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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e39218, 2022 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is recommended that caregivers receive oral health education and in-person training to improve toothbrushing for young children. To strengthen oral health education before COVID-19, the 21-Day FunDee chatbot with in-person toothbrushing training for caregivers was used. During the pandemic, practical experience was difficult to implement. Therefore, the 30-Day FunDee chatbot was created to extend the coverage of chatbots from 21 days to 30 days by incorporating more videos on toothbrushing demonstrations and dialogue. This was a secondary data comparison of 2 chatbots in similar rural areas of Pattani province: Maikan district (Study I) and Maelan district (Study II). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and usability of 2 chatbots, 21-Day FunDee (Study I) and 30-Day FunDee (Study II), based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). This study explored the feasibility of using the 30-Day FunDee chatbot to increase toothbrushing behaviors for caregivers in oral hygiene care for children aged 6 months to 36 months without in-person training during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A pre-post design was used in both studies. The effectiveness was evaluated among caregivers in terms of oral hygiene practices, knowledge, and oral health care perceptions based on PMT. In Study I, participants received in-person training and a 21-day chatbot course during October 2018 to February 2019. In Study II, participants received only daily chatbot programming for 30 days during December 2021 to February 2022. Data were gathered at baseline of each study and at 30 days and 60 days after the start of Study I and Study II, respectively. After completing their interventions, the chatbot's usability was assessed using open-ended questions. Study I evaluated the plaque score, whereas Study II included an in-depth interview. The 2 studies were compared to determine the feasibility of using the 30-Day FunDee chatbot as an alternative to in-person training. RESULTS: There were 71 pairs of participants: 37 in Study I and 34 in Study II. Both chatbots significantly improved overall knowledge (Study I: P<.001; Study II: P=.001), overall oral health care perceptions based on PMT (Study I: P<.001; Study II: P<.001), and toothbrushing for children by caregivers (Study I: P=.02; Study II: P=.04). Only Study I had statistically significant differences in toothbrushing at least twice a day (P=.002) and perceived vulnerability (P=.003). The highest overall chatbot satisfaction was 9.2 (SD 0.9) in Study I and 8.6 (SD 1.2) in Study II. In Study I, plaque levels differed significantly (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study using a chatbot in oral health education. We established the effectiveness and usability of 2 chatbot programs for promoting oral hygiene care of young children by caregivers. The 30-Day FunDee chatbot showed the possibility of improving toothbrushing skills without requiring in-person training. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trials Registry TCTR20191223005; http://www.thaiclinicaltrials.org/show/TCTR20191223005 and TCTR20210927004; https://www.thaiclinicaltrials.org/show/TCTR20210927004.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Toothbrushing , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(46): e31937, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected the physical and mental health, socioeconomic status, and community behavior of people worldwide. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the oral health and nutritional status of Japanese older adults based on the results of preoperative assessment in patients who underwent total hip or knee arthroplasty under general anesthesia. This study included older adults (≧65 years) who underwent total hip or knee arthroplasty in whom orthopantomography was performed for preoperative oral health assessment, during January 2019 to December 2021. Gender, age, number of family members living together, number of teeth, body mass index, and serum total protein and serum albumin levels were collected for analysis of this study. A total of 201 patients aged 65 to 89 years participated in the study. While the COVID-19 pandemic has had no impact on the oral health status, there has been a drop in serum albumin level from the results of multivariable-adjusted regression analysis considering age, gender, number of family members, and time. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the serum albumin level of Japanese orthopedic patients aged 65 years or older.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Nutritional Status , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Oral Health , Retrospective Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Serum Albumin/metabolism
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 496, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the provision of oral health care worldwide, prompting the discussion of preparedness. This study aimed to perform an initial appraisal of the usability, spatial representation, and clarity of a newly developed preparedness model from the perspective of senior undergraduate dental students at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, enrolled in the 2020-21 academic year. Answers were analyzed thematically via an inductive coding process between March and June 2021. RESULTS: All the 111 students in years 3 (#55) and 4 (#56) appraised the preparedness model, generating more than 200 pages of text. Four main themes were identified across the essays: streamlined depiction, information-based approach, adaptability to an ever-changing situation, and room for improvement. Although the majority of students appraised the model as being useful in fostering information-seeking behaviour, few students disagreed with the model's portrayal and made further suggestions. CONCLUSIONS: Preparedness models can better guide oral health care providers during a health crisis such as a pandemic. The recently developed preparedness model was appraised as useful by senior undergraduate dental students, although alternative portrayals of the model were suggested. A comprehensive assessment of the newly developed model (and of its variations) is warranted to better support oral health care service delivery during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , Humans , Oral Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Students, Dental
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(771): 402-403, 2022 03 02.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091779
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082225

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Understanding oral health needs and barriers is important to overcome the oral disease burden, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess oral health needs and barriers among Saudi children after the COVID-19 pandemic wave started. (2) Methods: Parents of healthy children aged 3-11 years from five regions of Saudi Arabia were surveyed using an electronically administered validated questionnaire from Febuary-2021 to July-2021. Oral lesions/manifestations during the last 12 months reported by parents included tooth discoloration, ulcers, abscess, swelling of the gingiva, halitosis, gingival bleeding, dry mouth, pain while eating, difficulty in speaking or eating, burning sensation, and white spots. Barriers were assessed according to the WHO Oral Health Questionnaire. (3) Results: Children experiencing toothaches were reported by 1098 (72.4%) respondents. When reported, oral manifestations and lesions were associated with a higher inability to visit a dentist (p < 0.001). Barriers to dental care were more frequent among parents with lower education (p < 0.001; adjusted-odds ratio (AOR), 1.815) and a greater number of children (p < 0.001; AOR, 1.197). (4) Conclusion: Parents reported a high frequency of unmet oral health needs. Education could play an important role in improving oral health care in children and as a predictor of public health concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oral Health , Child , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(2): E231-E239, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081074

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of the study was to ascertain Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) and evaluate oralhygiene practices in patients visiting a dental institution during COVID-19 time. Materials and methods: Face-to face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured close-ended questionnaire,assessing oral hygiene practices and self-reported oral problems perceived in last 6 months, using both Hindi and English version of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) Questionnaire. Frequency distribution of oral hygiene practices were obtained, and Descriptive statistics computed the scores of OHIP-14. Kruskal-wallis test and Independent t-test were used to match the association of OHIP-14 with demographic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was utilized to compute the association of OHIP-14 with independent variables, age and gender. Results: Subjective evaluation of OHRQOL (Oral Health Related Quality of Life) using OHIP-14 Porforma resulted in high score for physical pain and psychological discomfort but subjects expressed less discomfort in connection to functional limitation, physical disability, psychological discomfort, social disability and handicap domains of OHIP-14. With progressive increase in age OHRQOL worsened. Females had poor OHRQOL, with significant difference as compared to males. Gender and marital status observed variance in OHIP-14 with statistically significant difference (P <0.000). Conclusion: More than two-third subjects preferred cleaning their teeth using toothbrush and toothpaste. Therefore, COVID-19 consequently impacted OHRQOL of the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Female , Humans , India , Male , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology
7.
J Dent Res ; 101(10): 1135-1136, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053574
8.
Health Info Libr J ; 39(3): 207-224, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052480

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing affordability, accessibility and penetration of internet services worldwide, have substantially changed the ways of gathering health-related information. This has led to the origin of concept infodemiology that allows the information to be collected and analysed in near real time. Globally, oral diseases affect nearly 3.5 billion people; thus, volume and profile of oral health searches would help in understanding specific community dental needs and formulation of pertinent oral health strategies. AIM: To review the published literature on infodemiological aspects of oral health and disease. METHODOLOGY: This scoping review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Electronic search engines (Google Scholar) and databases (PubMed, Web of science, Scopus) were searched from 2002 onwards. RESULTS: Thirty-eight articles were included in this review. The infodemiological studies for oral health and disease were mainly used in two domains. Out of 38 articles, 24 accessed the quality of available online information and 15 studied online oral health-related information seeking behaviour. CONCLUSION: The most commonly searched oral diseases were toothache, oral cancer, dental caries, periodontal disease, oral maxillofacial surgical procedures and paediatric oral diseases. Most of the studies belonged to developed countries and Google was the most researched search engine.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Oral Health , Child , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Humans , Infodemiology , Information Seeking Behavior , Internet , Search Engine
9.
JDR Clin Trans Res ; 7(1_suppl): 31S-39S, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043094

ABSTRACT

KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: The results of this study can help key stakeholders, such as health care facilities, educational and research institutions, insurance companies, and governmental bodies, plan future activities and policies on dental practice and education.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , Scope of Practice , Delivery of Health Care , Education, Dental , Forecasting
10.
JDR Clin Trans Res ; 7(1_suppl): 25S-30S, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043093

ABSTRACT

KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: This perspective is intended to stimulate thoughts by clinicians, researchers, and educators about needed trends to the dental profession. With consideration of changes needed within the dental profession, improvements and implementation of diagnostic coding and value-based care could result in improved oral health for numerous Americans.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , Organizations , Dentistry , Humans , United States
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 422, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor oral health due to dental caries is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases worldwide. It has a significant impact on individuals across the lifespan and is a leading cause of preventable hospitalizations. The impacts of COVID-19 on oral health at the practice level are well documented, but gaps in understanding the impact on individual oral health remain. This review addresses this gap. METHODS: Using a JBI scoping review process we mapped and summarized the evidence to identify the impact of COVID-19 on individual oral health. Key search terms were developed, and searches were undertaken by an experienced research librarian. RESULTS: The 85 included studies were conducted in 23 countries from 5 regions across the world classified using the United Nations Geoscheme system. The majority (82/85) were quantitative, 2 were reviews and there was one qualitative interview study. Cross-sectional surveys were the most common data collection approach followed by an analysis of clinical data, analysis of internet trends and other online methods. Five key areas were identified including changes to the provision of emergency dental services, provision of routine oral health services, oral hygiene maintenance at home, changes in dietary preferences, alternative models of dental provision and help-seeking and attitudes towards dental care in the future. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review has demonstrated that the pandemic has impacted on oral health at the individual level. It is important that we are aware of these impacts and ensure that support systems are in place to overcome future periods where access to dental care might be compromised. The provision of preventive care remains a vital first step in ensuring good overall oral health as is paramount during periods where access to dental treatment might be limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Caries , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Humans
12.
JDR Clin Trans Res ; 7(1_suppl): 5S-15S, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By midcentury, the US population will be remarkably more racially and ethnically diverse, with a dramatic increase in the proportion of older adults. This report addresses ongoing oral health disparities and inequitable access to care related to these changes, with emphasis on implications for the workforce, taking note of effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. RELEVANT CONSIDERATIONS: Considering that social determinants shape health behaviors, reflection on the most effective type of dental workforce should take into account population characteristics and the relationship of oral health with overall health and general well-being. The dental workforce composition will need to mirror changing demographics, and effective dental health teams will be characterized by cultural competence, humility, readiness, and capacity to adapt to changes. In addition, the influence of social histories and the pandemic on health and dental care utilization is important. Equally important are the inclusion of oral health literacy in treatment planning and disease prevention, as well as oral health-related quality of life in considering outcomes of care. Providing patient-centered care for a diverse population requires tailored treatment modalities, as well as intra- and interprofessional approaches. In this way, the whole person can be cared for, including those with special health care needs, whether related to chronic disease, mental health conditions, or behavioral, physical, and social differences. CONCLUSIONS: Changing demographics will affect the delivery of oral health care, including who can best provide care and how, what the needs are, and in what ways prevention and treatment can most effectively be accomplished. The education of dentists must address unmet population needs, including for those with special health care concerns and older adults. These population groups are influenced by a variety of social determinants, and provision of services may need to occur in alternative care delivery settings. Identifying and addressing the needs of every patient within this broad array of new requirements will challenge dental professionals to redefine what it means to be a health care practitioner. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: This article describes how sociodemographic changes in the United States will challenge the dental workforce in new ways and points to research and practice needs to address these challenges. Oral health disparities and the changing oral health care needs of patients from diverse and underserved groups are discussed, with a focus on the implications for delivery of care and policies that are needed to improve oral health outcomes for all.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oral Health , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Inequities , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , United States/epidemiology , Workforce
13.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E58, 2022 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025236
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1111, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009394

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During Covid-19 pandemic, people have been reluctant to visit dentist due to the fear of infection. Dentists have also suffered from severe turmoil. Teledentistry has been considered as a key strategy for managing people's oral health. The aim of this study was to investigate teledentistry services in the world during the Covid-19 pandemic and to learn from different experiences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Web of Science database was searched by scientometric analysis approach, using keywords such as Covid-19, telemedicine, teledentistry and synonymous keywords derived from MeSH. Consequently, 94 articles were extracted from which, 15 articles related to teledentistry during Covid-19 were included in the study, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: Scientometric analysis and illustration of retrieved articles were performed to identify authors, organizations and countries, and to review cooperation and collaboration networks in this field. Teledentistry was studied during Covid-19 in countries such as China, United States, Japan, Italy and United Kingdom. Types of the software used for communication between dentists and patients were WeChat, BigWord telephone translator, iGAM, WhatsApp, Attend Anywhere (AA), DeRS. The software used for data storage were Mouthwatch TeleDent, and Proforma. For data processing and decision making decision tree algorithms, automated algorithms were employed. CONCLUSION: Teledentistry has the potential to improve the provision of dental services. A fundamental review and careful planning is required to provide such services, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore teledentistry needs more in-depth studies in order to overcome existing and future obstacles and risks while taking advantage of its benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Oral Health , Pandemics , Telephone , United States
15.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 29(3): e62-e72, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006742

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on children's oral health and caregiver's attitude towards teledentistry. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A questionnaire was distributed to 583 caregivers of children aged between 3 and 10 years through electronic messages, which consisted of nine multiple choice questions divided into three parts. The first part included demographic data (age, gender, and educational level); the second part addressed the assessment of oral health of children by their caregivers during the lockdown, the reason and influence of the pandemic on the oral health of children; and the third part was related to caregiver's attitude towards healthcare system and teledentistry. Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's Exact test were used for analysis using SPSS (version 21.0). RESULT: Around 93.5% of caregivers were not satisfied with their child's oral health. Approximately 91.5% of caregivers agree that the coronavirus pandemic has negatively affected their child's oral health. Most of them think that alteration in sleep patterns is the main reason. Ninety-three percent of caregivers have been reported to utilize teledentistry during the pandemic period, but 53.2% did not know whether teledentistry could solve their child's oral healthcare problems. About 7% disagree that teledentistry can be helpful for the oral healthcare needs of children. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease has a negative impact on children's oral health. There is a need to increase awareness about teledentistry among caregivers in Kuwait.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Coronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Oral Health , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
J Prosthet Dent ; 127(3): 383-391, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937091

ABSTRACT

The maintenance of balanced oral homeostasis depends on saliva. A readily available and molecularly rich source of biological fluid, saliva fulfills many functions in the oral cavity, including lubrication, pH buffering, and tooth mineralization. Saliva composition and flow can be modulated by different factors, including circadian rhythm, diet, age, drugs, and disease. Recent events have revealed that saliva plays a central role in the dissemination and detection of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. A working knowledge of saliva function and physiology is essential for dental health professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saliva , Humans , Mouth , Oral Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/chemistry
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269359, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933328

ABSTRACT

Oral health is a critical component of human health but is sometimes forgotten, particularly during humanitarian crises. This research aimed to ascertain the state of oral health among Rohingya refugees living in one of the largest refugee camps and evaluate their knowledge and practice of oral health. A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted among 477 participants from July to September 2021 using a structured questionnaire. There were 34 Rohingya camps and out of those 14 camps were accessible for data collection. The study participants were between 18-82 years residing in the refugee camps under Cox's Bazar. The majority of participants (53.88%) were female and between the ages of 25 and 45. Around 46.12% of respondents did not have basic oral health knowledge, while 53.67% were in need of dental care. Nearly half of the participants demonstrated poor oral health practices. Participants' age and educational level were positively associated with oral health knowledge (p = 0.02 and p<0.001). Furthermore, the knowledge level was positively associated with oral health practice (p = .025). Participants with a history of teeth pain and discomfort in the last 12 months were ten times more likely to seek treatment (OR = 9.93, CI: 5.591-17.64). The study indicated a growing demand for dental care among Rohingya refugees staying in Bangladesh. To reduce the severity of oral health issues, use of minimally invasive restorative procedures can be suggested in camps. New oral health promotion campaigns should be emphasized and proper education, ideally in their original language, can be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Refugees , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oral Health , Refugee Camps
18.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(8): 860-863, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932992
19.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 27(3): e2220422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate and compare pain intensity and Oral Health-related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in women with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) before (T1) and during (T2) COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample was composed of forty-one female participants with painful TMD, who presented for TMD treatment. Subjects were asked to indicate their pain intensity and to answer the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Participants data were collected twice: T1 (evaluation of medical records fulfilled before COVID-19 pandemic) and T2 (by means of an online form). Socio-demographic data were assessed in T1. Statistical analysis was performed with a significance level of 5% (Wilcoxon, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, multiple linear regressions). RESULTS: No difference was found in pain intensity (p=0.26) and OHIP-14 global scores (p=0.53). Physical pain (p=0.03) and social disability (p=0.05) domains improved. In T1, subject's occupation was associated with OHIP-14 global score, physical pain, and physical disability domains. In T2, age was associated with OHIP-14 global scores as well as physical pain, psychological discomfort, and psychological disability domains. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic did not worsen pain intensity and OHRQoL in women with painful TMD, and it is suggested that socio-demographic characteristics influenced TMD patients coping skills during pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Female , Humans , Oral Health , Pain/complications , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/complications , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/epidemiology
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057099, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909753

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with mild dementia are at high risk of poor oral health outcomes. To address this issue, we describe an intervention to teach care partners skills to guide individuals with mild dementia in proper oral hygiene techniques and provide reminders to practice oral hygiene care. By providing support to perform these tasks successfully, we aim to delay oral health decline among this vulnerable population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This multisite study is a three-arm randomised controlled trial. The primary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to improve oral hygiene outcomes by promoting positive oral hygiene behaviours and skills among individuals with mild dementia. Care partners' behaviour factors, such as oral care self-efficacy and implementation of the care plan, serve as mediators of the intervention. Participant-care partner dyads will be randomly assigned to either Treatment Group 1, Treatment Group 2 or the Control Group. All groups will receive an educational booklet. Treatment Group 1 and Treatment Group 2 will receive a smart electronic toothbrush. Treatment Group 2 (the intervention group) will also receive an oral hygiene care skill assessment, personalised oral hygiene instruction and treatment plan; and care partners will receive in-home and telephone coaching on behaviour change. Oral health outcomes will be compared across the three groups. The duration of the active intervention is 3 months, with an additional 3-month maintenance phase. Data collection will involve three home visits: baseline, 3 months and 6 months. The study enrollment started in November 2021, and the data collection will end in Spring 2024. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the NYU Grossman School of Medicine and Duke University, and is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov. A Data Safety Monitoring Board has been constituted. The study findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04390750.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Oral Health , Caregivers , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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