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1.
Neurol Sci ; 43(4): 2285-2293, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection is associated with peripheral neuropathy. However, subclinical neurological involvement may occur anytime, and diagnostic methods that reveal this subclinical involvement are not well established. We aimed to assess the subclinical neurological involvement by visual evoked potential (VEP) measurements and nerve conduction studies (NCS) and explore the relationship between neurological electrophysiological findings and the severity of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Seventy-six patients recovered from COVID-19 infection, and 44 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed for clinical and demographic parameters. NCS and VEP analyses were performed to detect any peripheral neuropathy or optic neuropathy in both groups. RESULTS: None of the COVID-19 patients had electrophysiological evidence of peripheral neuropathy. However, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had significant abnormalities in several peripheral nerve measurements compared to patients without pneumonia. Although P100 parameters did not differ significantly between patients and controls, 12 patients with COVID-19 had prolonged P100 latencies. CONCLUSIONS: We detected subclinical afferent visual pathway abnormality evaluated by VEP analysis. In addition, we found subtle electrophysiological features in the NCS of the patients presented with COVID-19 pneumonia. However, our findings did not fortify the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy or optic neuropathy. Further studies are needed to determine the characteristics of COVID-19-related peripheral neuropathy/optic neuropathy whether it has distinct clinical features and disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Optic Nerve Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Neural Conduction/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 323-326, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594596

ABSTRACT

A 62-year-old female diabetic recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia after receiving a prolonged course of steroids. She presented with a clinical picture of left-eye panuveitis with white cotton ball chorioretinal lesions and RAPD suggesting an optic neuropathy (VA HM). Diagnostic vitrectomy was performed to take samples for infective screen and to give intravitreal voriconazole empirically. Smear, culture, and PCR for viral DNA confirmed mixed infection of endogenous Candida endophthalmitis and incidental CMV infection. With further treatment, her corrected vision improved to 6/18 with regressing fungal lesions in serial fundus photographs. Prompt diagnosis and intervention preserved her vision and prevented potential life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Optic Nerve Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases/drug therapy , Optic Nerve Diseases/etiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitrectomy
4.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(6): 1431-1432, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526736

ABSTRACT

An increasing incidence of rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) among patients with COVID-19 has recently been reported in India. We report the imaging findings for 25 patients with COVID-19 and invasive ROCM at a single hospital in India. Findings included sinus wall erosions (n = 20), air within bony sinus structures (n = 11), and focal mucosal nonenhancement (n = 8). Orbital, vascular, and intracranial complications were also observed. Radiologists should recognize the increasing incidence of ROCM among patients with COVID-19 to facilitate early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Optic Nerve Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/epidemiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515262

ABSTRACT

Sarcoidosis is a systemic, idiopathic and granulomatous disease, which most commonly affects the skin, lungs and lymph nodes but can affect virtually any organ. Neurosarcoidosis can be the presenting or the only clinical manifestation accounting for 5%-15% of sarcoid diagnoses. In contrast to uveitis which is the most common ophthalmic manifestation, neuro-ophthalmic signs are uncommon in sarcoidosis. Optic neuropathy is the most common neuro-ophthalmic sign (70% in one series). Sarcoid-related optic neuropathy commonly presents with a picture similar to optic neuritis. Less commonly, optic nerve involvement occurs secondary to compressive lesions, or from direct granulomatous infiltration. Neuroimaging is crucial to identify the location of the lesion. We describe a case of sarcoid-related compressive optic neuropathy and third nerve palsy and highlight the challenging nature of neurosarcoidosis in a patient without a prior diagnosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases , Optic Nerve Diseases , Sarcoidosis , Central Nervous System Diseases/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Optic Nerve , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases/etiology , Sarcoidosis/complications , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis
6.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(6): 1431-1432, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456222

ABSTRACT

An increasing incidence of rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) among patients with COVID-19 has recently been reported in India. We report the imaging findings for 25 patients with COVID-19 and invasive ROCM at a single hospital in India. Findings included sinus wall erosions (n = 20), air within bony sinus structures (n = 11), and focal mucosal nonenhancement (n = 8). Orbital, vascular, and intracranial complications were also observed. Radiologists should recognize the increasing incidence of ROCM among patients with COVID-19 to facilitate early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Optic Nerve Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/epidemiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
10.
J Glaucoma ; 29(12): 1184-1188, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894677

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has changed how outpatient care is delivered in ophthalmology clinics, particularly with glaucoma care. This case series highlights the need for awareness of fogging and improper face mask fit as causes of standard automated perimetry artifacts in patients with ocular hypertension and glaucoma. CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS: Six patients with the diagnosis of ocular hypertension, glaucoma suspect, or glaucoma underwent standard automated perimetry (24-2 or 10-2 SITA, Humphrey Field Analyzer) while wearing ear-loop surgical face masks. Due to patient complaints of fogging during the testing, low test reliability, and unexpected results, the tests were repeated after taping securely the mask to the bridge of the nose. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Fogging may reduce visual field (VF) test reliability and induce artifacts that mimic glaucomatous defects. VF test reliability can be improved and artifacts minimized following mask taping. In 1 case there was worsening of VF defects after mask taping. This suggests that fogging may also disguise true VF defects. CONCLUSIONS: Fogging can result in unreliable VF testing with glaucoma-like artifacts. Secure taping of the face mask to the nose bridge may minimize this problem and reduce unnecessary additional testing and follow-up visits.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , COVID-19/prevention & control , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Protective Devices/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Visual Fields/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/physiopathology , Humans , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Ocular Hypertension/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Optic Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Visual Field Tests
12.
J Glaucoma ; 29(10): 989-991, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on how glaucoma care is delivered, necessitating reduced clinic flow, social distancing, and use of face coverings by patients and staff. This case highlights the need to be aware of improperly fitted face masks as a cause of artifact on standard automated perimetry (SAP). CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old female underwent SAP with the 24-2 SITA Fast test of the Humphrey Field Analyzer wearing an ear-loop surgical face mask. At the end of testing, it was noted that the mask had ridden up the patient's face. Small amounts of condensate were noted on the perimeter lens. CLINICAL FINDINGS: SAP demonstrated good reliability indices but in both eyes, there was a marked reduction in sensitivity inferiorly. The glaucoma hemifield test was outside normal limits. It was ensured the upper border of the mask was well sealed with the loops secured around the ears and nasal strip of the mask pinched down. Visual fields were repeated and were found to be normal. CONCLUSIONS: Poorly fitting face masks represent a new cause of visual field artifact which may mimic pathologic field defects. Without careful attention during testing, the cause of such artifacts may not be apparent, especially as reliability indices may be normal. Adjustments to the fit of face masks may help prevent fogging or mask slippage and increase test reliability.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Masks/adverse effects , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Visual Field Tests , Adult , COVID-19 , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Visual Fields/physiology
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