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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(32): e30143, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992410

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Cryptococcus neoformans (C neoformans) infection typically occurs in immunocompromised patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or those taking immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, or chemotherapy. Recently, there have been an increasing number of reports of cryptococcosis as opportunistic infections in COVID-19 patients, all of which have been related to immunocompromising conditions, underlying medical diseases, immune suppression drugs, or corticosteroids. Here, we report the first case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient with a history of COVID-19 who had no history of underlying diseases or immune modulation drugs. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 46-year-old man presented with tiny lung nodules. He had quit smoking 6 years prior. He had no significant medical history except for COVID-19 3 months prior, and had not received corticosteroids or cytokine blockers when he had COVID-19. He had been coughing since he recovered from COVID-19. DIAGNOSIS: Bronchoalveolar lavage cultures showed the growth of C neoformans. A CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung lesion was performed. Histopathology of the biopsy specimen showed granulomas with encapsulated yeast. There was no growth of C neoformans in the CSF or blood. He was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis. INTERVENTION: Antifungal drug (fluconazole) was administered for 6 months in the outside clinic. OUTCOMES: The lung lesions disappeared after 6 months medication. LESSONS: This case may illustrate the risk of pulmonary cryptococcosis after SARS-CoV-2 infection in an immunocompetent patient. Opportunistic infections can occur even after recovery from COVID-19 for several reasons. First, SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immune dysregulation including lymphocytopenia. Second, T lymphocytes play a principal role against Cryptococcus. Third, these changes in the immune system due to COVID-19 may last for several weeks. Thus, we suggest careful consideration of lung lesions in patients with a history of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Opportunistic Infections , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Infection ; 50(4): 1013-1017, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971886

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 infection produces lymphopenia and CD4+ T-cell decrease, which could lead to a higher risk of bacterial co-infection or impair immunological evolution in people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: We investigated the rate of co-infection and superinfection, and the evolution of CD4+ count and CD4+/CD8+ ratio, in hospitalized PLWH with COVID-19. RESULTS: From March to December 2020, 176 PLWH had symptomatic COVID-19 and 62 required hospitalization (median age, 56 years, 89% males). At admission, 7% and 13% of patients had leukocytosis or increased procalcitonin values and 37 (60%) received empiric antibiotic therapy, but no bacterial co-infection was diagnosed. There were seven cases of superinfection (12%), and one case of P. jiroveci pneumonia during ICU stay. No significant change in CD4+ count or CD4+/CD8+ ratio was observed after discharge. CONCLUSION: Bacterial co-infection is not frequent in PLWH with COVID-19. Immune recovery is observed in most of patients after the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 203-210, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A surge in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis cases has been observed during the second wave of COVID-19 in summer of 2021. Most cases were reported from India. The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the most common variant circulating at that time. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic angioinvasive fungal infection with high morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We present 10 cases of COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital and rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis managed in a secondary hospital in Oman. RESULTS: The median time for developing mucormycosis was two weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis. All patients were newly diagnosed or already known to have poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Five patients received corticosteroid therapy for COVID-19. Three patients had severe COVID-19 and died of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. Another three patients died of advanced mucormycosis and cerebral involvement. Despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention, the mortality rate was 60% (6/10). CONCLUSION: Mucormycosis is an aggressive opportunistic infection with high morbidity and mortality that requires prompt recognition and urgent intervention. Uncontrolled blood sugar, the use of corticosteroids, and immune dysfunction due to COVID-19 are all important risk factors for development of mucormycosis. Worse outcomes are associated with poor glycemic control despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833783, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847235

ABSTRACT

Background: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) face more challenges. However, it is unclear if PLWH is more susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than HIV-negative individuals. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated risk factors among PLWH. Methods: From 1 to 30 May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 857 PLWH and 1,048 HIV-negative individuals from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. Our data analysis compared the rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH and HIV-negative participants, and the proportions of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic infectors between the two groups. We also assessed the risk factors associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Results: Overall, 14/857 (1.6%) PLWH and 68/1,048 (6.5%) HIV-negative participants were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Among the SARS-CoV-2-infected PLWH participants, 6/14 (42.8%) were symptomatic patients, 4/14 (28.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive asymptomatic infectors, and 4/14 (28.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. Among the infected HIV-negative participants, 5/68 (7.4%) patients were symptomatic and 63/68 (92.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. The rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among the PLWH than in the HIV-negative group (1.96% vs. 5.74%, p = 0.001) and the rate of morbidity among the symptomatic patients was similar between the two groups (p = 0.107). However, there were more serology-positive asymptomatic infectors among the infected HIV-negative participants than among the infected PLWH (0.54% vs. 5.46%, p = 0.001). Furthermore, being 50 years or older (aOR = 4.50, 95% CI: 1.34-15.13, p = 0.015) and having opportunistic infections (aOR = 9.59, 95% CI: 1.54-59.92, p = 0.016) were associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Conclusions: PLWH has more varied forms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection than the HIV-negative population and should, therefore, undertake routine screening to avoid late diagnosis. Also, older age (≥50 years) and having opportunistic infections increase the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2065814, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806179

ABSTRACT

AIM: We aimed at assessing the published literature on different prophylactic screening and vaccination options in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients between 1980 and 2020. Special attention was attributed to latest data assessing covid-19 vaccinations. METHODS: We have queried PubMed for all available IBD-related entries published during 1980-2020. The following data were extracted for each entry: PubMed unique article ID (PMID), title, publishing journal, abstract text, keywords (if any), and authors' affiliations. Two gastrointestinal specialists decided by consensus on a list of terms to classify entries. The terms belonged to four treatment groups: opportunistic infections, prophylactic screening, prophylactic vaccinations/treatment, and routine vaccines. Annual trends of publications for the years 1980-2020 were plotted for different screening, vaccinations and infection types. Slopes of publication trends were calculated by fitting regression lines to the annual number of publications. RESULTS: Overall, 98,339 IBD entries were published between 1980 and 2020. Of those, 7773 entries belonged to the investigated groups. Entries concerning opportunistic infections showed the sharpest rise, with 19 entries and 1980 to 423 entries in 2020 (slope 11.3, p < .001). Entries concerning prophylactic screening rose from 10 entries in 1980 to 204 entries in 2020 (slope 5.4, p < .001). Both entries concerning prophylactic vaccinations/treatments and routine vaccines did not show a significant rise (slope 0.33 and slope 0.92, respectively). During the COVID 19 pandemic, a total of 44 publications were identified. Of them, 37 were relevant to vaccines and immune reaction. Nineteen publications (51%) were guidelines/recommendations, and 14 (38%) assessed immune reaction to vaccination, most of them (11, 61%) to mRNA vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: During the past two decades, along with a rapid increase in biologic therapy, publications regarding opportunistic infections and prophylactic screening increased in a steep slope compared to the two decades in the pre-biologic area. During the COVID-19 pandemic, most publications included vaccination recommendations and guidelines and only 38% included real-world data assessing reaction to vaccinations. More research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Opportunistic Infections , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Data Mining , Humans , Pandemics , PubMed , Vaccination
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 466-479, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693246

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is yet to be controlled worldwide, especially in India. The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to panic and confusion in India, owing to the overwhelming number of the population that fell prey to this highly infectious virus of recent times. In the second wave of COVID-19, the patients had to fight both the virus and opportunistic infections triggered by fungi and bacteria. Repeated use of steroids, antibiotics, and oxygen masks during the management of severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients nurtured opportunistic infections such as mucormycosis. Despite mucormycosis being a decades-old disease, it has gained notice of its widespread occurrence in COVID-19 patients throughout India. Instances of mucormycosis are usually unearthed in immunocompromised individuals and are caused by the inhalation of filamentous fungi, either from the natural environment or through supportive care units. In the recent outbreak during the second wave of COVID-19 in India, it has been seen to cause secondary infection as it grows along with the treatment of COVID-19. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients with comorbidities such as diabetes were more likely to have the mucormycosis co-infection because of their challenged immune systems' inability to fight it. Despite the hype, mucormycosis still remains neglected and least studied, which is predominantly due to all focus on diagnostics, vaccine, and therapeutic research. In this review, we emphasize mainly on the association of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. We also present the molecular mechanism of mucormycosis for a better understanding of the fungal infections in patients who have recently been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Better understanding of fungal pathogens, immediate diagnosis, and management of the infections are crucial in COVID-19 patients, as high mortalities have been recorded in co-infected patients despite recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102678, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562141

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic infections are widely described in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, very few studies have addressed those affecting the oral cavity. Given the lack of information on the clinical presentations and the available treatment options, the present study aimed to show a case in which a combination of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) was used for the management of two concomitant COVID-19-associated opportunistic oral infections (oral pseudomembranous candidiasis and recurrent herpes labialis). Within 7 days and without any systemic drug administration, all the lesions resolved completely, and the patient no longer reported oral pain or discomfort. According to the current case report and taking into consideration the significant gaps in the knowledge and understanding of COVID-19, this combination of phototherapy modalities seems to be a promising tool for managing viral and fungal opportunistic oral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Photochemotherapy , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Thorax ; 77(3): 304-311, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551065

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised cancer treatment. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are a common side effect which can mimic infection. Additionally, treatment of irAEs with corticosteroids and other immunosuppressant agents can lead to opportunistic infection, which we have classed as immunotherapy infections due to immunosuppression. However, emerging reports demonstrate that some infections can be precipitated by ICIs in the absence of immunosuppressive treatment, in contrast to the majority of reported cases. These infections are characterised by a dysregulated inflammatory immune response, and so we propose they are described as immunotherapy infections due to dysregulated immunity. This review summarises the rapidly emerging evidence of these phenomena and proposes a new framework for considering infection in the context of cancer immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/chemically induced
10.
Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 17(9): 491-493, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510266

ABSTRACT

SARS-COV-2 infection has spread worldwide since it originated in December 2019, in Wuhan, China. The pandemic has largely demonstrated the resilience of the world's health systems and is the greatest health emergency since World War II. There is no single therapeutic approach to the treatment of COVID-19 and the associated immune disorder. The lack of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) has led different countries to tackle the disease based on case series, or from results of observational studies with off-label drugs. We as rheumatologists in general, and specifically rheumatology fellows, have been on the front line of the pandemic, modifying our activities and altering our training itinerary. We have attended patients, we have learned about the management of the disease and from our previous experience with drugs for arthritis and giant cell arteritis, we have used these drugs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Physician's Role , Rheumatologists , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Education, Medical, Graduate , Fellowships and Scholarships , Global Health , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Rheumatologists/education , Rheumatologists/organization & administration , Rheumatology/education , Rheumatology/methods , Rheumatology/organization & administration , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(1): 747-754, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491296

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated-mucormycosis, commonly referred to as the "Black Fungus," is a rare secondary fungal infection in COVID-19 patients prompted by a group of mucor molds. Association of this rare fungal infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been declared as an endemic in India, with minor cases in several other countries around the globe. Although the fungal infection is not contagious like the viral infection, the causative fungal agent is omnipresent. Infection displays an overall mortality rate of around 50%, with many other secondary side effects posing a potential threat in exacerbating COVID-19 mortality rates. In this review, we have accessed the role of free iron availability in COVID-19 patients that might correlate to the pathogenesis of the causative fungal agent. Besides, we have analyzed the negative consequences of using immunosuppressive drugs in encouraging this opportunistic fungal infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyperferritinemia , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Mucormycosis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/pathogenicity , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/complications , Hyperferritinemia/microbiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , India/epidemiology , Iron/metabolism , Mortality , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/etiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Rhizopus oryzae/isolation & purification , Rhizopus oryzae/pathogenicity
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485483

ABSTRACT

Fungal osteomyelitis is a life-threatening and seldom seen opportunistic infection. It is commonly an affectation of the nose and paranasal sinuses within the orofacial region. It is an aggressive infection that needs to be addressed promptly to prevent fatal consequences. The mode of infection is via the inhalation route and infection begins initially in the nose and paranasal sinuses with subsequent invasion into the vascular tissue, eventually leading to thrombosis and necrosis of nearby hard and soft tissues. Here, we report a case of a 31-year-old male who presented with pain over the upper jaw that was sudden in onset, continuous, dull aching, radiating towards forehead and neck of the left side, aggravates on mastication and relives on its own. He had a history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. On further investigation, using diagnostic and Interventional aids, a final diagnosis of mucormycotic osteomyelitis of the maxilla was made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Maxillary Diseases/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Maxillary Diseases/microbiology , Maxillary Diseases/pathology , Mucormycosis/pathology , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/pathology
14.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(3): 395-400, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441451

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic fungal infections increase morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients monitored in intensive care units (ICU). As patients' hospitalization days in the ICU and intubation period increase, opportunistic infections also increase, which prolongs hospital stay days and elevates costs. The study aimed to describe the profile of fungal infections and identify the risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 intensive care patients. The records of 627 patients hospitalized in ICU with the diagnosis of COVID-19 were investigated from electronic health records and hospitalization files. The demographic characteristics (age, gender), the number of ICU hospitalization days and mortality rates, APACHE II scores, accompanying diseases, antibiotic-steroid treatments taken during hospitalization, and microbiological results (blood, urine, tracheal aspirate samples) of the patients were recorded. Opportunistic fungal infection was detected in 32 patients (5.10%) of 627 patients monitored in ICU with a COVID-19 diagnosis. The average APACHE II score of the patients was 28 ± 6. While 25 of the patients (78.12%) died, seven (21.87%) were discharged from the ICU. Candida parapsilosis (43.7%) was the opportunistic fungal agent isolated from most blood samples taken from COVID-19 positive patients. The mortality rate of COVID-19 positive patients with candidemia was 80%. While two out of the three patients (66.6%) for whom fungi were grown from their tracheal aspirate died, one patient (33.3%) was transferred to the ward. Opportunistic fungal infections increase the mortality rate of COVID-19-positive patients. In addition to the risk factors that we cannot change, invasive procedures should be avoided, constant blood sugar regulation should be applied, and unnecessary antibiotics use should be avoided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , Fungi/pathogenicity , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection , Female , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/blood , Mycoses/virology , Opportunistic Infections/blood , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Risk Factors
16.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 121-124, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436206

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is especially severe in patients with underlying chronic conditions, with increased risk of mortality. There is concern that people living with HIV (PLWH), especially those with severe immunosuppression, and COVID-19 may have severe disease and a negative clinical outcome. Most studies on COVID-19 in PLWH are from Asia, Europe and America where population dynamics, antiretroviral treatment coverage and coexisting opportunistic infections may differ from that in sub-Saharan Africa. We report on the clinical profile and outcome of three cases of PLWH co-infected with SARS-CoV-2. They all presented with fever, cough and breathlessness and also had advanced HIV infection as evidenced by opportunistic infections, high HIV viral loads and low CD4 counts. The patients responded favourably to the standard of care and were discharged home. Our findings suggest that PLWH with advanced immunosuppression may not necessarily have an unfavourable disease course and outcome. However, case-controlled studies with a larger population size are needed to better understand the impact of COVID-19 in this patient population. FUNDING: Not declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV , Opportunistic Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Viral Load
17.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
19.
Clin Exp Med ; 22(3): 327-346, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368499

ABSTRACT

Treatment of the novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a complicated challenge, especially among patients with severe disease. In recent studies, immunosuppressive therapy has shown promising results for control of the cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) in severe cases of COVID-19. However, it is well documented that immunosuppressive agents (e.g., corticosteroids and cytokine blockers) increase the risk of opportunistic infections. On the other hand, several opportunistic infections were reported in COVID-19 patients, including Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii), mucormycosis, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Strongyloides stercoralis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Toxoplasma gondii. This review is a snapshot about the main opportunistic infections that reported among COVID-19 patients. As such, we summarized information about the main immunosuppressive agents that were used in recent clinical trials for COVID-19 patients and the risk of opportunistic infections following these treatments. We also discussed about the main challenges regarding diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19-associated opportunistic infections (CAOIs).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidiasis , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Opportunistic Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Candidiasis/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/etiology
20.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 317-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367964

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, parallel opportunistic infections have also been emerging as another disease spectrum. Among all these opportunistic infection, mucormycosis has become a matter of concern with its rapid increase of cases with rapid spread as compared to pre-COVID-19 era. Cases have been reported in post-COVID-19-related immune suppression along with the presence of comorbidity which adds on the deadly outcome. There is no systematic review addressing the issue of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. This is the first systematic review of published studies of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. The aim was to analyze the real scenario of the disease statement including all the published studies from first November 2019 to 30th June to analyze the contemporary epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor, prognosis, and treatment outcome of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis. A comprehensive literature search was done in following databases, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using keywords mucormycosis, rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis, COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 (from November 01, 2019 to June 30, 2021). Our study shows that, while corticosteroids have proved to be lifesaving in severe to critical COVID-19 patients, its indiscriminate use has come with its price of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis epidemic, especially in India especially in patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus with higher mortality. Corticosteroid use should be monitored and all COVID-19 patients should be closely evaluated/monitored for sequelae of immunosuppression following treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/immunology , Meningitis, Fungal/mortality , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/immunology , Orbital Diseases/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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