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3.
JAAPA ; 34(6): 1-4, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Preliminary data suggest that opioid-related overdose deaths have increased subsequent to COVID-19. Despite national support for expanding the role of physician assistants (PAs) and NPs in serving patients with opioid use disorder, these clinicians are held to complex and stringent regulatory barriers. COVID-19 triggered significant changes from regulatory and federal agencies, yet disparate policies and regulations persist between physicians and PAs and NPs. The dual epidemics of COVID-19 and opioid use disorder highlight the inadequate infrastructure required to support patients, communities, and clinicians, and may serve as the catalyst for eliminating barriers to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Prescriptions , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Legislation, Drug , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Nurse Practitioners/legislation & jurisprudence , Opioid Epidemic , Physician Assistants/legislation & jurisprudence , Physicians/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology
5.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 344-350, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631191

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on recently published literature on the rise of illicit fentanyls, risks for overdose, combinations with other substances, e.g. stimulants, consequences, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Overdose due to illicit synthetic opioids (e.g. fentanyl and fentanyl analogs) continues to rise in the US both preceding and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fentanyl-related overdose is rising in new geographic areas e.g. the western USA. Stimulant-related overdose is also increasing nationwide driven by methamphetamine and cocaine. Polysubstance use, e.g. the use of a stimulant along with an opioid is driving stimulant-related overdose. Other medical consequences of injection drug use are rising including HIV and hepatitis C infections. Medication approaches to treating opioid use disorder remain the standard of care and there are new promising pharmacological approaches to treating methamphetamine use disorder. SUMMARY: A 'fourth wave' of high mortality involving methamphetamine and cocaine use has been gathering force in the USA. Availability and use of illicit fentanyls are still the major drivers of overdose deaths and the current rise in stimulant-related deaths appears entwined with the ongoing opioid epidemic.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/poisoning , Central Nervous System Stimulants/poisoning , Cocaine-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Fentanyl/poisoning , Opiate Overdose/epidemiology , Opioid Epidemic/statistics & numerical data , Cocaine/poisoning , Comorbidity , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Humans , Illicit Drugs/poisoning , Methamphetamine/poisoning
8.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 37(11): 1035-1041, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545678

ABSTRACT

In order to effectively contribute to scientific knowledge, biomedical observations have to be validated and debated by scientists in the relevant field. Along this debate that mainly takes place in the scientific literature, citation of previous studies plays a major role. However, only a few academic studies have quantitatively evaluated the suitability and accuracy of scientific citations. Here we review these academic studies. Two types of misuse have been pointed out: Citation bias and citation distortion. First, scientific citations favor positive results and those supporting authors' conclusion. Second, many statements linked to a reference actually misrepresent the referenced findings. About 10% of all citations in biomedicine are strongly inaccurate and misleading for the reader. Finally, we give two examples illustrating how some citation misuses do affect public health: The opioid crisis in the USA and the unjustified fostering of hydroxychloroquine for Covid-19 treatment in France.


TITLE: Le mésusage des citations et ses conséquences en médecine. ABSTRACT: Les observations biomédicales ne deviennent une source de connaissance qu'après un débat entre chercheurs. Au cours de ce débat, la citation des études antérieures tient un rôle majeur, mais les travaux académiques qui en évaluent l'usage sont rares. Ils ont cependant pu révéler deux types de problèmes : les biais de citation et les écarts de sens entre l'étude antérieure citée et ce qu'en dit l'article citant. Dans cette revue, nous synthétisons ces travaux et en dégageons les principales caractéristiques : les études favorables à la conclusion des auteurs citants sont plus souvent citées que celles qui les questionnent ; des écarts de sens majeurs affectent environ 10 % des citations. Nous illustrons par deux exemples les conséquences de ce mésusage des citations.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Publication Bias , Publications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Opioid Epidemic
10.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(4): 100592, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525796

ABSTRACT

There has been an increased focus on the opioid epidemic in the United States, yet policy-based interventions such as prescription limits, restrictions on doctor shopping, and notification programs for high-volume prescribers have had no significant impact. In this paper, the authors explore a novel public health policy: a joint public-private partnership between the federal government and hospitals to establish long-term treatment centers for patients admitted to the emergency department after an overdose. These centers would provide medication for opioid use disorder, give individuals the necessary support for recovery, and reduce healthcare expenditures. Similar longitudinal strategies may be used in other areas of public health.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Humans , Opioid Epidemic , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Public Health , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , United States
11.
Healthc Q ; 24(3): 27-30, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524627

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic has been the major focus for healthcare leaders since early 2020, the opioid crisis has been growing in the background. Confronting this emerging problem will require new thinking. Guest editors Anne Wojtak and Neil Stuart spoke with Scott Elliott, executive director, and Patrick McDougall, director of Knowledge Translation and Evaluation, at the Dr. Peter AIDS Foundation in Vancouver to gain their insights into how leaders can respond effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leadership , Canada , Humans , Opioid Epidemic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
14.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 15(4): 584-627, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384565

ABSTRACT

With the current national opioid crisis, it is critical to examine the mechanisms underlying pathophysiologic interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and opioids in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent advances in experimental models, methodology, and our understanding of disease processes at the molecular and cellular levels reveal opioid-HIV interactions with increasing clarity. However, despite the substantial new insight, the unique impact of opioids on the severity, progression, and prognosis of neuroHIV and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not fully understood. In this review, we explore, in detail, what is currently known about mechanisms underlying opioid interactions with HIV, with emphasis on individual HIV-1-expressed gene products at the molecular, cellular and systems levels. Furthermore, we review preclinical and clinical studies with a focus on key considerations when addressing questions of whether opioid-HIV interactive pathogenesis results in unique structural or functional deficits not seen with either disease alone. These considerations include, understanding the combined consequences of HIV-1 genetic variants, host variants, and µ-opioid receptor (MOR) and HIV chemokine co-receptor interactions on the comorbidity. Lastly, we present topics that need to be considered in the future to better understand the unique contributions of opioids to the pathophysiology of neuroHIV. Graphical Abstract Blood-brain barrier and the neurovascular unit. With HIV and opiate co-exposure (represented below the dotted line), there is breakdown of tight junction proteins and increased leakage of paracellular compounds into the brain. Despite this, opiate exposure selectively increases the expression of some efflux transporters, thereby restricting brain penetration of specific drugs.


Subject(s)
AIDS Dementia Complex/complications , COVID-19 , HIV Infections/complications , Opioid Epidemic , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans
15.
New Solut ; 31(3): 210-218, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371935

ABSTRACT

The United States' opioid public health crisis continues having disastrous consequences on communities, including workers and employers. From May 2019 to May 2020, the largest number of drug overdose deaths was recorded over a twelve-month period. The "twindemics" of COVID-19 and opioids underscore the urgent need to address workers' physical and mental health. Although much has been written about the negative impacts of the opioid epidemic on the workplace, few initiatives have focused on primary prevention, addressing work-related root causes of opioid use disorders (e.g., injury, stress) that may lead to prescription or illicit opioid use. We suggest primary prevention efforts to address the connection between workplace hazards and opioid misuse, dependence, and addiction such as examining patterns of work injury and stress with records of opioid prescription. Government funding should be expanded to support primary prevention and research efforts to strengthen the evidence-base to support workplace primary prevention endeavors.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , COVID-19 , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Humans , Opioid Epidemic , Primary Prevention , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Workplace
17.
J Addict Med ; 16(1): e2-e4, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317926

ABSTRACT

The opioid epidemic continues to affect pregnant women with opioid use disorder adversely in unique and enduring ways. The onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the necessary public health measures implemented to slow the transmission have increased barriers to care for these same women. This commentary explores the implications of these measures and discusses strategies we have developed to manage these challenges based on our work in a clinical trial providing patient navigation to pregnant mothers with OUD. We believe these solutions can be applied in medical, behavioral health, and research settings through the pandemic and beyond to increase the quality of care and resources to this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Female , Humans , Opioid Epidemic , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(6-7): 499-508, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316731

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 global pandemic continues, more than 40 states have reported increases in opioid-related mortality. The issue of service access and delivery poses a major concern for those struggling with mental illness and substance use disorders in the United States. To ensure the continuity of health care during the pandemic and the co-occurring opioid crisis, the United States continues to adapt its healthcare delivery strategies, which include the introduction of telehealth. Telehealth is a relatively new concept and requires rapid systems changes as well as adjustments from both service providers and recipients. The proper adaptation to the new service delivery method could result in process optimization and improved outcomes for those struggling with opioid dependency. This study aims to bring attention to the opioid crisis that may be overlooked in light of the global pandemic and encourage social workers and other mental health professionals to utilize modern technological advancements to improve service delivery to their clients. This paper offers a literature review with four themes: (1) a retrospect on pain and opioids, (2) current telehealth models and practical strategies, (3) social work roles and functions in telehealth care, and (4) next steps and implications of telehealth for social work as a much-needed health-care delivery tool at the clinical and community social work practice level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Social Work/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Humans , Opioid Epidemic , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pain/drug therapy , Pandemics , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
20.
New Solut ; 31(3): 384-389, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301815

ABSTRACT

This article was originally written for and published in the January 2021 issue of The Synergist, a monthly publication of the American Industrial Hygiene Association. The article addresses the convergence of the COVID-19 and opioid crises, the impact of the opioid crisis on the workplace and workers, and the role that industrial hygienists can play in developing workplace programs to prevent and respond to opioid misuse. While the article is specifically written for industrial hygienists, the review and recommendations will be useful to others who are developing workplace opioid prevention programs. Note that the data presented in this article were current as of January 2021. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's latest available data are for the twelve-month period ending October 2020 and include 88,990 total overdose deaths and 91,862 predicted, when reporting is completed. Source: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/drug-overdose-data.htm (accessed on 15 June 2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid Epidemic , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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