Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 84
Filter
1.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170667937.73494024.v1

ABSTRACT

The world is under the threat of COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-COV2 since January 2020. And this pandemic has caused millions of deaths still it is affecting the lives of many people affected by this viral disease. The unavailability of definite treatment is a main focus to ponder because symptomatic treatment like use of antibiotics, steroids and oxygen therapy is also a cause of many opportunistic infections like oral candidiasis caused by Candida Albicans and the main reasons of this infection are the excessive use of medications which may cause drug reaction, the continuous use of oxygen therapy and co-morbidities and poor oral hygeine etc. which increase the length of hospital stay of patient and also affect the quality of life of patient as patients become dysphagic as unable to take orally due to the severity of this opportunistic infection. This case study was done to check the prevalence of oral candidiasis in inpatients of COVID-19 and their possible management was done with the use of both topical as well as systemic antifungals and this condition resolved in 5 to 7 days with the proper management and proper maintenance of oral hygiene. Keywords: Pandemic, opportunistic, infection, topical, systemic, hygiene


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Oral , COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections
2.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170668835.59454970.v1

ABSTRACT

Introduction: - The second wave of COVID 19 lead to resurgence of opportunistic infections due to injudicious use of steroids. Sinonasal Mucormycosis was declared as an epidemic during the pandemic. The mucormycosis was managed effectively by surgical debridement along with systemic amphotericin B. Now, following the initial treatment of mucormycosis there is a resurgence, in the form of fungal osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Methods – the prospective study included the cases from ten patients with fungal osteomyelitis of frontal bone due to mucormycosis, all the patients underwent surgical debridement of sequestrum and involucrum with systemic antifungals. Results - The average duration of the recurrence was 22 days following the initial treatment Range (10 days to 33 days). Extracranial bossing following outer frontal cortex erosion in 30% of cases, bicortical erosion in 30%, bifrontal involvement (20%), dural involvement (30%), brain parenchymal involvement and prefrontal cortex (20%) case. All cases underwent debridement of entire sequestrous bone and involucrum till normal bone was identified. The mean duration of admission was 4 weeks (3 to 6 weeks). All treated patients are currently alive without disease, confirmed by CECT. Conclusion - The successful treatment of fungal osteomyelitis due to mucormycosis requires four pronged approach (1) early detection (2) multidisciplinary management of comorbidities (3) surgical debridement of necrotic bone and (4) adequate systemic antifungal therapy. Long term outcomes of fungal osteomyelitis of frontal bone are yet to be established


Subject(s)
Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , Bone Diseases , Osteomyelitis
3.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.12.07.23298951

ABSTRACT

Background: Scopulariopsis/Microascus is a rare but devastating pathogen due to its intrinsic resistance to nearly all available antifungal agents. Microascus gracilis, an ascomycetous mould in the order Microascales, family Microascaceae, has recently emerged as a significant invasive pathogen causing opportunistic infections. Objectives and Methods: We present a case of pleural infection caused by M. gracilis with pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompromised man after COVID-19 pneumonia. To further understand the characteristics of the pathogen isolated from the patient, we identified the strain through mycological characteristics, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based sequencing, and performed in vitro drug susceptibility testing against common antifungal agents. Moreover, we assessed lymphocyte subsets and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression in peripheral blood and pleural effusion to monitor the efficacy of therapy with thymosin-α-1 and intravenous immunoglobulin. Results: Filamentous fungi isolated from pleural fluid were identified as M. gracilis based on classical morphology, mass spectrometry and molecular biology methods. The susceptibility results in vitro revealed that multiple antifungal agents were inactive against the strain. Adjuvant immunomodulatory treatment successfully increased the levels of CD3+ T and CD4+ T cells while decreasing the levels of CD3+PD-1+ and CD4+PD-1+ T cells in both peripheral blood and pleural effusion. Conclusions: The immunocompromised host with opportunistic M. gracilis infection, rapid and accurate recognition through direct microscopic testing with calcofluor white and MOLDI-TOF MS, is the key to achieving a definite diagnosis, and a combination of antifungal therapy with immunomodulatory therapy is vital for improving survival.


Subject(s)
Pleural Diseases , Opportunistic Infections , Mycoses , Pneumonia , Multiple Sclerosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pleural Effusion , COVID-19
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(5): 623-630, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231690

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis is an opportunistic infection associated with altered immunity. Immunomodulatory agent use in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose such infections. Here, we present a 75-year-old male patient who presented with fever and altered general status after severe COVID-19 infection and developed cryptococcal meningitis. Opportunistic infection may arise from the use of immunomodulation in severe COVID-19, especially in the elderly population. This article describes the case and extensively reviews cryptococcal disease post-COVID-19 literature, highlighting the risk from immunosuppressive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptococcus neoformans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Opportunistic Infections , Aged , Male , Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Immunomodulation
5.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3045366.v1

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 resulted from an infection by SARS-Cov-2 which is the main cause of ADRS in global population from 2019 on. It may contribute to higher rate of death among the patients with immunodeficiency based on recent reports. In addition, Good syndrome (GS) as a result of thymoma removal might cause in some long-lasting microbial infections. We described clinical aspects and viral mutations on a case of GS suffering from COVID-19. A 46-year-old man with fever, general respiratory signs and positive COVID-19 PCR test, with the history of thymoma removal surgery was admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Lung radiographs and Oxygen saturation measurement disclosed considerable implication resulted in application of several anti-microbial medication. The delta variant (B.1.617.2 (21J Clade)) was the strain isolated from the patient by sequencing methods done by CNRL while the dominant strain circulated mostly among population was Omicron (B.1.1.529) at the time of sampling. Unfortunately, the patient had passed away a month later by sudden respiratory failure progressed in refractory septic shock. Despite the fact that opportunistic infections may lead the GS patients to a major health problematic condition, unusual persistent of infections such as non-dominant variant of SARS-Cov-2 could be observed through the disease timeline. Therefore, a fully screening of thymoma plus intra-host evolution monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 is highly recommended in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary , Shock, Septic , Fever , Opportunistic Infections , Respiratory Insufficiency , Thymoma , COVID-19 , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
6.
N Engl J Med ; 388(18): 1680-1691, 2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a clinical syndrome that is defined by CD4 lymphopenia of less than 300 cells per cubic millimeter in the absence of any primary or acquired cause of immunodeficiency. Some 30 years after its original identification, ICL has remained a disease of obscure cause, with limited evidence with respect to its prognosis or management, despite diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical, genetic, immunologic, and prognostic characteristics of 108 patients who were enrolled during an 11-year period. We performed whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing to identify genetic causes of lymphopenia. We also performed longitudinal linear mixed-model analyses of T-cell count trajectories and evaluated predictors of clinical events, the response to immunization against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), and mortality. RESULTS: After the exclusion of patients with genetic and acquired causes of CD4 lymphopenia, the study population included 91 patients with ICL during 374 person-years of follow-up. The median CD4+ T-cell count among the patients was 80 cells per cubic millimeter. The most prevalent opportunistic infections were diseases related to human papillomavirus (in 29%), cryptococcosis (in 24%), molluscum contagiosum (in 9%), and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases (in 5%). A reduced CD4 count (<100 cells per cubic millimeter), as compared with a CD4 count of 101 to 300 cells, was associated with a higher risk of opportunistic infection (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 10.7) and invasive cancer (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.3) and a lower risk of autoimmunity (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.9). The risk of death was similar to that in the age- and sex-adjusted general population, but the prevalence of cancer was higher. CONCLUSIONS: Among the study patients, ICL continued to be associated with increased susceptibility to viral, encapsulated fungal, and mycobacterial diseases, as well as with a reduced response to novel antigens and an increased risk of cancer. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Cancer Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00867269.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Lymphopenia , Opportunistic Infections , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Lymphopenia/etiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/complications
8.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 130(6): 713-717, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273391

ABSTRACT

Despite their widespread clinical use, oral corticosteroids (OCSs) are well known to be associated with a myriad of adverse effects, including immunosuppression. By inhibiting transcription factors and affecting leukocyte function, prolonged OCS use leads to significant CD4 lymphopenia and often a decrease in serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Conversely, OCS use has minimal impact on circulating B cell, serum IgM, or serum IgA levels. Although there is a paucity of literature, individuals treated with prolonged OCS seem to typically maintain humoral response to various vaccinations despite hypogammaglobinemia, but this area warrants additional research, especially in the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Individuals treated with prolonged OCS use are most at risk for opportunistic infections, especially those with underlying malignancy and history of bone marrow transplant. Risk mitigation strategies to decrease infectious complication with OCS use include limiting the dose and duration of therapy, appropriately completing a full vaccination series, consideration for passive immunization, and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , Steroids , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
9.
Am J Case Rep ; 24: e938359, 2023 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The management of (Coronavirus disease 2019) COVID-19 pneumonia is ever-evolving. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, have known mortality benefit in severe COVID-19 pneumonia, but data are limited regarding safety. Attributable to the immunomodulatory nature of this medication, patients may be at risk for opportunistic infections, including chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CPPA), a slowly progressive disease characterized pulmonary infiltrates and often a newly-formed cavity. However, current guidelines do not emphasize post-treatment surveillance of patients for opportunistic infections, including CPPA. CASE REPORT We present a particular case of a 64-year-old man treated for COVID-19 pneumonia with Tocilizumab and dexamethasone who developed cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis. He presented to the emergency department with hemoptysis, associated with worsening productive cough, shortness of breath, and weight loss. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed areas of focal consolidation and a cavitary lung lesion within the left upper lobe. Sputum culture was positive for Aspergillus niger. The patient received a long course of oral triazole therapy for CPPA, with clinical improvement. CT scan of the chest at 9 months showed that the Itraconazole therapy was effective in resolving the extensive airspace disease and decreasing the size of the upper-lobe cavity and fungal ball. CONCLUSIONS This article illustrates the possibility of a serious infection such as CCPA as an adverse effect of Tocilizumab treatment, especially with concurrent immunosuppressive therapy. Furthermore, this case highlights the importance of regular monitoring of patients who have received Tocilizumab therapy to ensure that early signs of opportunistic infections such as CPPA are detected and treated promptly to prevent permanent lung damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
10.
Pol J Microbiol ; 71(3): 411-419, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254047

ABSTRACT

The frequency of opportunistic fungal infections in critically ill patients whose intensive care unit stays are prolonged due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is higher than in the period before COVID-19. We planned this study to improve the management of Candida infections by defining the Candida species, the etiology of infections caused by Candida species, and the antifungal susceptibility of the species. This retrospective study included patients older than 18 hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) with a definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 for seven months (from March 2021 to September 2021). All study data that we recorded in a standard study form were analyzed with TURCOSA (Turcosa Analytics Ltd. Co., Turkey, www.turcosa.com.tr) statistical software. The patients were evaluated in four groups as group 1 (candidemia patients, n = 78), group 2 (candiduria patients, n = 189), group 3 (control patients, n = 57), and group 4 (patients with candidemia in urine cultures taken before Candida was detected in blood culture, n = 42). Candida species were identified using both conventional and VITEK® 2 (BioMérieux, France) methods. The antifungal susceptibility of fungi was determined using the E test method. Of the 5,583 COVID-19 patients followed during the study period, 78 developed candidemia, and 189 developed candiduria. The incidence of candidemia (per 1,000 admissions) was determined to be 1.6. As a result of statistical analysis, we found that Candida albicans was the dominant strain in candidemia and candiduria, and there was no antifungal resistance except for naturally resistant strains. Candida strains grown in blood and urine were the same in 40 of 42 patients. Mortality was 69.2% for group 1, 60.4% for group 2, and 57.8% for group 3. Antifungals were used in 34 (43.5%) patients from group 1, and 95 (50.2%) from group 2. In the candidemia group without antifungal use, mortality was quite high (77.2%). Antifungal use reduced mortality in the group 2 (p < 0.05). Length of ICU stays, comorbidity, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and corticosteroids are independent risk factors for candidemia in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Our study contributes to the knowledge of risk factors for developing COVID-19-related candida infections. The effect of candiduria on the development of candidemia in critically ill COVID-19 patients should be supported by new studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , Candidiasis , Opportunistic Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Candidemia/diagnosis , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candidemia/epidemiology , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology
11.
Future Microbiol ; 18: 217-234, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261624

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an emerging opportunistic angioinvasive fungal infection. Predisposing factors such as diabetes, neutropenia, long-term corticosteroid therapy, solid organ transplantation and immunosuppression contribute to its occurrence. This disease was not of significant concern prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, but gained prominence due to infections in COVID-19 patients. Mucormycosis needs special attention and coordinated efforts of the scientific community and medical professionals to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we present an overview of the epidemiology and prevalence of mucormycosis in the pre- and post-COVID-19 eras, the factors that contributed to the abrupt increase in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM), the actions taken by the regulatory agencies (including Code Mucor and CAM registry), the existing diagnostic tools and CAM management strategies.


The devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have been further enhanced by various secondary illnesses, particularly opportunistic fungal infections such as mucormycosis. Mucormycosis or 'black fungus' primarily affects people with weakened immunity, those with medical conditions such as diabetes or cancer and those who use medications that reduce the body's capacity to resist infections and disease. The infection starts in the sinuses or the lungs after breathing in spores of the black fungus from the air. In just 2 months between 5 May and 12 July 2021, this uncommon but fatal fungal illness was responsible for 41,512 cases and 3554 fatalities in India alone. The government of India declared a mucormycosis epidemic in May 2021. The majority of such cases occurred during active SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in India in 2021. Black fungus took over while the host defenses were compromised and the globe was preoccupied tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. Steroids prescribed in amounts and time spans that far exceeded WHO recommendations to manage severe COVID-19 cases, potentially weakened patients' immune systems, and raised blood sugar levels making them vulnerable to fungal invasion. Early diagnosis and treatment are the keys to a patient's survival. Simple means such as maintaining hygienic conditions, avoiding contact with an infected person, judiciously using steroid medications and antibiotics and properly managing high blood sugar can help protect an individual from black-fungus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Neutropenia , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Immunosuppression Therapy
12.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239031

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a global medical emergency with a significant socio-economic impact. People with HIV (PWH), due to the underlying immunosuppression and the particularities of HIV stigma, are considered a vulnerable population at high risk. In this review, we report what is currently known in the available literature with regards to the clinical implications of the overlap of the two epidemics. PWH share the same risk factors for severe COVID-19 as the general population (age, comorbidities), but virological and immunological status also plays an important role. Clinical presentation does not differ significantly, but there are some opportunistic infections that can mimic or co-exist with COVID-19. PWH should be prime candidates for preventative COVID-19 treatments when they are available, but in the setting of resistant strains, this might be not easy. When considering small-molecule medications, physicians need to always remember to address potential interactions with ART, and when considering immunosuppressants, they need to be aware of potential risks for opportunistic infections. COVID-19 shares similarities with HIV in how the public perceives patients-with fear of the unknown and prejudice. There are opportunities for HIV treatment hidden in COVID-19 research with the leaps gained in both monoclonal antibody and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , Coinfection/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology
13.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 44(1): 35-49, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236625

ABSTRACT

Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infected individuals throughout the world remain at significant risk of respiratory infections and non-communicable disease. Severe disease from SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a hyperinflammatory phenotype which manifests in the lungs as pneumonia and in some cases can lead to acute respiratory failure. Progression to severe COVID-19 is associated with comorbid disease such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, however data concerning the associated risks of HIV coinfection are still conflicting, with large population studies demonstrating poorer outcomes, whilst smaller, case-controlled studies showing better outcomes. Furthermore, underlying immunopathological processes within the lungs and elsewhere, including interactions with other opportunistic infections (OI), remain largely undefined. Nonetheless, new and repurposed anti-viral therapies and vaccines which have been developed are safe to use in this population, and anti-inflammatory agents are recommended with the caveat that the coexistence of opportunistic infections is considered and excluded. Finally, HIV infected patients remain reliant on good ART adherence practices to maintain HIV viral suppression, and some of these practices were disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic, putting these patients at further risk for acute and long-term adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology
14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 57(7): 800-807, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients have adopted lifestyle modifications to prevent infection via SARS COV-2. AIMS: This study aims to examine rate of serious infections and opportunistic infections in the pre-pandemic and pandemic period, and to analyse if the risk associated with medications used to treat IBD were potentially modified by associated change in lifestyle. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients from the US national Veteran Affairs Healthcare System (VAHS). Patients were stratified into two groups: pre-pandemic (prior to SARS COV-2 pandemic) and pandemic (during SARS COV-2 pandemic) and outcomes were measured in these groups. Primary outcome was occurrence of any serious infection. Secondary outcome was occurrence of any opportunistic infection. RESULTS: There were 17,202 IBD patients in the pre-pandemic era and 15,903 patients in the pandemic era. The pre-pandemic era had a significantly higher proportion of serious infections relative to the pandemic era (5.1% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.002). The proportion of opportunistic infections were similar between pre-pandemic and pandemic eras (0.3% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.82). Relative to 5-ASA, patients taking anti-TNF (HR = 1.50 (1.31-1.72)), anti-TNF+TP (HR = 1.56 (1.24-1.95)) or vedolizumab (HR = 1.81 (1.49-2.20)) had an increased hazard of serious infection (p > 0.001). CONCLUSION: In a nationwide cohort of IBD patients, we found that risk of serious infections could possibly be affected by behavioural modifications due to SARS-COV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology
15.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2331169.v1

ABSTRACT

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with biologic and/or immunosuppressant drugs are at increased risk for opportunistic infections. Seroprevalence studies can confirm the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as the associated risk factors. This is a descriptive study which primary endpoints were to highlight the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a cohort of IBD patients, and to analyze seroconversion in patients with known COVID-19 infection and its relationship with IBD treatments. Patients filled in a questionnaire about symptoms of COVID-19 infection and clinical information about their IBD. All included patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. 392 patients were included. Among patients with clinical infection, 69 patients (17,65%) were IgG-positive, 286 (73,15%) IgG-negative and 36 (9,21%) indeterminate. In relation to seroconversion among patients under biologic treatment, 13 patients of the 23 with a previous positive CRP developed antibodies (56.5%). However, when the influence of immunosuppressive treatment on the probability of developing antibodies was analyzed, no significant differences were seen between those patients with or without treatment (77.8% vs. 77.1%, p=0.96). In our cohort of IBD patients, after one year of pandemic, there were 18.64% IgG positive patients, a higher prevalence than the general population (15.7%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
16.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) on the screening and prophylaxis of opportunistic and chronic infections in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). METHODS: SLR (inception-12/2021) based on the following search domains: (1) infectious agents, (2) AIIRD, (3) immunosuppressives/immunomodulators used in rheumatology, (4) screening terms and (5) prophylaxis terms. Articles were retrieved having the terms from (1) AND (2) AND (3) plus terms from (4) OR(5). Databases searched: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: studies on postoperative infections, paediatric AIIRD, COVID-19, vaccinations and non-Εnglish literature. Study quality was assessed with Newcastle-Ottawa scale for non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), RoB-Cochrane for RCTs, AMSTAR2 for SLRs. RESULTS: From 5641 studies were retrieved, 568 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, with 194 articles finally included. For tuberculosis, tuberculin skin test (TST) is affected by treatment with glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and its performance is inferior to interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). Agreement between TST and IGRA is moderate to low. For hepatitis B virus (HBV): risk of reactivation is increased in patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Anti-HBcore positive patients are at low risk for reactivation but should be monitored periodically with liver function tests and/or HBV-viral load. Risk for Hepatitis C reactivation is existing but low in patients treated with biological DMARDs. For Pneumocystis jirovecii, prophylaxis treatment should be considered in patients treated with prednisolone ≥15-30 mg/day for >2-4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Different screening and prophylaxis approaches are described in the literature, partly determined by individual patient and disease characteristics.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , Humans , Child , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Hepatitis B virus , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090887

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains on an upsurge trend. The second and the waves of this disease have led to panic in many countries, and some parts of the world suffering from the fourth wave. In the midst of this pandemic, COVID-19 patients are acquiring secondary infections such as mucormycosis also known as "black fungus disease". Mucormycosis is a serious, but rare opportunistic fungal infection that spreads rapidly, and hence prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to avoid mortality and morbidity rate. We report in this paper, a case of a diabetic patient who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction, anosmia, and frontal headache diagnosed with rhinocerebral mucormycosis developing after COVID-19 infection with a favorable outcome after a medico-surgical treatment. Through this case, we aim to aware patricians of this possible association and the importance of early diagnosis to optimize treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(32): e30143, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992410

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Cryptococcus neoformans (C neoformans) infection typically occurs in immunocompromised patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or those taking immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, or chemotherapy. Recently, there have been an increasing number of reports of cryptococcosis as opportunistic infections in COVID-19 patients, all of which have been related to immunocompromising conditions, underlying medical diseases, immune suppression drugs, or corticosteroids. Here, we report the first case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient with a history of COVID-19 who had no history of underlying diseases or immune modulation drugs. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 46-year-old man presented with tiny lung nodules. He had quit smoking 6 years prior. He had no significant medical history except for COVID-19 3 months prior, and had not received corticosteroids or cytokine blockers when he had COVID-19. He had been coughing since he recovered from COVID-19. DIAGNOSIS: Bronchoalveolar lavage cultures showed the growth of C neoformans. A CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung lesion was performed. Histopathology of the biopsy specimen showed granulomas with encapsulated yeast. There was no growth of C neoformans in the CSF or blood. He was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis. INTERVENTION: Antifungal drug (fluconazole) was administered for 6 months in the outside clinic. OUTCOMES: The lung lesions disappeared after 6 months medication. LESSONS: This case may illustrate the risk of pulmonary cryptococcosis after SARS-CoV-2 infection in an immunocompetent patient. Opportunistic infections can occur even after recovery from COVID-19 for several reasons. First, SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immune dysregulation including lymphocytopenia. Second, T lymphocytes play a principal role against Cryptococcus. Third, these changes in the immune system due to COVID-19 may last for several weeks. Thus, we suggest careful consideration of lung lesions in patients with a history of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Opportunistic Infections , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Infection ; 50(4): 1013-1017, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971886

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 infection produces lymphopenia and CD4+ T-cell decrease, which could lead to a higher risk of bacterial co-infection or impair immunological evolution in people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: We investigated the rate of co-infection and superinfection, and the evolution of CD4+ count and CD4+/CD8+ ratio, in hospitalized PLWH with COVID-19. RESULTS: From March to December 2020, 176 PLWH had symptomatic COVID-19 and 62 required hospitalization (median age, 56 years, 89% males). At admission, 7% and 13% of patients had leukocytosis or increased procalcitonin values and 37 (60%) received empiric antibiotic therapy, but no bacterial co-infection was diagnosed. There were seven cases of superinfection (12%), and one case of P. jiroveci pneumonia during ICU stay. No significant change in CD4+ count or CD4+/CD8+ ratio was observed after discharge. CONCLUSION: Bacterial co-infection is not frequent in PLWH with COVID-19. Immune recovery is observed in most of patients after the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 203-210, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A surge in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis cases has been observed during the second wave of COVID-19 in summer of 2021. Most cases were reported from India. The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the most common variant circulating at that time. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic angioinvasive fungal infection with high morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We present 10 cases of COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital and rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis managed in a secondary hospital in Oman. RESULTS: The median time for developing mucormycosis was two weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis. All patients were newly diagnosed or already known to have poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Five patients received corticosteroid therapy for COVID-19. Three patients had severe COVID-19 and died of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. Another three patients died of advanced mucormycosis and cerebral involvement. Despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention, the mortality rate was 60% (6/10). CONCLUSION: Mucormycosis is an aggressive opportunistic infection with high morbidity and mortality that requires prompt recognition and urgent intervention. Uncontrolled blood sugar, the use of corticosteroids, and immune dysfunction due to COVID-19 are all important risk factors for development of mucormycosis. Worse outcomes are associated with poor glycemic control despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL