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1.
Urogynecology (Hagerstown) ; 28(12): 872-878, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191224

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Surgeons must individualize postoperative pain management while also reducing the amount of unused prescribed opioids. OBJECTIVES: This study compared postoperative opioid use in younger versus older women following urogynecologic surgery. We also assessed the likelihood of women returning unused opioids for safe disposal. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective study of women undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery divided into 2 cohorts: younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years). Our primary outcome was total opioid use, measured in morphine milligram equivalents (MME). We also assessed the average pain score during the first week after surgery measured by a numerical pain scale (range, 0-10). Our secondary outcome was the rate of return of unused prescribed opioids at the 6-week postoperative visit utilizing a disposable drug deactivation system. RESULTS: From April 2019 to September 2021, 152 participants were enrolled: 92 (61%) in the younger cohort (mean age, 51 ± 8 years) and 60 (39%) in the older cohort (mean age, 72 ± 6 years). For our primary outcome, younger women used significantly more opioids during the first postoperative week compared with older women (49 ± 71 vs 28 ± 40 MME, respectively, P = 0.04), despite no difference in average pain scores (4 ± 2 younger vs 3 ± 2 older, P = 0.05). For our secondary outcome, 23% of participants returned their opioids for disposal with the drug deactivation system. CONCLUSIONS: Younger women had higher postoperative opioid use despite similar pain scores after urogynecologic surgery. Among those prescribed opioids, a quarter of participants returned their opioids for disposal at their postoperative visit.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Opioid-Related Disorders , Female , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
3.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 141: 108850, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180976

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A 2012 national survey found low utilization of medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in US drug courts. This study provides an update on MOUD policies and practices among drug courts in communities that the opioid epidemic has substantially impacted. METHODS: The study surveyed adult drug courts (N = 169, 80 % response rate) in US counties with high opioid mortality rates or numbers of opioid-related deaths about their policies and practices relating to MOUD and the overdose-reversal medication, naloxone. RESULTS: Nearly three quarters of the programs (73 %) reported providing access to all FDA-approved MOUD medications, >90 % offer agonist medications (buprenorphine and/or methadone), 80 % provide naloxone training, and 62 % distribute naloxone overdose-reversal kits to their clients. Most programs rely principally on medical judgment for medication decisions (75 %), have received staff training on MOUD (65 %), and have arranged for clients to continue receiving agonist medications while serving jail sanctions for program violations (63 %). Nevertheless, only about one quarter to one half of clients with OUDs receive the medications in most programs, and respondents offered few explanations for this disconnect between policy and practice. In addition, 24 % of the programs continue to overrule medication decisions and 36 % of the jails in these communities do not offer agonist medication for drug court clients serving custodial sanctions. CONCLUSIONS: Programs have achieved substantial progress in the past decade in improving drug court policies concerning MOUD in communities enduring the worst brunt of the opioid epidemic; however, programs require further guidance to help them understand and rectify service barriers and put intended MOUD policies into effective operation. The authors provide recommendations to enhance MOUD utilization in drug courts and the broader criminal justice system.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , Opioid-Related Disorders , Adult , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Humans , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
4.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 17(1): 76, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139358

ABSTRACT

Nevada, like the rest of the United States, is undergoing substantial challenges with opioid misuse and overdose deaths, further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. While much of the attention around opioid overdose prevention is centered on treatment and recovery, it is important to understand the factors that influence initiation of use, and the function opioids play in people's everyday lives. We conducted qualitative semi-structured individual interviews using purposive and snowball sampling among 35 people across Nevada with a current or prior history of illegal opioid or nonmedical opioid use. Our study aimed to understand why people start to use drugs, why they continue to use, what motivates them to continue to use or to seek treatment, and why individuals maintain recovery or return to use. We found five significant themes as perceived by the participants: that trauma is a risk factor for drug misuse; that the function of opioids in everyday life is a source of temporary relief but highly disruptive in the longer term; that recovery is most often a complicated and nonlinear process; that there are many barriers to accessing services that are both logistical and psychosocial; and that compassion, hope, and having a sense of purpose are crucial to the recovery process. The experiences of the study participants portray opioid use as a rational choice to escape the emotional ramifications of trauma. However, due to the physiological dependence and physical risk of opioids, drug policies that criminalize addiction, societal stigma, and the barriers to timely access of harm reduction, treatment, and recovery services, opioid users often become trapped in a distressing and dangerous cycle. Lastly, respondents indicated that hope, value, belonging, and purpose are powerful factors in cultivating intrinsic motivation for making positive changes and fostering resilience in the recovery process. Opioid misuse services should help meet basic needs and incorporate holistic approaches to recovery that acknowledge past trauma and the complexity of the recovery process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , United States , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Nevada , Pandemics , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Int J Drug Policy ; 104: 103670, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom (UK) is currently experiencing a public health crisis of drug-related deaths. The government has rejected recommendations to open overdose prevention services, under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. To report on the operation and use of an unsanctioned overdose prevention service which operated in Glasgow city centre from September 2020 to May 2021. METHODS: Description of the service, with analysis of data collected on its use. RESULTS: The service operated for nine months without permission or funding from official sources. We report on the 894 injections supervised and recorded, and nine successful interventions with overdose events (seven opioid/two cocaine). Powder cocaine injection predominated either alone (60.6%) or with heroin (22.1%). Injection was mostly in the groin (68.0%) or arm (16.8%). More injections were recorded by males (70.1%). Around 65% of injection events featured an individual who was on a buprenorphine/methadone prescription. CONCLUSION: It is feasible for an overdose prevention service to operate successfully in the UK without being shut down by the police or with negative consequences for the community. Future sites in the UK must tailor to the substances used by their potential clients, international trends (e.g. for fentanyl use) did not apply here. There is an urgent need and demand for these services in the UK to reduce harm, prevent and intervene during overdose, and provide vital psychosocial support for health and wellbeing in a highly marginalised population.


Subject(s)
Cocaine , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Fentanyl , Humans , Male , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
6.
J Addict Med ; 16(6): 733-735, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the setting of a 50% increase in opioid overdose deaths, the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis opened housing opportunities in the form of Shelter in Place (SIP) hotels to homeless San Francisco residents. Many who entered SIP hotels had opioid use disorder. In fall 2020, Community Behavioral Health Services Pharmacy partnered with SIP hotel medical staff to launch a pilot project, where on-site SIP medical providers prescribed buprenor-phine (BUP) and clinical pharmacists hand-delivered BUP to SIP residents to increase BUP initiation and engagement. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 3 patients living in SIP hotels starting BUP to demonstrate the feasibility of a SIP hotel BUP delivery program. RESULTS: In all 3 cases, patients were able to start and continue BUP with on-site medical staff visits and delivery of medications by pharmacists. Each case highlights different barriers that were overcome by this system. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that this system of onsite medical care with pharmacist delivery is possible and has the potential to allow for greater outreach and increased ease of obtaining medications for patients.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Pilot Projects , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
7.
J Addict Med ; 16(6): 645-652, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand how opioid treatment programs (OTPs) adapted OTP operations to the COVID-19 pandemic and new federal regulations around methadone and buprenorphine. METHODS: In fall 2020, we conducted an online survey of all 103 OTPs licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs, including clinical directors. Survey domains included changes to methadone take-home and telehealth practices; overdose and diversion prevention tactics; perceptions regarding how such changes influence patient well-being; and financial/operational concerns related to the new policies and practices. We calculated descriptive statistics and conducted Chi-square test to test for differences between not-for-profit versus for-profit and large versus small OTPs. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent (46%) OTPs responded to the survey. 10% and 25%, respectively, endorsed offering telephone and video-based telemedicine buprenorphine induction. Sixty-six percent endorsed extending take-home supplies of methadone, but most indicated that these extensions applied to a minority of their patients. Most respondents agreed that provision of buprenorphine via telehealth and extended take-home methadone reduced patient burden in accessing medications and prevented exposure to COVID-19, while not significantly increasing risk of overdose. We did not find major differences in COVID-19 practice modifications by nonprofit status or size of OTP. CONCLUSIONS: In Pennsylvania, the COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid changes in provision of opioid treatment services. Findings on relatively low uptake of longer methadone take-home regimens and virtual buprenorphine initiation despite general support for these practices imply a need to further develop guidelines for best clinical practices and understand/address barriers to their implementation.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Methadone/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 143: 108896, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methadone is one of the most utilized treatments for opioid use disorder. However, requirements for observing methadone dosing can impose barriers to patients and increase risk for respiratory illness transmission (e.g., COVID-19). Video observation of methadone dosing at home could allow opioid treatment programs (OTPs) to offer more take-home doses while ensuring patient safety through remote observation of ingestion. METHODS: Between April and August 2020, a clinical pilot program of video observation of methadone take-home dosing via smartphone was conducted within a multisite OTP agency. Participating patients completed a COVID-19 symptom screener and submitted video recordings of themselves ingesting all methadone take-home doses. Patients who followed these procedures for a two-week trial period could continue participating in the full pilot program and potentially receive more take-home doses. This retrospective observational study characterizes patient engagement and compares clinical outcomes with matched controls. RESULTS: Of 44 patients who initiated the two-week trial, 33 (75 %) were successful and continued participating in the full pilot program. Twenty full pilot participants (61 %) received increased take-home doses. Full pilot participants had more days with observed dosing over a 60-day period than matched controls (mean = 53.2 vs. 16.6 days, respectively). Clinical outcomes were similar between pilot participants and matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Video observation of methadone take-home dosing implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic was feasible. This model has the potential to enhance safety by increasing rates of observed methadone dosing and reducing infection risks and barriers associated with relying solely on face-to-face observation of methadone dosing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Methadone , Pandemics , Feasibility Studies , Pilot Projects , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
9.
Trials ; 23(1): 342, 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use could jeopardize the current efforts to address opioid use disorder and HIV infection. Evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBI) are effective in reducing methamphetamine use. However, evidence on optimal combinations of EBI is limited. This protocol presents a type-1 effectiveness-implementation hybrid design to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness of adaptive methamphetamine use interventions, and their implementation barriers in Vietnam. METHOD: Design: Participants will be first randomized into two frontline interventions for 12 weeks. They will then be placed or randomized to three adaptive strategies for another 12 weeks. An economic evaluation and an ethnographic evaluation will be conducted alongside the interventions. PARTICIPANTS: We will recruit 600 participants in 20 methadone clinics. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: (1) age 16+; (2) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) scores ≥ 10 for methamphetamine use or confirmed methamphetamine use with urine drug screening; (3) willing to provide three pieces of contact information; and (4) having a cell phone. OUTCOMES: Outcomes are measured at 13, 26, and 49 weeks and throughout the interventions. Primary outcomes include the (1) increase in HIV viral suppression, (2) reduction in HIV risk behaviors, and (3) reduction in methamphetamine use. COVID-19 response: We developed a response plan for interruptions caused by COVID-19 lockdowns to ensure data quality and intervention fidelity. DISCUSSION: This study will provide important evidence for scale-up of EBIs for methamphetamine use among methadone patients in limited-resource settings. As the EBIs will be delivered by methadone providers, they can be readily implemented if the trial demonstrates effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04706624. Registered on 13 January 2021. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04706624.


Subject(s)
Amphetamine-Related Disorders , HIV Infections , Methamphetamine , Opioid-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Amphetamine-Related Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19 , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Methadone/therapeutic use , Methamphetamine/adverse effects , Opioid-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274094, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand patient experience of federal regulatory changes governing methadone and buprenorphine (MOUD) access in Arizona during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This community-based participatory and action research study involved one-hour, audio-recorded field interviews conducted with 131 people who used methadone and/or buprenorphine to address opioid use disorder at some point during COVID (January 1, 2020- March 31, 2021) in Arizona. Transcribed data were analyzed using a priori codes focused on federally recommended flexibilities governing MOUD access. Data were quantitated to investigate associations with COVID risk and services access. RESULTS: Telehealth was reported by 71.0% of participants, but the majority were required to come to the clinic to attend video appointments with an offsite provider. Risk for severe COVID outcomes was reported by 40.5% of the sample. Thirty-eight percent of the sample and 39.7% of methadone patients were required to be at the clinic daily to get medication and 47.6% were at high risk for COVID severe outcomes. About half (54.2%) of methadone patients indicated that some form of multi-day take home dosing was offered at their clinic, and 45.8% were offered an extra day or two of multi-day doses; but no participants received the federally allowed 14- or 28-day methadone take-home doses for unstable and stable patients respectively. All participants expressed that daily clinic visits interrupted their work and home lives and desired more take-home dosing and home delivery options. CONCLUSIONS: MOUD patients in Arizona were not offered many of the federally allowed flexibilities for access that were designed to reduce their need to be at the clinic. To understand the impact of these recommended treatment changes in Arizona, and other states where they were not well implemented, federal and state regulators must mandate these changes and support MOUD providers to implement them.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Methadone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Pandemics , Arizona/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Patient Outcome Assessment , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
12.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1370-1373, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062571

ABSTRACT

Many patients with opioid use disorders do not receive evidence-based treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic expanded the use of telehealth for prescribing medications for opioid use disorder (OUD). The uptake of telehealth has been variable, and this uneven expansion has created natural experiments to test assumptions and answer key questions about what improves outcomes for patients with OUD. Many current quality of care measures are not patient centered and do not focus on the practical questions that clinicians face. What criteria should be met before prescribing buprenorphine? Are physical exams necessary? Does the frequency and type of drug testing predict clinical outcomes? Are short check-in visits by phone or video better than less frequent in-person visits? Answering these questions can help define the essential components of high-quality care for patients with OUD. Defining the features of high-quality care can help create guardrails that will help protect our patients from potentially exploitive and ineffective care. Telehealth will likely end up being one additional tool to deliver care, but the scientific questions that can be answered during this period of rapid change can help answer some of the fundamental questions about providing high-quality care-and that will help all our patients, no matter how care is delivered.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Humans , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics
13.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(10): 853-863, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of US population-based research on healthcare utilization differences caused by opioid misuse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore disparities in healthcare utilization by type of opioid use disorder, race, region, and other patient factors for a more targeted prevention and treatment program. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample of the United States was used to identify patients with opioid use disorder (n = 101,231, weighted n = 506,155) from 2016 to 2019. Type of opioid use disorder was defined as opioid dependence/unspecified use, adverse effects of opioids, opioid misuse, and opioid poisoning (also known as overdose). We examined the sample characteristics and the association between type of disorder, racial and regional variables, and healthcare utilization, measured by hospital charges and length of stay. The multivariate survey linear regression model was used. RESULTS: Among 506,155 patients, most were categorized as opioid dependence/unspecified use (56.3%) and opioid poisoning (42.7%). The number of opioid use disorder patients during the study decreased; however, overall total charges and length of stay continuously increased. Survey linear results showed that opioid poisoning, adverse effects, and abuse were associated with higher hospital charges than opioid dependence; however, length of stay was significantly lower for these groups. White patients compared with minorities, and West, Northeast, and South regions were associated with higher hospital charges and length of stay. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in healthcare utilization exist between type of disorder, race, and region. Such findings illustrate that tailored treatment regimens are required to bridge the gaps in care and combat the opioid crisis. Minorities with opioid use disorder utilize healthcare the least, possibly because of affordability, and need culturally sensitive and financially feasible treatment options.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , United States/epidemiology
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236298, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059209

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted policy changes to allow increased telehealth delivery of buprenorphine, a potentially lifesaving medication for opioid use disorder (OUD). It is unclear how characteristics of patients who access different treatment modalities (in-person vs telehealth, video vs telephone) vary, and whether modality is associated with retention-a key indicator of care quality. Objectives: To compare patient characteristics across receipt of different treatment modalities and to assess whether modality was associated with retention during the year following COVID-19-related policy changes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the national Veterans Health Administration. Participants included patients who received buprenorphine for OUD during March 23, 2020, to March 22, 2021. Analyses examining retention were stratified by buprenorphine initiation time (year following COVID-19-related changes; prior to COVID-19-related changes). Exposures: Patient characteristics; treatment modality (at least 1 video visit, at least 1 telephone visit but no video, only in-person). Main Outcomes and Measures: Treatment modality; 90-day retention. Results: Among 17 182 patients, 7094 (41.3%) were aged 30 to 44 years and 6251 (36.4%) were aged 45 to 64 years; 15 835 (92.2%) were male, 14 085 (82.0%) were White, and 16 292 (94.8%) were non-Hispanic; 6547 (38.1%) had at least 1 video visit, 8524 (49.6%) had at least 1 telephone visit but no video visit, and 2111 (12.3%) had only in-person visits. Patients who were younger, male, Black, unknown race, Hispanic, non-service connected, or had specific mental health/substance use comorbidities were less likely to receive any telehealth. Among patients who received telehealth, those who were older, male, Black, non-service connected, or experiencing homelessness and/or housing instability were less likely to have video visits. Retention was significantly higher for patients with telehealth compared with only in-person visits regardless of initiation time (for initiated in year following COVID-19-related changes: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.12-1.53; for initiated prior to COVID-19-related changes: aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.39). Among patients with telehealth, higher retention was observed in those with video visits compared with only telephone for patients who initiated in the year following COVID-19 (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, many patients accessed buprenorphine via telephone and some were less likely to have any video visits. These findings suggest that discontinuing or reducing telephone access may disrupt treatment for many patients, particularly groups with access disparities such as Black patients and those experiencing homelessness. Telehealth was associated with increased retention for both new and continuing patients.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Telephone
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e067608, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053226

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of COVID-19 introduced a dual public health emergency in British Columbia, which was already in the fourth year of its opioid-related overdose crisis. The public health response to COVID-19 must explicitly consider the unique needs of, and impacts on, communities experiencing marginalisation including people with opioid use disorder (PWOUD). The broad move to virtual forms of primary care, for example, may result in changes to healthcare access, delivery of opioid agonist therapies or fluctuations in co-occurring health problems that are prevalent in this population. The goal of this mixed-methods study is to characterise changes to primary care access and patient outcomes following the rapid introduction of virtual care for PWOUD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use a fully integrated mixed-methods design comprised of three components: (a) qualitative interviews with family physicians and PWOUD to document experiences with delivering and accessing virtual visits, respectively; (b) quantitative analysis of linked, population-based administrative data to describe the uptake of virtual care, its impact on access to services and downstream outcomes for PWOUD; and (c) facilitated deliberative dialogues to co-create educational resources for family physicians, PWOUD and policymakers that promote equitable access to high-quality virtual primary care for this population. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval for this study has been granted by Research Ethics British Columbia. We will convene PWOUD and family physicians for deliberative dialogues to co-create educational materials and policy recommendations based on our findings. We will also disseminate findings via traditional academic outputs such as conferences and peer-reviewed publications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Primary Health Care
18.
J Addict Nurs ; 33(2): 86-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051632

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to not only increase in substance misuse, substance use disorder, and risk of overdose but also lack of access to treatment services. Due to lack of knowledge of the course and impact of COVID-19 and outcomes of it's interactions with existing treatments, the Substance Misuse Service Team initiated a safety improvement project to review the safety of opioid substitution treatment, particularly the safety of methadone. This preliminary retrospective cross-sectional audit of safety improvement intiative underscores the importance of providing treatment services to those with opioid use disorders and that methadone is safe among this population with a high burden of comorbidity, most of which leads to negative outcomes from COVID-19. The outcomes show that patients who have COVID-19 should continue with opioid substitution treatment with methadone. Although treatment with methadone is safe, symptomatic patients should be monitored. In addition, patients who take methadone at home should be educated on the risk of overdose due to, and adverse outcomes from, COVID-19 infection. Patients should monitor themselves using pulse oximeter for any signs of hypoxia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Humans , Methadone/adverse effects , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Addict Med ; 16(5): 584-587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the feasibility of using a telemedicine bridge clinic model as a low-barrier mechanism to initiate patients on medication treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD) while facilitating engagement in long-term treatment. METHODS: We established a telemedicine bridge clinic after the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration temporarily suspended regulations limiting initial treatment of patients with buprenorphine via both audiovisual and audio-only technology during the COVID-19 public health emergency. The rate of engagement in medication treatment for opioid use disorder MOUD based upon review of the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program is described. Referral sources, technology utilization, and payer mix are also presented. RESULTS: The Bridge Clinic scheduled 208 new patient visits and physicians evaluated 200, a show rate of 96% from April 2020 to July 2021. Of the 200 patients who were treated, 192 (96%) were diagnosed with opioid use disorder. Most patients (159/200, 79%) scheduled audio-only visits. At least 1 prescription for buprenorphine was filled by 185/192 (96%) of opioid use disorder patients within 30 days of the telemedicine visit and 147/192 (77%) of patients filled 2 or more prescriptions. Most patients were covered by Medicaid (62%) or were uninsured (19%). There was no significant difference in outcomes for patients evaluated by audio-only vs. audiovisual techniques. CONCLUSION: A Bridge Clinic using audiovisual and audio-only telemedicine served a high-risk, vulnerable population and facilitated engagement in evidence-based MOUD.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs , Telemedicine , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Humans , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Telemedicine/methods , United States
20.
J Addict Med ; 16(5): 505-513, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Among opioid use disorder (OUD)-treating providers, to characterize adaptations used to provide medications for OUD (MOUD) and factors associated with desire to continue virtual visits post-COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In a national electronic survey of OUD-treating prescribers (July-August 2020), analyses restricted to X-waivered buprenorphine prescribers providing outpatient, longitudinal care for adults with OUD, quantitative and qualitative analyses of survey items and free text responses were conducted. RESULTS: Among 797 respondents, 49% were men, 57% ≥50 years, 76% White, 68% physicians. Respondents widely used virtual visits to continue prescribing existing MOUD regimens (79%), provide behavioral healthcare (71%), and initiate new MOUD prescriptions (49%). Most prescribers preferred to continue/expand use of virtual visits after COVID-19. In multivariable models, factors associated with preference to continue/expand virtual visits to initiate MOUD postpandemic were treating a moderate number of patients prepandemic (aOR = 1.67; 95%[CI] = 1.06,2.62) and practicing in an urban setting (aOR = 2.17; 95%[CI] = 1.48,3.18). Prescribing buprenorphine prepandemic (aOR = 2.06; 95%[CI] = 1.11,3.82) and working in an academic medical center (aOR = 2.47; 95%[CI] = 1.30,4.68) were associated with preference to continue/expand use of virtual visits to continue MOUD postpandemic. Prescribing naltrexone extended-release injection prepandemic was associated with preference to continue/expand virtual visits to initiate and continue MOUD (aOR = 1.51; 95%[CI] = 1.10,2.07; aOR = 1.74; 95%[CI] = 1.19,2.54). Qualitative findings suggest that providers appreciated virtual visits due to convenience and patient accessibility, but were concerned about liability and technological barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Surveyed prescribers widely used virtual visits to provide MOUD with overall positive experiences. Future studies should evaluate the impact of virtual visits on MOUD access and retention and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Adult , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Naltrexone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics
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