographically the Delta clade sample sequences were grouped into several clusters with the SARS-CoV genotypes from Russia, Denmark, USA, Egypt and Bangladesh. Phylogenetically, the Delta isolates in our study belong to the two main subclades 21A (56%) and 21J (44%). We found that females were more affected by 21A, whereas males by 21J variant (χ2 = 4.57; p ≤ 0.05, n = 32). The amino acid substitution ORF7a:P45L in the Delta isolates found to be significantly associated with disease severity. In conclusion, this study evidenced that Identified novel substitutions Nsp13: A85P and Nsp12: Y479N, have a destabilizing effect, while missense substitution ORF7a: P45L significantly associated with disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Mutation , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Uzbekistan/epidemiology
3.
Mol Ecol ; 31(13): 3672-3692, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846261

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have complex genomes that encode a fixed array of structural and nonstructural components, as well as a variety of accessory proteins that differ even among closely related viruses. Accessory proteins often play a role in the suppression of immune responses and may represent virulence factors. Despite their relevance for CoV phenotypic variability, information on accessory proteins is fragmentary. We applied a systematic approach based on homology detection to create a comprehensive catalogue of accessory proteins encoded by CoVs. Our analyses grouped accessory proteins into 379 orthogroups and 12 super-groups. No orthogroup was shared by the four CoV genera and very few were present in all or most viruses in the same genus, reflecting the dynamic evolution of CoV genomes. We observed differences in the distribution of accessory proteins in CoV genera. Alphacoronaviruses harboured the largest diversity of accessory open reading frames (ORFs), deltacoronaviruses the smallest. However, the average number of accessory proteins per genome was highest in betacoronaviruses. Analysis of the evolutionary history of some orthogroups indicated that the different CoV genera adopted similar evolutionary strategies. Thus, alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses acquired phosphodiesterases and spike-like accessory proteins independently, whereas horizontal gene transfer from reoviruses endowed betacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses with fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins. Finally, analysis of accessory ORFs in annotated CoV genomes indicated ambiguity in their naming. This complicates cross-communication among researchers and hinders automated searches of large data sets (e.g., PubMed, GenBank). We suggest that orthogroup membership is used together with a naming system to provide information on protein function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Amino Acid Sequence , Coronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Open Reading Frames/genetics
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263563, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793526

ABSTRACT

Deletions frequently occur in the six accessory genes of SARS-CoV-2, but most genomes with deletions are sporadic and have limited spreading capability. Here, we analyze deletions in the ORF7a of the N.7 lineage, a unique Uruguayan clade from the Brazilian B.1.1.33 lineage. Thirteen samples collected during the early SARS-CoV-2 wave in Uruguay had deletions in the ORF7a. Complete genomes were obtained by Illumina next-generation sequencing, and deletions were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and capillary electrophoresis. The N.7 lineage includes several individuals with a 12-nucleotide deletion that removes four amino acids of the ORF7a. Notably, four individuals underwent an additional 68-nucleotide novel deletion that locates 44 nucleotides downstream in the terminal region of the same ORF7a. The simultaneous occurrence of the 12 and 68-nucleotide deletions fuses the ORF7a and ORF7b, two contiguous accessory genes that encode transmembrane proteins with immune-modulation activity. The fused ORF retains the signal peptide and the complete Ig-like fold of the 7a protein and the transmembrane domain of the 7b protein, suggesting that the fused protein plays similar functions to original proteins in a single format. Our findings evidence the remarkable dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and the possibility that single and consecutive deletions occur in accessory genes and promote changes in the genomic organization that help the virus explore genetic variations and select for new, higher fit changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cell Lineage , Gene Deletion , Genome, Viral , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Uruguay/epidemiology
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753670

ABSTRACT

To satisfy the need to develop highly sensitive methods for detecting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and further enhance detection efficiency and capability, a new method was created for detecting SARS-CoV-2 of the open reading frames 1ab (ORF1ab) target gene by a electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on dual-probe hybridization through the use of a detection model of "magnetic capture probes-targeted nucleic acids-Ru(bpy)32+ labeled signal probes". The detection model used magnetic particles coupled with a biotin-labeled complementary nucleic acid sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab target gene as the magnetic capture probes and Ru(bpy)32+ labeled amino modified another complementary nucleic acid sequence as the signal probes, which combined the advantages of the highly specific dual-probe hybridization and highly sensitive ECL biosensor technology. In the range of 0.1 fM~10 µM, the method made possible rapid and sensitive detection of the ORF1ab gene of the SARS-CoV-2 within 30 min, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1 fM. The method can also meet the analytical requirements for simulated samples such as saliva and urine with the definite advantages of a simple operation without nucleic acid amplification, high sensitivity, reasonable reproducibility, and anti-interference solid abilities, expounding a new way for efficient and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
J Virol ; 94(12)2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723543

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that recently emerged in China is thought to have a bat origin, as its closest known relative (BatCoV RaTG13) was described previously in horseshoe bats. We analyzed the selective events that accompanied the divergence of SARS-CoV-2 from BatCoV RaTG13. To this end, we applied a population genetics-phylogenetics approach, which leverages within-population variation and divergence from an outgroup. Results indicated that most sites in the viral open reading frames (ORFs) evolved under conditions of strong to moderate purifying selection. The most highly constrained sequences corresponded to some nonstructural proteins (nsps) and to the M protein. Conversely, nsp1 and accessory ORFs, particularly ORF8, had a nonnegligible proportion of codons evolving under conditions of very weak purifying selection or close to selective neutrality. Overall, limited evidence of positive selection was detected. The 6 bona fide positively selected sites were located in the N protein, in ORF8, and in nsp1. A signal of positive selection was also detected in the receptor-binding motif (RBM) of the spike protein but most likely resulted from a recombination event that involved the BatCoV RaTG13 sequence. In line with previous data, we suggest that the common ancestor of SARS-CoV-2 and BatCoV RaTG13 encoded/encodes an RBM similar to that observed in SARS-CoV-2 itself and in some pangolin viruses. It is presently unknown whether the common ancestor still exists and, if so, which animals it infects. Our data, however, indicate that divergence of SARS-CoV-2 from BatCoV RaTG13 was accompanied by limited episodes of positive selection, suggesting that the common ancestor of the two viruses was poised for human infection.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are dangerous zoonotic pathogens; in the last 2 decades, three coronaviruses have crossed the species barrier and caused human epidemics. One of these is the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. We investigated how, since its divergence from a closely related bat virus, natural selection shaped the genome of SARS-CoV-2. We found that distinct coding regions in the SARS-CoV-2 genome evolved under conditions of different degrees of constraint and are consequently more or less prone to tolerate amino acid substitutions. In practical terms, the level of constraint provides indications about which proteins/protein regions are better suited as possible targets for the development of antivirals or vaccines. We also detected limited signals of positive selection in three viral ORFs. However, we warn that, in the absence of knowledge about the chain of events that determined the human spillover, these signals should not be necessarily interpreted as evidence of an adaptation to our species.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Selection, Genetic , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Models, Molecular , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
7.
Microb Genom ; 7(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555049

ABSTRACT

In this study, we performed genome-wide association analyses on SARS-CoV-2 genomes to identify genetic mutations associated with pre-symptomatic/asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. Various potential covariates and confounding factors of COVID-19 severity, including patient age, gender and country, as well as virus phylogenetic relatedness were adjusted for. In total, 3021 full-length genomes of SARS-CoV-2 generated from original clinical samples and whose patient status could be determined conclusively as either 'pre-symptomatic/asymptomatic' or 'symptomatic' were retrieved from the GISAID database. We found that the mutation 11 083G>T, located in the coding region of non-structural protein 6, is significantly associated with asymptomatic COVID-19. Patient age is positively correlated with symptomatic infection, while gender is not significantly correlated with the development of the disease. We also found that the effects of the mutation, patient age and gender do not vary significantly among countries, although each country appears to have varying baseline chances of COVID-19 symptom development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Genetic Variation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Genetic , Female , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Phylogeny , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 692937, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403473

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) kills thousands of people worldwide every day, thus necessitating rapid development of countermeasures. Immunoinformatics analyses carried out here in search of immunodominant regions in recently identified SARS-CoV-2 unannotated open reading frames (uORFs) have identified eight linear B-cell, one conformational B-cell, 10 CD4+ T-cell, and 12 CD8+ T-cell promising epitopes. Among them, ORF9b B-cell and T-cell epitopes are the most promising followed by M.ext and ORF3c epitopes. ORF9b40-48 (CD8+ T-cell epitope) is found to be highly immunogenic and antigenic with the highest allele coverage. Furthermore, it has overlap with four potent CD4+ T-cell epitopes. Structure-based B-cell epitope prediction has identified ORF9b61-68 to be immunodominant, which partially overlaps with one of the linear B-cell epitopes (ORF9b65-69). ORF3c CD4+ T-cell epitopes (ORF3c2-16, ORF3c3-17, and ORF3c4-18) and linear B-cell epitope (ORF3c14-22) have also been identified as the candidate epitopes. Similarly, M.ext and 7a.iORF1 (overlap with M and ORF7a) proteins have promising immunogenic regions. By considering the level of antigen expression, four ORF9b and five M.ext epitopes are finally shortlisted as potent epitopes. Mutation analysis has further revealed that the shortlisted potent uORF epitopes are resistant to recurrent mutations. Additionally, four N-protein (expressed by canonical ORF) epitopes are found to be potent. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 uORF B-cell and T-cell epitopes identified here along with canonical ORF epitopes may aid in the design of a promising epitope-based polyvalent vaccine (when connected through appropriate linkers) against SARS-CoV-2. Such a vaccine can act as a bulwark against SARS-CoV-2, especially in the scenario of emergence of variants with recurring mutations in the spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Drug Design , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Open Reading Frames/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Vaccines, Combined/genetics , Vaccines, Combined/immunology
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1008959, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388958

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 genome annotation revealed the presence of 10 open reading frames (ORFs), of which the last one (ORF10) is positioned downstream of the N gene. It is a hypothetical gene, which was speculated to encode a 38 aa protein. This hypothetical protein does not share sequence similarity with any other known protein and cannot be associated with a function. While the role of this ORF10 was proposed, there is growing evidence showing that the ORF10 is not a coding region. Here, we identified SARS-CoV-2 variants in which the ORF10 gene was prematurely terminated. The disease was not attenuated, and the transmissibility between humans was maintained. Also, in vitro, the strains replicated similarly to the related viruses with the intact ORF10. Altogether, based on clinical observation and laboratory analyses, it appears that the ORF10 protein is not essential in humans. This observation further proves that the ORF10 should not be treated as the protein-coding gene, and the genome annotations should be amended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Mutation , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Codon, Nonsense , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/metabolism
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0244468, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371999

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged and rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To facilitate a deeper understanding of the viral biology we developed a capture sequencing methodology to generate SARS-CoV-2 genomic and transcriptome sequences from infected patients. We utilized an oligonucleotide probe-set representing the full-length genome to obtain both genomic and transcriptome (subgenomic open reading frames [ORFs]) sequences from 45 SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples with varying viral titers. For samples with higher viral loads (cycle threshold value under 33, based on the CDC qPCR assay) complete genomes were generated. Analysis of junction reads revealed regions of differential transcriptional activity among samples. Mixed allelic frequencies along the 20kb ORF1ab gene in one sample, suggested the presence of a defective viral RNA species subpopulation maintained in mixture with functional RNA in one sample. The associated workflow is straightforward, and hybridization-based capture offers an effective and scalable approach for sequencing SARS-CoV-2 from patient samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , COVID-19/virology , DNA, Complementary/chemistry , DNA, Complementary/metabolism , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282511

ABSTRACT

Transcript sequencing is a crucial tool for gaining a deep understanding of biological processes in diagnostic and clinical medicine. Given their potential to study novel complex eukaryotic transcriptomes, long-read sequencing technologies are able to overcome some limitations of short-read RNA-Seq approaches. Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) offers the ability to generate long-read sequencing data in real time via portable protein nanopore USB devices. This work aimed to provide the user with the number of reads that should be sequenced, through the ONT MinION platform, to reach the desired accuracy level for a human cell RNA study. We sequenced three cDNA libraries prepared from poly-adenosine RNA of human primary cardiac fibroblasts. Since the runs were comparable, they were combined in a total dataset of 48 million reads. Synthetic datasets with different sizes were generated starting from the total and analyzed in terms of the number of identified genes and their expression levels. As expected, an improved sensitivity was obtained, increasing the sequencing depth, particularly for the non-coding genes. The reliability of expression levels was assayed by (i) comparison with PCR quantifications of selected genes and (ii) by the implementation of a user-friendly multiplexing method in a single run.


Subject(s)
Nanopore Sequencing , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , RNA-Seq
13.
Mol Cell Probes ; 58: 101748, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272616

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is still being transmitted in developed and developing countries irrespective of healthcare setups. India with 1.3 billion people in the world is severely affected by Covid-19 with 11.3 million cases and 157 000 deaths so far. We have assessed the mismatches in WHO recommended rRT-PCR assays primer and probe binding regions against SARS-CoV-2 Indian genome sequences through in-silico bioinformatics analysis approach. Primers and probe sequences belonging to CN-CDC-ORF1ab from China and HKU-ORF1b from Hong Kong targeting ORF1ab gene while NIH-TH-N from Thailand, HKU-N from Hong Kong and US-CDCN-2 from USA targeting N genes displayed accurate matches (>98.3%) with the 2019 novel corona virus sequences from India. On the other hand, none of the genomic sequences displayed exact match with the primer/probe sequences belonging to Charité-ORF1b from Germany targeting ORF1ab gene. We think it will be worthwhile to release this information to the clinical and medical communities working in Indian Covid-19 frontline taskforce to tackle the recently emerging Covid-19 outbreaks as of March-2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Computer Simulation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA Probes/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , India/epidemiology , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259627

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, is a readily transmissible and potentially deadly pathogen which is currently re-defining human susceptibility to pandemic viruses in the modern world. The recent emergence of several genetically distinct descendants known as variants of concern (VOCs) is further challenging public health disease management, due to increased rates of virus transmission and potential constraints on vaccine effectiveness. We report the isolation of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs imported into Australia belonging to the B.1.351 lineage, first described in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), and the B.1.1.7 lineage originally reported in the United Kingdom, and directly compare the replication kinetics of these two VOCs in Vero E6 cells. In this analysis, we also investigated a B.1.1.7 VOC (QLD1516/2021) carrying a 7-nucleotide deletion in the open reading frame 7a (ORF7a) gene, likely truncating and rendering the ORF7a protein of this virus defective. We demonstrate that the replication of the B.1.351 VOC (QLD1520/2020) in Vero E6 cells can be detected earlier than the B.1.1.7 VOCs (QLD1516/2021 and QLD1517/2021), before peaking at 48 h post infection (p.i.), with significantly higher levels of virus progeny. Whilst replication of the ORF7a defective isolate QLD1516/2021 was delayed longer than the other viruses, slightly more viral progeny was produced by the mutant compared to the unmutated isolate QLD1517/2021 at 72 h p.i. Collectively, these findings contribute to our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 replication and evolutionary dynamics, which have important implications in the development of future vaccination, antiviral therapies, and epidemiological control strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication , Adult , Animals , Australia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Kinetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nasopharynx/virology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , South Africa , United Kingdom , Vero Cells
15.
Cell ; 184(15): 3962-3980.e17, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252549

ABSTRACT

T cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the repertoire of naturally processed and presented viral epitopes on class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA-I) remains uncharacterized. Here, we report the first HLA-I immunopeptidome of SARS-CoV-2 in two cell lines at different times post infection using mass spectrometry. We found HLA-I peptides derived not only from canonical open reading frames (ORFs) but also from internal out-of-frame ORFs in spike and nucleocapsid not captured by current vaccines. Some peptides from out-of-frame ORFs elicited T cell responses in a humanized mouse model and individuals with COVID-19 that exceeded responses to canonical peptides, including some of the strongest epitopes reported to date. Whole-proteome analysis of infected cells revealed that early expressed viral proteins contribute more to HLA-I presentation and immunogenicity. These biological insights, as well as the discovery of out-of-frame ORF epitopes, will facilitate selection of peptides for immune monitoring and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , A549 Cells , Alleles , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigen Presentation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Mice , Peptides/chemistry , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
16.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(5): 478-484, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues the pandemic spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), over 60 million people confirmed infected and at least 1.8 million dead. One of the most known features of this RNA virus is its easiness to be mutated. In late 2020, almost no region of this SARS-CoV-2 genome can be found completely conserved within the original Wuhan coronavirus. Any information of the SARS-CoV-2 variants emerged through as time being will be evaluated for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. METHODS: We extracted more than two million data of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients from the open COVID-19 dashboard. The sequences of the 38-amino acid putative open reading frame 10 (Orf10) protein within infected patients were gathered output through from National Center for Biotechnology Information and the mutation rates in each position were analyzed and presented in each month of 2020. The mutation rates of A8 and V30 within Orf10 are displayed in selected counties: United States, India, German, and Japan. RESULTS: The numbers of COVID-19 patients are correlated to the death numbers, but not with the death rates (stable and <3%). The amino acid positions locating at A8(F/G/L), I13, and V30(L) within the Orf10 sequence stay the highest mutation rate; N5, N25, and N36 rank at the lowest one. A8F expressed highly dominant in Japan (over 80%) and German (around 40%) coming to the end of 2020, but no significant finding in other countries. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate via mutation analysis of Orf10 can be further combined with advanced tools such as molecular simulation, artificial intelligence, and biosensors that can practically revealed for protein interactions and thus to imply the authentic Orf10 function of SARS-CoV-2 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Mutation , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Open Reading Frames/physiology
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104858, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179908

ABSTRACT

The coronaviruses (CoVs), including SARS-CoV-2, the agent of the ongoing deadly CoVID-19 pandemic (Coronavirus disease-2019), represent a highly complex and diverse class of RNA viruses with large genomes, complex gene repertoire, and intricate transcriptional and translational mechanisms. The 3'-terminal one-third of the genome encodes four structural proteins, namely spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid, interspersed with genes for accessory proteins that are largely nonstructural and called 'open reading frame' (ORF) proteins with alphanumerical designations, but not in a consistent or sequential order. Here, I report a comparative study of these ORF proteins, mainly encoded in two gene clusters, i.e. between the Spike and the Envelope genes, and between the Membrane and the Nucleocapsid genes. For brevity and focus, a greater emphasis was placed on the first cluster, collectively designated as the 'orf3 region' for ease of referral. Overall, an apparently diverse set of ORFs, such as ORF3a, ORF3b, ORF3c, ORF3d, ORF4 and ORF5, but not necessarily numbered in that order on all CoV genomes, were analyzed along with other ORFs. Unexpectedly, the gene order or naming of the ORFs were never fully conserved even within the members of one Genus. These studies also unraveled hitherto unrecognized orf genes in alternative translational frames, encoding potentially novel polypeptides as well as some that are highly similar to known ORFs. Finally, several options of an inclusive and systematic numbering are proposed not only for the orf3 region but also for the other orf genes in the viral genome in an effort to regularize the apparently confusing names and orders. Regardless of the ultimate acceptability of one system over the others, this treatise is hoped to initiate an informed discourse in this area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genomics/methods , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans
18.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 496(1): 27-31, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161117

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus family consists of lipid-containing envelope viruses that have a single-stranded RNA genome that encodes 25-30 proteins in different viruses by the mechanism of positive-polarity strategy. In addition, extended open reading trnslation frames (ORFs, genes) located in a negative-sense orientation were found in the genomes of coronaviruses. The size of negative-sense genes varies in the range of 150-450 nt, which corresponds to polypeptides encoded by negative-polarity genes (negative gene proteins, NGP) with m. m. 5-30 × 103 kDa. Coronaviruses show marked differences from virus to virus in the number of negative genes detected. These negative-sense genes in the coronavirus genome allow this family to be considered as viruses developing an ambisense genome strategy.


Subject(s)
Genes, Viral/genetics , Genomics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence , Open Reading Frames/genetics
19.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 56, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in the patients' feces, which could lead to fecal-oral transmission. Therefore, fecal sample testing with real-time RT-PCR is highly recommended as a routine test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, varying rates of detection in fecal sample have been reported. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients' fecal sample by using four real-time RT-PCR kits and two pretreatment methods (inactive and non-inactive). RESULTS: The detection rate of Trizol pretreatment group was slightly higher than that of Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) groups, showing that pretreatment and inactivation by Trizol had no influence to SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test (NAT) results. 39.29% detection rate in fecal sample by DAAN was obtained, while Bio-germ was 40.48%, Sansure 34.52%, and GeneoDx 33.33%. The former three kits had no significant difference. The DAAN kit detection rates of ORF1ab and N gene were nearly equal and Ct value distribution was more scattered, while the Bio-germ kit distribution was more clustered. The positive rate of SARS-COV-2 in fecal samples correlated with the severity of the disease, specifically, severe cases were less likely to be identified than asymptomatic infection in the DAAN group (adjusted OR 0.05, 95%CI = 0.00 ~ 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Trizol should be of choice as a valid and safe method for pretreatment of fecal samples of SARS-CoV-2. All real-time RT-PCR kits assessed in this study can be used for routine detection of SARS-CoV-2 in fecal samples. While DAAN, with high NAT positive rate, could be the best out of the 4 kits used in this study. SARS-CoV-2 positive rate in fecal sample was related to the severity of illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Feces/microbiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Open Reading Frames/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3934, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087497

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence supports the high prevalence of co-infections among Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients, and their potential to worsen the clinical outcome of COVID-19. However, there are few data on Southern Hemisphere populations, and most studies to date have investigated a narrow spectrum of viruses using targeted qRT-PCR. Here we assessed respiratory viral co-infections among SARS-CoV-2 patients in Australia, through respiratory virome characterization. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 92 SARS-CoV-2-positive cases were sequenced using pan-viral hybrid-capture and the Twist Respiratory Virus Panel. In total, 8% of cases were co-infected, with rhinovirus (6%) or influenzavirus (2%). Twist capture also achieved near-complete sequencing (> 90% coverage, > tenfold depth) of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in 95% of specimens with Ct < 30. Our results highlight the importance of assessing all pathogens in symptomatic patients, and the dual-functionality of Twist hybrid-capture, for SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing without amplicon generation and the simultaneous identification of viral co-infections with ease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Virome/genetics , Australia/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Whole Genome Sequencing
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