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1.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 15(3): 343-348, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237938

ABSTRACT

Background: In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, surgical resident education depends largely on virtual materials. With the help of point-of-view (POV) cameras, educational videos have become widely used for surgical training. A video recorded from the surgeon's POV helps demonstrate the procedure. We made training movies of the surgical approach to distal radius fractures for residents using a head-mounted video recording system with a laser point targeting device (LPTD). Methods: A 15-minnute movie of the trans-flexor carpi radialis approach for distal radius fractures was made. A POV camera was assembled with an LPTD and strapped on the surgeon's head. This enabled maintenance of the surgical field while recording the procedure. A shorter version of the clip was also made to investigate trainee preference. We asked 24 trainees to watch the two versions of the video and complete a short questionnaire. Results: All trainees felt that the movie made with a POV camera was more efficient than existing materials. Only 1 (4.2%) felt that the laser pointer hindered the view. Four of the 23 trainees (16.7%) felt dizzy while watching the video. Of the two versions, 16 trainees (66.7%) preferred the shorter, edited version. The average score for the video was 8.42 out of 10. Conclusions: A video recording system in the operating room that uses an LPTD-POV camera is an efficient way to produce educational material, particularly for surgical residents during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Wrist Fractures , Humans , Operating Rooms , Video Recording/methods
2.
J Clin Ethics ; 34(2): 211-217, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242004

ABSTRACT

AbstractPediatric dentists rely on access to hospital operating rooms for safe, effective, and humane delivery of dental care. The children who benefit most from dental treatment in a hospital operating room are those who are very young, have dental anxieties or phobias, are precommunicative or noncommunicative, need extensive or invasive dental treatments, or have special healthcare needs. Diminishing access to hospital operating rooms for pediatric dental treatment has become an escalating problem in contemporary times. Financial barriers, hospital costs, reimbursement rates, health insurance policies and deductibles, out-of-network hospitals, socioeconomic factors, and the COVID-19 pandemic are prominent contributing factors. This problem in access to care has resulted in long waiting times for hospital operating rooms, deferral of medically necessary dental care, and pain and infection among this vulnerable patient population. Pediatric dentists have responded to the problem by utilizing alternative methods of care delivery, such as in-office deep sedation or in-office general anesthesia, and by implementing aggressive medical management of dental caries. However, the youngest of pediatric patients and children with special healthcare needs still remain at a disadvantage in receiving definitive dental treatment. This article aims to highlight the ethical challenges faced by pediatric dentists in contemporary practice in the face of limitations in hospital operating room access through four case scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Caries , Child , Humans , Pediatric Dentistry , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Hospitals
3.
World J Emerg Surg ; 18(1): 32, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timely access to the operating room for emergency general surgery (EGS) indications remains a challenge across the globe, largely driven by operating room availability and staffing constraints. The "timing in acute care surgery" (TACS) classification was previously published to introduce a new tool to triage the timely and appropriate access of EGS patients to the operating room. However, the clinical and operational effectiveness of the TACS classification has not been investigated in subsequent validation studies. This study aimed to improve the TACS classification and provide further consensus around the appropriate use of the new TACS classification through a standardized Delphi approach with international experts. METHODS: This is a validation study of the new TACS by a selected international panel of experts using the Delphi method. The TACS questionnaire was designed as a web-based survey. The consensus agreement level was established to be ≥ 75%. The collective consensus agreement was defined as the sum of the percentage of the highest Likert scale levels (4-5) out of all participants. Surgical emergency diseases and correlated clinical scenarios were defined for each of the proposed classes. Subsequent rounds were carried out until a definitive level of consensus was reached. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to determine the degree of agreement for each surgical disease. RESULTS: Four polling rounds were carried out. The new TACS classification provides 6 colour-code classes correlated to a precise timing to surgery, defined scenarios and surgical condition. The WHITE colour-code class was introduced to rapidly (within a week) reschedule cancelled or postponed surgical procedures. Haemodynamic stability is the main tool to stratify patients for immediate surgery or not in the presence of sepsis/septic shock. Fifty-one surgical diseases were included in the different colour-code classes of priority. CONCLUSION: The new TACS classification is a comprehensive, simple, clear and reproducible triage system which can be used to assess the severity of the patient and the surgical disease, to reduce the time to access to the operating room, and to manage the emergency surgical patients within a "safe" timeframe. By including well-defined surgical diseases in the different colour-code classes of priority, validated through a Delphi consensus, the new TACS improves communication among surgeons, between surgeons and anaesthesiologists and decreases conflicts and waste and waiting time in accessing the operating room for emergency surgical patients.


Subject(s)
Surgeons , Triage , Humans , Delphi Technique , Triage/methods , Consensus , Operating Rooms
7.
J Am Coll Surg ; 236(4): 816-822, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A pre-existing nationwide nursing shortage drastically worsened during the pandemic, causing a significant increase in nursing labor costs. We examined the financial impact of these changes on department of surgery financial margins. STUDY DESIGN: Operating room, inpatient, and outpatient financial metrics were analyzed. Monthly averages from a 14-month control cohort, January 2019 to February 2020 (pre-COVID-19), were compared with a 21-month cohort, March 2020 to November 2021 (COVID-19). True revenue and cost data from hospital accounting records, not estimates or administrative projections, were analyzed. Statistics were performed with standard Student's t -test and the Anderson-Darling normality test. RESULTS: Monthly surgical nursing costs increased significantly, with concomitant significant decreases in departmental contribution to margin. No significant change was observed in case volume per month, length of stay per case, or surgical acuity, as standardized by the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Case Mix Index. To obviate insurance payor mix as a variable and standardize cost data, surgical nursing expense per relative value unit was analyzed, demonstrating a significant increase. Hospital-wide agency nursing costs increased from $5.1 to $13.5 million per month (+165%) in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a significant increase in surgical nursing labor costs with a resultant erosion of department of surgery financial margins. Use of real-time accounting data instead of commonly touted administrative approximations or Medicare projections increases both the accuracy and generalizability of the data. The long-term impact of both direct costs from supply chain interruption and indirect costs, such as limited operating room and ICU access, will require further study. Clearly this ominous trend is not viable, and fiscal recovery will require sustained, strategic workforce allocation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicare , Aged , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Hospital Costs , Operating Rooms
10.
AORN J ; 113(3): P5-P8, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157685
11.
World J Surg ; 46(12): 2939-2945, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficient resource management in the operating room (OR) contributes significantly to healthcare expenditure and revenue generation for health systems. We aim to assess the influence that surgeon, anesthesiology, and nursing team assignments and time of day have on turnover time (TOT) in the OR. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of elective cases at a single academic hospital that were completed between Monday and Friday between the hours of 0700 and 2359 from July 1, 2017, through March 31, 2018. Emergent cases and unplanned, add-on cases were excluded. Data regarding patient characteristics, OR teams, TOT, and procedure start and end times were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2174 total cases across 13 different specialties were included in our study. A multivariate regression of relevant variables affecting TOT was performed. Consecutive specialty (p < 0.0001), consecutive surgeon (p < 0.0001), anesthesiologist (p < 0.0001), and prior case ending before 1400 (p < 0.0001) were independent predictors of lower TOT. A receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.848 and a cutoff of 1400 having the highest sensitivity and specificity for TOT difference. CONCLUSIONS: TOT can be significantly affected by the time of the day the procedure is performed. Staffing availability during late procedures and the differences in how OR team staff are scheduled may affect OR efficiency. Additional studies may be needed to determine the long-term implications of changes implemented to decrease organizational operational costs related to the OR.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , Surgeons , Humans , Operating Rooms , Elective Surgical Procedures , Anesthesiologists , Efficiency, Organizational , Operative Time
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276420, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079767

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe how video laryngoscopy is used outside the operating room within the hospital setting. Specifically, we aimed to summarise the evidence for the use of video laryngoscopy outside the operating room, and detail how it appears in current clinical practice guidelines. A literature search was conducted across two databases (MEDLINE and Embase), and all articles underwent screening for relevance to our aims and pre-determined exclusion criteria. Our results include 14 clinical practice guidelines, 12 interventional studies, 38 observational studies. Our results show that video laryngoscopy is likely to improve glottic view and decrease the incidence of oesophageal intubations; however, it remains unclear as to how this contributes to first-pass success, overall intubation success and clinical outcomes such as mortality outside the operating room. Furthermore, our results indicate that the appearance of video laryngoscopy in clinical practice guidelines has increased in recent years, and particularly through the COVID-19 pandemic. Current COVID-19 airway management guidelines unanimously introduce video laryngoscopy as a first-line (rather than rescue) device.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Laryngoscopy/methods , Operating Rooms , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Video Recording
14.
Can J Surg ; 65(5): E675-E682, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have estimated that a large backlog of procedures was generated by emergency measures implemented in Ontario, Canada, at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, when nonessential and scheduled procedures were postponed. Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the time needed to perform a procedure may help to determine the resources needed to tackle the substantial backlog caused by the deferral of cases. The purpose of this study was to examine the duration of operating room (OR) procedures before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to inform planning around changes in required resources. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted using Ontario Health Insurance Plan claims data and other administrative health care data from Apr. 1, 2019, to Sept. 30, 2020. Statistical analysis was conducted using multivariate regression, with procedure duration as the outcome variable. RESULTS: Results showed that the average duration of nonelective procedures increased by 34 minutes during the COVID-19 period and by 19 minutes after the resumption of scheduled procedures. Controlling for physician, patient and hospital characteristics, and the procedure code submitted, procedure duration increased by 12 minutes in the nonelective COVID-19 period and by 5 minutes when scheduled procedures resumed, compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: Procedures may take longer in the COVID-19 period. This will affect wait times, which had already increased because of the deferral of procedures at the beginning of the pandemic, and will have an impact on Ontario's ability to provide patients with timely care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Operating Rooms , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
16.
Simul Healthc ; 17(1): 66-67, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042677

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY STATEMENT: Simulation resources offer an opportunity to highlight aerosol dispersion within the operating room environment. We demonstrate our methodology with a supporting video that can offer operating room teams support in their practical understanding of aerosol exposure and the importance of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Operating Rooms , Personal Protective Equipment , Aerosols , Health Personnel , Humans
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(36): e273, 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039654

ABSTRACT

Amid the coronavirus disease 2019 era, concern about the safety of surgical teams related to surgical smoke (SS) is rising. As simple ventilation improvement methods (SVIMs), we replaced 4 of the 8 supply diffusers with a direction-adjustable louver-type, closed 2 of the 4 exhaust grills, and strengthened the sealing of the doorway. Dynamic changes in the concentration of particulate matter (PM) with sizes of < 1.0 µm (PM1.0) were measured using low-cost PM meters (LCPMs) at eight locations in the operating room (OR). SS concentration up to 4 minutes at the location of the surgeon, first assistant, and scrub nurse before and after SVIMs application decreased from 65.4, 38.2, 35.7 µg/m3 to 9.5, 0.1 and 0.7 µg/m3 respectively. A similar decrease was observed in the other 5 locations. SVIMs could effectively control SS and the LCPM was also effective in measuring SS in the OR or other spaces of the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Humans , Operating Rooms , Smoke/adverse effects
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(19): e0129722, 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029467

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of COVID-19, additional protocols have been established to prevent the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 from the patient to the health personnel and vice versa in health care settings. However, in the case of emergency surgeries, it is not always possible to ensure that the patient is not infected with SARS-CoV-2, assuming a potential source of transmission of the virus to health personnel. This work aimed to evaluate the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 and quantify the viral load in indoor air samples collected inside operating rooms, where emergency and scheduled operations take place. Samples were collected for 3 weeks inside two operating rooms for 24 h at 38 L/min in quartz filters. RNA was extracted from the filters and analyzed using RT-qPCR targeting SARS-CoV-2 genes E, N1 and N2 regions. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 11.3% of aerosol samples collected in operating rooms, despite with low concentrations (not detected at 13.5 cg/m3 and 10.5 cg/m3 in the scheduled and emergency operating rooms, respectively). Potential sources of airborne SARS-CoV-2 could be aerosolization of the virus during aerosol-generating procedures and in open surgery from patients that might have been recently infected with the virus, despite presenting a negative COVID-19 test. Another source could be related to health care workers unknowingly infected with the virus and exhaling SARS-CoV-2 virions into the air. These results highlight the importance of reinforcing preventive measures against COVID-19 in operating rooms, such as the correct use of protective equipment, screening programs for health care workers, and information campaigns. IMPORTANCE Operating rooms are critical environments in which asepsis must be ensured. The COVID-19 pandemic entailed the implementation of additional preventative measures in health care settings, including operating theaters. Although one of the measures is to operate only COVID-19 free patients, this measure cannot be always implemented, especially in emergency interventions. Therefore, a surveillance campaign was conducted during 3 weeks in two operating rooms to assess the level of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material detected in operating theaters with the aim to assess the risk of COVID-19 transmission during operating procedures. SARS-CoV-2 genetic material was detected in 11% of aerosol samples collected in operating rooms, despite with low concentrations. Plausible SARS-CoV-2 sources have been discussed, including patients and health care personnel infected with the virus. These results highlight the importance of reinforcing preventive measures against COVID-19 in operating rooms, such as the correct use of protective equipment, screening programs for health care workers and information campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Load , Humans , Operating Rooms , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quartz , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Anaesthesia ; 77(10): 1097-1105, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008732

ABSTRACT

The ability to measure and track aerosols in the vicinity of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 is highly desirable. At present, there is no way to measure and track, in real time, the sizes, dispersion and dilution/disappearance of aerosols that are generated by airway manipulations such as mask ventilation; tracheal intubation; bronchoscopy; dental and gastro-intestinal endoscopy procedures; or by vigorous breathing, coughing or exercise. We deployed low-cost photoelectric sensors in five operating theatres between surgical cases. We measured and analysed dilution and exfiltration of aerosols we generated to evaluate air handling and dispersion under real-world conditions. These data were used to develop a model of aerosol persistence. We found significant variation between different operating theatres. Equipment placement near air vents affects air flows, impacting aerosol movement and elimination patterns. Despite these impediments, air exchange in operating theatres is robust and prolonged fallow time before theatre turnover may not be necessary. Significant concentrations of aerosols are not seen in adjoining areas outside of the operating theatre. These models and dispersion rates can predict aerosol persistence in operating theatres and other clinical areas and potentially facilitate quantification of risk, with obvious and far-reaching implications for designing, evaluating and confirming air handling in non-medical environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cough , Humans , Operating Rooms , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Ventilation
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