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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(10): 3638-3642, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055709

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore the various globe salvaging treatment strategies for patients with coronavirus disease 2019-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Methods: This was a prospective: interventional analytical study conducted at a Medical College in rural India. A total of 84 patients of CAM admitted between May 2021 and August 2021 were enrolled for the study. Patients with histologically proven CAM with clinical and/or radiological evidence of orbital involvement were divided into three treatment categories based on the site and extent of the lesion. Re-assessment was performed after 7 days. For patients who worsened with the primary approach, orbital exenteration was considered based on a Sion Hospital Scoring System. A novel approach to intra-orbital anti-fungal therapy, site-centered peri-bulbar injection of amphotericin B (SCPeriAmB), was also explored. All the patients were followed up for at least 3 months. Convenience sampling with descriptive statistics was used. Results: Six patients had to finally undergo exenteration by the end of the study period. The rest of the patients were reported to be stable or improved. No mortalities were reported on delaying the exenteration. No adverse events were noted in patients who were given SCPeriAmB. Conclusion: Globe salvaging treatment options should be advocated as a primary approach in patients with CAM. Site-centered peri-bulbar injections can be considered as an approach for delivering intra-orbital anti-fungal therapy in selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Prospective Studies
2.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 389, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a potentially lethal, angioinvasive fungal infection caused by the Mucoracea family comprising Mucor, Rhizopus, and Absidia species. It is commonly associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and Covid-19 infection. The occurrence of mucormycosis in an immunocompetent patient is rare. Also, only a few case reports have been published where patients developed mucormycosis with associated malarial infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A young female presented with a 3-weeks history of painful swelling and outward protrusion of the right eye with complete loss of vision. She had a history of P.vivax malaria two weeks before her ocular symptoms. On ocular examination, there was proptosis and total ophthalmoplegia with loss of corneal sensations in the right eye. Hematological examination revealed normocytic normochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia. MRI was suggestive of right-sided pansinusitis and orbital cellulitis with right superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis and bulky cavernous sinus. Nasal biopsy was negative for fungal culture. An emergency surgical debridement of all the sinuses was done with right orbital exenteration. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of mucormycosis and the patient improved post-operatively on systemic antifungals. CONCLUSION: Such an association of mucormycosis with malaria infection is rarely reported in the literature and is hypothesized to be a result of immunosuppression caused by malaria. Also, emphasis is laid upon having a high index of suspicion for fungal infection in the setting of pansinusitis even if the risk factors are absent. We hereby report a case of rhino-orbital mucormycosis following P.vivax malaria in a 20-year-old female with anemia and thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Malaria, Vivax , Mucormycosis , Orbital Cellulitis , Orbital Diseases , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/complications , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Young Adult
3.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 33(6): 501-506, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018260

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article will update and review the clinical and radiological manifestations and management of rhino-orbital mucormycosis (ROM). RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an increase in cases of ROM worldwide, especially in India. Immunosuppression (especially diabetes mellitus) is a known predisposing risk factor for ROM. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of ROM can be vision or life-threatening. This article reviews the clinical and radiologic features, treatment, and prognosis of ROM with special emphasis on new and emerging therapies. SUMMARY: ROM is an angioinvasive fungal infection that affects the sinuses and orbits and may present to ophthalmologists. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for ROM, especially in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus or other immunosuppression. Corticosteroid treatment (including the recent COVID-19 pandemic) may be a predisposing risk factor for ROM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/therapy , Pandemics
4.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 38(5): 425-432, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Following COVID-19 infection a rising count of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is observed, requiring orbital exenteration, a disabling lifetime affecting surgery. One of the potential interventions for globe salvage in these patients is retrobulbar injections of amphotericin B. This study was conducted to review protocols, outcomes, and side effects of retrobulbar injection of amphotericin B in patients with COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (CAM). METHODS: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched using a comprehensive string of relevant keywords. All English studies with the confirmed diagnosis of CAM infection were included. We excluded all studies in which retrobulbar injection of amphotericin B was not implemented in any of the patients or there was a lack of clarified and detailed data about this procedure among participants. RESULTS: A total of 647 cases had a history of retrobulbar injection(s) of amphotericin B in 13 reviewed studies with 3,132 subjects of CAM. The most common protocol was the retrobulbar injection of 1 ml of 3.5 mg/ml liposomal amphotericin B for 3 doses daily or on alternate days. We discerned that the globe salvage rate was 95.0% in eyes with a history of retrobulbar injection(s). The total rate of orbital exenteration was 14.9%, regardless of the history of retrobulbar injection of the drug. Other outcomes of this intervention were vision salvage and reduced major ophthalmic complaints, including pain, swelling, chemosis, ptosis, and ophthalmoplegia. The side effects of this intervention were not serious, and most of them were transient. They included swelling at the injection site, restriction of ocular motilities, exacerbation of orbital inflammation, and even intensification of visual impairment in a few cases. CONCLUSIONS: Retrobulbar injection of amphotericin B should be considered a nearly safe and protective intervention against orbital exenteration in patients with CAM. It may also be effective in saving vision. Since the effectiveness of orbital exenteration in the survival of patients is not ascertained, retrobulbar injections can be considered an alternative intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Paranasal Sinus Diseases , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnosis
5.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 1107-1113, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963288

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a relatively rare infection but with a high mortality rate due to the difficult and time-consuming diagnostic and therapeutic process. The authors present the first case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis, histologically and microbiologically proven, in a patient after COVID-19 infection in Bulgaria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Bulgaria , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(6): 2163-2168, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875907

ABSTRACT

Purpose: An unprecedented surge has been noted in rhino-orbital-Cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in times of current COVID-19 pandemic. The present prospective study aims to evaluate clinico-epidemiological profile, risk factors, management, and outcome of the cases of ROCM that presented to our tertiary care center during the study period from April to June 2021. Methods: All patients were subjected to complete history taking, ophthalmological examination, and imaging studies. The patients were staged and were treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (AMB) and sino-nasal debridement of local necrotic tissue. Transcutaneous retrobulbar AMB (TRAMB), orbital decompression, and exenteration were instituted as indicated. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months before arriving at the final outcome. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 49 patients presented during the study period, with a mean age of 42.2 years. The major risk factors included uncontrolled diabetes (89.8%), COVID-19 positivity (51.02%), and concurrent steroid use (38.77%). The most common presenting symptom was facial pain/swelling (43.65%), while the most common presenting sign was deterioration in vision (75.51%). Intravenous liposomal AMB was given to all patients along with sino-nasal debridement (85.71%), TRAMB (57.14%), orbital decompression (14.28%), and exenteration (12.24%). Overall, mortality at 6 months was 22.45% (11 patients). Age more than 60 years, intracranial extension, and HbA1c of more than 8.0% were observed to be statistically significant indicators of mortality. Conclusion: Early suspicion and timely diagnosis of mucormycosis at rhino-orbital stage is warranted in order to salvage life as well as visual function. TRAMB may prove as potentially favorable treatment modality in cases with limited orbital involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/complications , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1822-1824, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835163

ABSTRACT

The storm of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) has not yet settled, and it has proven itself a disfiguring and potentially life-threatening disease, complicating the course of COVID-19 infection. Mucormycosis is a rare but devastating fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi of the family Mucoraceae. We report a rare case of a 37-year-old diabetic male with bilateral rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) where it leads to bilateral central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) as manifestation of the disease. Bilateral CRAO secondary to ROCM is extremely rare. A strong suspicion of CAM in uncontrolled diabetics can result in early diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Adult , Blindness/diagnosis , Blindness/etiology , Eye Diseases/complications , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion/complications
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(2): 641-648, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810684

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the clinical profile and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in patients of COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (CA-ROCM) with orbital involvement and perform a clinicoradiological correlation. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary care center in north India from May 2021 to June 2021. Consecutive patients with clinical, nasal endoscopic, and/or microbiological evidence of CA-ROCM underwent MRI of paranasal sinuses, orbit, and brain as per the study protocol. Orbital MRI findings were studied in detail and were correlated with clinical signs. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy patients were studied. The mean age was 48.4 (± 16.82) years. A male predilection was noted (male:female = 1.77). Orbital involvement was seen in 146 (54%) patients on clinical evaluation and in 184 (68%) patients on MRI. Unilateral orbital involvement was more common (134; 92%). The most common presenting symptom was periorbital and/or facial pain (141; 52.2%) and the most common clinical sign was periorbital edema (116; 43%). The most common MRI finding was suggestive of orbital cellulitis (160; 59%). Orbital compartment syndrome was found in 17 (6.3%) patients. The inter-rater agreement between clinical and radiological assessments to detect the involvement of infraorbital nerve and frontal nerve was found to be 85.56%, (κ 0.621) and 93.70% (κ 0.776), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of MRI to detect medial orbital wall defect were found to be 87.9%, 65%, and 97%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Orbital imaging features of a cohort of ROCM patients have been presented with clinicoradiological correlation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Cellulitis , Orbital Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(2): 649-652, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810683

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the role of localized debridement and instillation of amphotericin B for the management of orbital mucormycosis post COVID-19 infection with a view to avoid exenteration. METHODS: The records of all patients with orbital mucormycosis post COVID-19 infection in the last 6 months from December 2020 to June 2021 were evaluated, and ten patients were identified who were successfully managed with localized debridement, that is, removing the fungal tissue and necrotic material and amphotericin B gel instillation locally. MRI scan was used to identify the area of fungal infiltration and presence of necrotic material. Early surgery in the form of transconjunctival orbitotomy was performed for disease in the infraorbital fissure area, and superior transcutaneous lid crease approach was employed for disease in the superomedial orbit or medial orbit. Most patients had lid edema, ptosis, and proptosis; this resolved with the medication. Systemic antifungals were given and the follow-up ranged from 1 to 5 months. RESULTS: The ptosis, proptosis, and lid edema subsided in all, except in one patient who had residual ptosis and in one who had residual ophthalmoplegia. Vision deficit did not occur in any patient. All patients were successfully discharged on oral antifungal medication. CONCLUSION: Localized clearance of the fungal tissue and the necrotic material is a good option to avoid exenteration in cases of orbital mucormycosis, avoiding disfigurement and mental trauma to the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Debridement , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/surgery , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/surgery , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/surgery , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801772

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is life threatening fungal infection that occurs in immunocompromised patients. Patients at risk are those with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed patients such as those undergoing treatment for hematological cancer or recipients of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. COVID 19 infection is known to produce a state of hyper inflammation with release of various cytokines this state of immune dysfunction is associated with development of opportunistic infections, of which Mucormycosis is on the rise currently. The widespread use of corticosteroids can cause secondary infections including mucormycosis. CNS penetration typically starts with nasal involvement followed by the paranasal sinuses and palate, ultimately invading the orbit and brain or by direct hematological spread which is called as Rhino-orbito-cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) . MATERIAL: This is a cross sectional study conducted on 50 patients diagnosed with COVID 19 associated mucormycosis admitted to the hospitals attached to BMCRI from May2021 to August 2021.All the ROCM cases with CNS manifestation were included The relevant demographic data, clinical presentation, neurologic manifestations, underlying co morbidity, medical treatments, and surgical interventions done were recorded and analyzed. OBSERVATION: A total of 50 patients were included mean age 49.3 year with 38 males and 12 females .Most common comorbidity was diabetes (94%)followed by hypertension (26%) .Most common symptom was headache (86%) followed by facial swelling (68%), facial pain (66%).40% Patients had CNS symptom among which most common was hemiparesis. EOM restriction(70%) and abnormal vision(70%) being most common examination finding. Most common sinus being involved was maxillary 94% followed by ethmoid sinus 92%. Neurological manifestation included acute infarct (56%), Cavernous sinus thrombosis (28%),ICA occlusion (10%) abscess (34%), 3 patients had dual fungal infection. 26% patient underwent craniotomy, 6%carniotomy with Denkers procedure, 30% underwent maxillectomy. Among the mortality group, average duration of diabetes was 11.5 years, average steroid use of 9.53 days, CRP was 104mg/l, D Dimer 755ng/dl, as compared to 5.89 years, 5.3 days, 58.9mg/l, 419ng/dl, respectively among recovered patients. Most patient were left with morbidity like vision loss and facial disfigurement (40%) being most common while hemiparesis in (14%) patients . CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus being the main predisposing factor for ROCM. Delayed diagnosis or inappropriate treatment may result in massive tissue destruction and possible extension into the cranial base and/or vault and orbit. Despite advances in imaging and the availability of novel drugs, cerebral mucormycosis continues to be associated with high rates of death and disability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Paresis
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801751

ABSTRACT

Rhino-orbital mucormycosis is an aggressive fungal opportunistic infection of the immune-compromised, debilitated patients. The presence of neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia in patients affected with mucormycosis have been reported. Not much study has been done to establish the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte as a possible indicator for the severity of Rhino-orbital mucormycosis which is clinical staged. As such, this study aims to find out the relationship of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio with the clinical staging of Rhino-orbital mucormycosis in COVID19 recovered patient and if such a ratio can help to identify the severity of the opportunistic fungal infection. MATERIAL: This is a Cross-sectional study done on 100 patients who were diagnosed with Mucormycosis based on radiological findings, post-COVID19 recovery. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was estimated after obtaining the complete blood count of the patient and calculating the ratio by the division of differential Neutrophil by the differential Lymphocyte count. The clinical staging of Mucormycosis was done based on radiological findings. OBSERVATION: The median value of Neutrophil Lymphocyte ratio was found to be elevated in all the clinical stages of Mucormycosis (from stage 2 to 4) at the time of admission as well as discharge considering the normal value of N/L ratio in a healthy individual to be 3. The median N/L ratio was also found to be in decreasing trend as compared from the time of admission to discharge in all the stages 2 to 4 of mucormycosis and was statistically significant (p=0.00) in stage 3 of mucormycosis. CONCLUSION: The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte ratio can be used as a viable marker of severity of mucormycosis and is a good prognostic indicator for resolution of disease especially in stage 3 of mucormycosis. This study helps to reiterate the importance of N/L ratio in the treatment protocol of mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Lymphocytes , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Neutrophils , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis
12.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(3): 103465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777939

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Second wave of COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an unprecedented rise in cases of mucormycosis, treatment of which has been challenging owing to the availability and side effects associated with amphotericin. METHODS: All patients presenting with rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) following COVID-19 infection between April 2021 to June 2021 were included in this retrospective interventional study. Primary objective was to assess the clinical response with combination of intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (4-5 mg/kg/day) and saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) given orally along with surgical debridement. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients of ROCM were treated with the regimen. Mean age and fasting blood sugar levels were 53.48 years and 239.64 mg/dL respectively. All patients had history of intake of steroids with a mean daily dose of 86.39 mg of prednisolone equivalent. 88% of patients had a "proven" diagnosis of mucormycosis. Cultures were positive in 52% of patients with Rhizopus arrhizus as the predominant species. The mean daily dose of amphotericin received was 268 mg/day with a mean duration of 9.52 days. Mean daily dose of SSKI was 2.57 g. 21 patients (84%) had stabilization of disease at week 8 and achieved cure at the end of treatment whereas the mortality rate was 16%. Factors that significantly affected outcome were eye and central nervous system (CNS) involvement on presentation. CONCLUSION: SSKI, with its remarkably low cost and safety profile, makes it a potential adjuvant drug that may help achieve the twin benefits of shortened duration and dose of LAMB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Potassium Iodide/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Mycopathologia ; 187(2-3): 271-289, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750791

ABSTRACT

The recent increase of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) has been commanding global attention. However, basic epidemiologic characteristics have not firmly been established. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we sought to determine the clinical manifestations, potential risk factors, and outcomes of CAM. Observational studies reporting CAM were searched with PubMed and EMBASE databases in January 2022. We collected data on comorbidities and treatment for COVID-19, and performed a one-group meta-analysis on the frequency of orbital exenteration procedure and mortality of CAM using a random-effect model. Fifty-one observational studies, including a total of 2,312 patients with proven CAM, were identified. Among the 51 studies, 37 were conducted in India, 8 in Egypt, and 6 in other countries. The most common comorbidity was diabetes mellitus (82%). While 57% required oxygenation, 77% received systemic corticosteroids. Among CAM, 97% were rhino-orbital-cerebral (ROCM), and 2.7% were pulmonary mucormycosis. Usual presentations were headache (54%), periorbital swelling/pain (53%), facial swelling/pain (43%), ophthalmoplegia (42%), proptosis (41%), and nasal discharge/congestion (36%). Regarding the outcomes, orbital exenteration was performed in 17% (95% CI: 12-21%, I2 = 83%) of the COVID-19-associated ROCM patients. The mortality of CAM was 29% (95% CI; 22-36%, I2 = 92%). In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that the most prevalent type of CAM was ROCM, and most CAM patients had diabetes mellitus and received systemic glucocorticoids. Clinicians in the endemic areas should have a high index of suspicion for this invasive fungal complication of COVID-19 when a diabetic patient who received high-dose systemic glucocorticoids developed rhino-orbital symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Nose Diseases , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Pain/complications , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(3): 1019-1024, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715917

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the outcome and response of transcutaneous retrobulbar injection of amphotericin B (TRAMB) in post-coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) and to establish a scoring system in guiding treatment modalities. Methods: An interventional, prospective study was done on 82 eyes of post-COVID-19 ROCM from May 2021 to July 2021. A comprehensive multi-departmental evaluation along with detailed ophthalmic examination, laboratory investigations, and radiological examination was done. Scoring points were given to each symptom, sign, and radiological features of orbit and the total score was taken. Based on these scores, severity of disease was grouped into A, B, and C corresponding to mild, moderate, and severe orbital ROCM. One milliliter of reconstituted liposomal amphotericin B was given to all patients every alternate day as three doses. Efficacy of these injections was assessed in all groups, even though other treatment modalities like orbital debridement and exenteration were considered for moderate and severe cases. Patients were followed up for a period of 8 weeks. Results: Out of 82 eyes, symptomatic improvement was seen in a major proportion (72%) of patients. A statistically significant improvement in scores was noted in group A (93% improved) with a P value of 0.002, while 68.4% showed improvement in group B (P-value- 0.0001). Group C with severe disease showed minimal improvement in post-injection scores of 41% (P-value 0.086), necessitating surgical intervention. No serious adverse effect of the drug or procedure was noted. Conclusion: Significant improvement in scores of groups A and B highlights TRAMB as an effective and safe treatment modality in mild to moderate ROCM. It is an effective adjunct in severe cases, along with other interventions. Also, the scoring system helps in assessing the severity and guiding in management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 302-305, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596279

ABSTRACT

Rhino-orbital mucormycosis has seen a huge resurgence in patients post COVID-19 infection. In patients with minimal orbital disease and especially with preserved vision, retrobulbar injections of amphotericin B can be of great help in controlling the disease. Instead of giving daily injections of amphotericin B using needles every time, we used an 18-gauge intravenous (IV) cannula with injection port and suture holes to deliver the amphotericin into the orbital space for a period of 5 days. Patients were more compliant and less distressed with this method compared with being given an injection with a needle daily. We got a good response in terms of orbital disease regression with this method. In our review of the literature, we did not come across any such case of amphotericin B injection using an IV cannula. Injection of amphotericin B into the orbit using an IV cannula is a viable and easy treatment option for cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cannula , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(2): e13777, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive mucormycosis (IM) is a life-threatening fungal infection occurring mostly in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, patients with hematological malignancies, and diabetes. A sudden spurt of mucormycosis has been reported in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in India; however, there is little data about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated mucormycosis (CAM) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: We describe the clinical presentations, risk factors, treatment and outcomes of 11 mucormycosis cases in KTRs post-COVID-19 infection from February 2020 to June 2021 at a single center in India. RESULTS: Mucormycosis was seen in 11/102 (10.7%) KTRs during the pandemic. Six patients had mild disease and rest five had moderate disease. Seven patients had pre-existing diabetes mellitus and four developed new onset hyperglycemia after receiving steroids for COVID-19 infection. All had poorly controlled sugars at the time of presentation. Most common presentation was rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in 10/11 (89%) patients and one has pulmonary mucormycosis. All patients received combination of amphotericin B and surgical debridement/excision of affected tissue followed by posaconazole prophylaxis. Nine patients recovered, however two patients succumbed to their illness after median of 14 (7-21) days from diagnosis. One patient developed acute T-cell-mediated rejection during the course of recovery. At last follow up, the mean serum creatinine was 2.05 mg/dl as compared to 1.4 mg/dl at presentation. CONCLUSIONS: IM is a common fungal infection in transplant recipients in India after COVID-19. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with combination of surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B are key to better outcomes in CAM. Judicious use of steroids and control of hyperglycemia is key to avoid flaring up of the fungal infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Kidney Transplantation , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
20.
Acad Radiol ; 29(5): 674-684, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a systematic approach for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, imaging spectrum, and classification system for the staging of post-COVID-19 head and neck mucormycosis. METHOD: The study included 63 post-COVID-19 patients with pathologically proven mucormycosis who underwent head and neck MR imaging. Three independent radiologists assessed the imaging spectrum of mucormycosis, MRI characteristics of sino-nasal mucormycosis, and extra-sinus extension, and submitted a final staging using a systematic approach and a proposed categorization system. A consensus reading was considered the reference imaging standard. The kappa statistics were used to assess the categorization system's diagnostic reliability. RESULTS: The overall interreader agreement of the MR staging system was very good (k-score = 0.817). MR imaging spectrum involved localized sino-nasal mucormycosis (n = 7 patients, 11.1%), sino-nasal mucormycosis with maxillo-facial soft tissue extension (n = 28 patients, 44.5 %), sino-nasal mucormycosis with maxillo-facial bony extension (n = 7 patients, 11.1%), sino-naso-orbital mucormycosis (n = 13 patients, 20.6%), and sino-nasal mucormycosis with cranium or intracranial extension (n = 8 patients, 12.7%). Extra-sinus extension to the orbit and brain did not have significant association with involvement of the posterior ethmoid/sphenoid sinuses and maxillo-facial regions (p > 0.05). MRI-based staging involved four stages: stage 1 (n = 7, 11.1%); stage 2 (n = 35, 55.6%), and stage 3 (n = 13, 20.6%), and stage 4 (n = 8, 12.7%). Involvement of the bone and MR-based staging were significant predictors of patients' mortality p = 0.012 and 0.033, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study used a diagnostic-reliable staging method to define the imaging spectrum of post-COVID-19 head and neck mucormycosis and identify risk variables for extra-sinus extension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results
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