Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) on the screening and prophylaxis of opportunistic and chronic infections in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). METHODS: SLR (inception-12/2021) based on the following search domains: (1) infectious agents, (2) AIIRD, (3) immunosuppressives/immunomodulators used in rheumatology, (4) screening terms and (5) prophylaxis terms. Articles were retrieved having the terms from (1) AND (2) AND (3) plus terms from (4) OR(5). Databases searched: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: studies on postoperative infections, paediatric AIIRD, COVID-19, vaccinations and non-Εnglish literature. Study quality was assessed with Newcastle-Ottawa scale for non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), RoB-Cochrane for RCTs, AMSTAR2 for SLRs. RESULTS: From 5641 studies were retrieved, 568 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, with 194 articles finally included. For tuberculosis, tuberculin skin test (TST) is affected by treatment with glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and its performance is inferior to interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). Agreement between TST and IGRA is moderate to low. For hepatitis B virus (HBV): risk of reactivation is increased in patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Anti-HBcore positive patients are at low risk for reactivation but should be monitored periodically with liver function tests and/or HBV-viral load. Risk for Hepatitis C reactivation is existing but low in patients treated with biological DMARDs. For Pneumocystis jirovecii, prophylaxis treatment should be considered in patients treated with prednisolone ≥15-30 mg/day for >2-4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Different screening and prophylaxis approaches are described in the literature, partly determined by individual patient and disease characteristics.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , Humans , Child , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Hepatitis B virus , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090887

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains on an upsurge trend. The second and the waves of this disease have led to panic in many countries, and some parts of the world suffering from the fourth wave. In the midst of this pandemic, COVID-19 patients are acquiring secondary infections such as mucormycosis also known as "black fungus disease". Mucormycosis is a serious, but rare opportunistic fungal infection that spreads rapidly, and hence prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to avoid mortality and morbidity rate. We report in this paper, a case of a diabetic patient who presented with bilateral nasal obstruction, anosmia, and frontal headache diagnosed with rhinocerebral mucormycosis developing after COVID-19 infection with a favorable outcome after a medico-surgical treatment. Through this case, we aim to aware patricians of this possible association and the importance of early diagnosis to optimize treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 203-210, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A surge in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis cases has been observed during the second wave of COVID-19 in summer of 2021. Most cases were reported from India. The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the most common variant circulating at that time. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic angioinvasive fungal infection with high morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We present 10 cases of COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital and rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis managed in a secondary hospital in Oman. RESULTS: The median time for developing mucormycosis was two weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis. All patients were newly diagnosed or already known to have poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Five patients received corticosteroid therapy for COVID-19. Three patients had severe COVID-19 and died of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. Another three patients died of advanced mucormycosis and cerebral involvement. Despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention, the mortality rate was 60% (6/10). CONCLUSION: Mucormycosis is an aggressive opportunistic infection with high morbidity and mortality that requires prompt recognition and urgent intervention. Uncontrolled blood sugar, the use of corticosteroids, and immune dysfunction due to COVID-19 are all important risk factors for development of mucormycosis. Worse outcomes are associated with poor glycemic control despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485483

ABSTRACT

Fungal osteomyelitis is a life-threatening and seldom seen opportunistic infection. It is commonly an affectation of the nose and paranasal sinuses within the orofacial region. It is an aggressive infection that needs to be addressed promptly to prevent fatal consequences. The mode of infection is via the inhalation route and infection begins initially in the nose and paranasal sinuses with subsequent invasion into the vascular tissue, eventually leading to thrombosis and necrosis of nearby hard and soft tissues. Here, we report a case of a 31-year-old male who presented with pain over the upper jaw that was sudden in onset, continuous, dull aching, radiating towards forehead and neck of the left side, aggravates on mastication and relives on its own. He had a history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. On further investigation, using diagnostic and Interventional aids, a final diagnosis of mucormycotic osteomyelitis of the maxilla was made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Maxillary Diseases/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Maxillary Diseases/microbiology , Maxillary Diseases/pathology , Mucormycosis/pathology , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/pathology
5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(27): 4276-4297, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344407

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has become more targeted, anticipating the use of immune-modifying therapies at an earlier stage. This top-down approach has been correlated with favorable short and long-term outcomes, but it has also brought with it concerns regarding potential infectious complications. This large IBD population treated with immune-modifying therapies, especially if combined, has an increased risk of severe infections, including opportunistic infections that are sustained by viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal agents. Viral infections have emerged as a focal safety concern in patients with IBD, representing a challenge for the clinician: they are often difficult to diagnose and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The first step is to improve effective preventive strategies, such as applying vaccination protocols, adopt adequate prophylaxis and educate patients about potential risk factors. Since viral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present atypical signs and symptoms, the challenges for the gastroenterologist are to suspect, recognize and diagnose such complications. Appropriate treatment of common viral infections allows us to minimize their impact on disease outcomes and patients' lives. This practical review supports this standard of care to improve knowledge in this subject area.


Subject(s)
Colitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Opportunistic Infections , Virus Diseases , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
6.
Gastroenterology ; 161(2): 681-700, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effectiveness and safety of vaccinations can be altered by immunosuppressive therapies, and perhaps by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) itself. These recommendations developed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and endorsed by the American Gastroenterological Association, aim to provide guidance on immunizations in adult and pediatric patients with IBD. This publication focused on inactivated vaccines. METHODS: Systematic reviews evaluating the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of vaccines in patients with IBD, other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and the general population were performed. Critical outcomes included mortality, vaccine-preventable diseases, and serious adverse events. Immunogenicity was considered a surrogate outcome for vaccine efficacy. Certainty of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. Key questions were developed through an iterative online platform, and voted on by a multidisciplinary group. Recommendations were formulated using the Evidence-to-Decision framework. Strong recommendation means that most patients should receive the recommended course of action, whereas a conditional recommendation means that different choices will be appropriate for different patients. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on 15 of 20 questions. Recommendations address the following vaccines: Haemophilus influenzae type b, recombinant zoster, hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcus, meningococcus, tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis, and human papillomavirus. Most of the recommendations for patients with IBD are congruent with the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommendations for the general population, with the following exceptions. In patients with IBD, the panel suggested Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for patients older than 5 years of age, recombinant zoster vaccine for adults younger than 50 year of age, and hepatitis B vaccine for adults without a risk factor. Consensus was not reached, and recommendations were not made for 5 statements, due largely to lack of evidence, including double-dose hepatitis B vaccine, timing of influenza immunization in patients on biologics, pneumococcal and meningococcal vaccines in adult patients without risk factors, and human papillomavirus vaccine in patients aged 27-45 years. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IBD may be at increased risk of some vaccine-preventable diseases. Therefore, maintaining appropriate vaccination status in these patients is critical to optimize patient outcomes. In general, IBD is not a contraindication to the use of inactivated vaccines, but immunosuppressive therapy may reduce vaccine responses.


Subject(s)
Gastroenterology/standards , Immunization/standards , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Canada , Consensus , Evidence-Based Medicine/standards , Humans , Immunization/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
7.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(2): 261-277, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232974

ABSTRACT

Various uncommon fungal pathogens have been increasingly identified as causes of disseminated and invasive fungal disease (IFD) worldwide. Growing recognition and clinical knowledge of these emerging fungal pathogens has occurred through improved molecular diagnostics, nucleic sequence databases, and taxonomic reclassification of medically significant fungi. However, emerging fungal diseases carry significant morbidity and mortality and, due to a paucity of published literature, the collective clinical experience with these fungi is often limited. In this review, we focus on unusual emerging fungal pathogens not extensively covered elsewhere in this issue of Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mycoses , Opportunistic Infections , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Fungi , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , North America , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(4): 987-989, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138817

ABSTRACT

A 42-year-old male patient presented with profound impairment of vision in both eyes, just as he was recovering from COVID-19. A known diabetic and hypertensive, he suffered from COVID-19 pneumonia further complicated by ARDS, septicaemia and acute kidney injury. His vision on presentation was finger counting close to face bilaterally with multiple, yellowish lesions at the posterior pole. Based on the clinical findings and previous blood culture report, it was diagnosed as candida retinitis and treated with oral and intravitreal anti-fungals. The lesions were regressing at follow-up. This is a post COVID-19 presumed candida retinitis case report.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Retinitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Oral , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Retinitis/drug therapy , Retinitis/microbiology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
10.
Future Microbiol ; 15: 1405-1413, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883809

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic spreads worldwide, new challenges arise in the clinical landscape. The need for reliable diagnostic methods, treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 is the major worldwide urgency. While these goals are especially important, the growing risk of co-infections is a major threat not only to the health systems but also to patients' lives. Although there is still not enough published statistical data, co-infections in COVID-19 patients found that a significant number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 developed secondary systemic mycoses that led to serious complications and even death. This review will discuss some of these important findings with the major aim to warn the population about the high risk of concomitant systemic mycoses in individuals weakened by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mycoses/complications , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 61-66, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808838

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy constituted a multidisciplinary expert committee to provide evidence-based recommendation for the use of antibacterial therapy in hospitalized adults with a respiratory infection and suspected or proven 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a literature search to answer four key questions. The committee graded the evidence and developed recommendations by using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. QUESTIONS ADDRESSED BY THE GUIDELINE AND RECOMMENDATIONS: We assessed evidence on the risk of bacterial infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the associated bacterial pathogens, how to diagnose bacterial infections and how to treat bacterial infections. Bacterial co-infection upon admission was reported in 3.5% of COVID-19 patients, while bacterial secondary infections during hospitalization occurred up to 15%. No or very low quality evidence was found to answer the other key clinical questions. Although the evidence base on bacterial infections in COVID-19 is currently limited, available evidence supports restrictive antibiotic use from an antibiotic stewardship perspective, especially upon admission. To support restrictive antibiotic use, maximum efforts should be undertaken to obtain sputum and blood culture samples as well as pneumococcal urinary antigen testing. We suggest to stop antibiotics in patients who started antibiotic treatment upon admission when representative cultures as well as urinary antigen tests show no signs of involvement of bacterial pathogens after 48 hours. For patients with secondary bacterial respiratory infection we recommend to follow other guideline recommendations on antibacterial treatment for patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. An antibiotic treatment duration of five days in patients with COVID-19 and suspected bacterial respiratory infection is recommended upon improvement of signs, symptoms and inflammatory markers. Larger, prospective studies about the epidemiology of bacterial infections in COVID-19 are urgently needed to confirm our conclusions and ultimately prevent unnecessary antibiotic use during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bias , Blood Culture/methods , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Sputum/microbiology
12.
Mycopathologia ; 185(4): 607-611, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691056

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2109, and has rapidly spread around the world. Until May 25, 2020, there were 133,521 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 7359 deaths in Iran. The role of opportunistic fungal infections in the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients remains less defined. Based on our multicenter experiences, we categorized the risks of opportunistic fungal infections in COVID-19 patients in Iran. The COVID-19 patients at high risk included those with acute respiratory distress syndrome, in intensive care units, receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressants or corticosteroid, and supported by invasive or noninvasive ventilation. The patients were most likely to develop pulmonary aspergillosis, oral candidiasis, or pneumocystis pneumonia. Most diagnoses were probable as the accurate diagnosis of opportunistic fungal infections remains challenging in resource-poor settings. We summarize the clinical signs and laboratory tests needed to confirm candidiasis, aspergillosis, or pneumocystosis in our COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mycoses/complications , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Candidiasis, Oral/complications , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharyngeal Diseases/complications , Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnosis , Pharyngeal Diseases/epidemiology , Pharyngeal Diseases/microbiology , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/complications , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology
13.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(3): 106103, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664350

ABSTRACT

This systemic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of tocilizumab for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Candidate studies up to 24 May 2020 were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, medRxiv and bioRxiv. Treatment outcomes included mortality, risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and the requirement for mechanical ventilation (MV). Seven retrospective studies involving 592 adult patients with severe COVID-19, including 240 in the tocilizumab group and 352 in the control group, were enrolled. All-cause mortality of severe COVID-19 patients among the tocilizumab group was 16.3% (39/240), which was lower than that in the control group (24.1%; 85/352). However, the difference did not reach statistical significance [risk ratio (RR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-1.22; I2 = 68%]. Additionally, risk of ICU admission was similar between the tocilizumab and control groups (35.1% vs. 15.8%; RR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.33-6.78; I2 = 86%). The requirement for MV was similar between the tocilizumab and control groups (32.4% vs. 28.6%; RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.14-4.94; I2 = 91%). However, these non-significant differences between the tocilizumab and control groups may have been the result of baseline characteristics of the tocilizumab group, which were more severe than those of the control group. Based on low-quality evidence, there is no conclusive evidence that tocilizumab would provide any additional benefit to patients with severe COVID-19. Therefore, further recommendation of tocilizumab for COVID-19 cases should be halted until high-quality evidence from randomised controlled trials is available.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Drug Administration Schedule , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
16.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(3): 270-274, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) was first described in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and subsequently announced as a pandemic on March 12, 2020. In several studies, solid-organ transplant recipients were reported to have higher risk for COVID-19. Here, we aimed to determine the frequency of COVID-19 in our kidney and liver transplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 583 transplant patients who were admitted to our outpatient transplant clinics and emergency departments between March 1 and May 1, 2020. Seventy-four of them were liver transplant recipients (46 male, 28 female, of which 14 were pediatric and 60 were adult patients) and 509 of them were kidney transplant recipients (347 male, 162 female, of which 16 were pediatric and 493 were adult patients). We retrospectively evaluated demographic characteristics, currently used immunosuppressant treatment, present complaints, treatment and diagnosis of comorbid diseases, and results of COVID-19 tests. RESULTS: Of 583 transplant recipients, 538 were seen in our outpatient transplant clinics and 45 were seen in our emergency departments. Of these, 18 patients who had had cough and fever were evaluated by respiratory clinic doctors, and nasopharyngeal swab samples were taken. One kidney transplant recipient had a positive COVID-19 test; he was followed with home isolation. He received treatment with hydroxychloroquine (400 mg/day). The other 17 patients had negative tests. There were no mortalities due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant patients also got affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the data of our centers, this effect is not much more different from the normal population. We recommend that transplant recipients should be warned in terms of personal hygiene and should be closely monitored by organ transplant centers. If there is an indication for hospitalization, they should be followed in an isolated unit, with no aggressive changes made to immunosuppressive doses unless necessary.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
17.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(3): 275-283, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is a great threat to the modern world and significant threat to immunocompromised patients, including patients with chronic renal failure. We evaluated COVID-19 incidence among our hemodialysis patients and investigated the most probable immune mechanisms against COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baskent University has 21 dialysis centers across Turkey, with 2420 patients on hemodialysis and 30 on peritoneal dialysis. Among these, we retrospectively evaluated 602 patients (257 female/345 male) with chronic renal failure receiving hemodialysis as renal replacement therapy; 7 patients (1.1%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2. We retrospectively collected patient demographic characteristics, clinical data, and immunological factors affecting the clinical course of the disease. We divided patients into groups and included 2 control groups (individuals with normal renal functions): group I included COVID-19-positive patients with normal renal function, group II included COVID-19-positive hemodialysis patients, group III included COVID-19-negative hemodialysis patients, and group IV included COVID-19-negative patients with normal renal function. Lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and typing of human leukocyte antigens were analyzed in all groups, with killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor genes analyzed only in COVID-19-positive patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: No deaths occurred among the 7 COVID-19-positive hemodialysis patients. Group I patients were significantly older than patients in groups II and III (P = .039, P = .030, respectively) but not significantly different from group IV (P = .060). Absolute counts of natural killer cells in healthy controls were higherthan in other groups (but not significantly). ActivatedT cells were significantly increased in both COVID-19-positive groups versus COVID-19-negative groups. Groups showed significant differences in C and DQ loci with respect to distribution of alleles in both HLA classes. CONCLUSIONS: Although immunocompromised patients are at greater risk for COVID-19, we found lower COVID-19 incidence in our hemodialysis patients, which should be further investigated in in vitro and molecular studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , HLA Antigens/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(33): 7-18, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-485461

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. In December 2019, an outbreak of atypical pneumonia known as COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, China. The newly identified zoonotic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2), is characterized by rapid human-to-human transmission. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients are often in need for intensive chemotherapy to induce remission that will be complicated with prolonged period of cytopenias. They are often recalled to the hospital for treatment and disease surveillance. These patients may be immunocompromised due to the underlying malignancy or anti-cancer therapy. ALL patients are at higher risk of developing life-threatening infections. Several factors increase the risk of infection and the presence of multiple risk factors in the same patient is common. Cancer patients had an estimated 2-fold increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 than the general population. With the World Health Organization declaring the novel coronavirus outbreak a pandemic, there is an urgent need to address the impact of such pandemic on ALL patients. This include changes to resource allocation, clinical care, and the consent process during a pandemic. Currently and due to limited data, there are no international guidelines to address the optimal management of ALL patients in any infectious pandemic. In this review, we will address the potential challenges associated with managing ALL patients during the COVID-19 infection pandemic with suggestions of some practical approaches, focusing on screening asymptomatic ALL patients, diagnostic and response evaluation and choice of chemotherapy in different scenarios and setting and use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Critical Pathways , Decision Support Techniques , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/transmission , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur Urol ; 77(6): 742-747, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27850

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel and lethal infectious disease, posing a threat to global health security. The number of cases has increased rapidly, but no data concerning kidney transplant (KTx) recipients infected with COVID-19 are available. To present the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of KTx recipients infected with COVID-19, we report on a case series of five patients who were confirmed as having COVID-19 through nucleic acid testing (NAT) from January 1, 2020 to February 28, 2020. The most common symptoms on admission to hospital were fever (five patients, 100%), cough (five patients, 100%), myalgia or fatigue (three patients, 60%), and sputum production (three patients, 60%); serum creatinine or urea nitrogen levels were slightly higher than those before symptom onset. Four patients received a reduced dose of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy during hospitalization. As of March 4, 2020 NAT was negative for COVID-19 in three patients twice in succession, and their computed tomography scans showed improved images. Although greater patient numbers and long-term follow-up data are needed, our series demonstrates that mild COVID-19 infection in KTx recipients can be managed using symptomatic support therapy combined with adjusted maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/therapy , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL