Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
Clin Lab ; 68(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection mostly occurring in immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant or diabetic patients. In this paper, we described a case of COVID-19 with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. METHODS: The nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) from a nasopharyngeal sample for SARS-CoV-2 was done. Demographic data, biochemical tests, paranasal sinuses (PNS) CT scan, brain CT scan, chest CT scan, and palate biopsy were performed. RESULTS: The NAAT was positive for SARS-CoV-2. PNS CT scan revealed mucosal thickening of all paranasal sinuses, brain CT scan showed hypodense area in antero-inferior cortex, and chest CT scan revealed diffuse ground glass opacity in favor of COVID-19 infection. Palate biopsy revealed fibroconnective tissue with broad pauciseptated ribbon-like hyphae. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, a case of COVID-19 with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis was described. The treatment with immunosuppressive drugs predisposed this patient to secondary fungal infection. Immunosuppression is a double-edged sword in COVID-19 treatment and immunosuppressive drugs should be prescribed only in severely ill patients and for a short period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/pathology , Orbital Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 1107-1113, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963288

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a relatively rare infection but with a high mortality rate due to the difficult and time-consuming diagnostic and therapeutic process. The authors present the first case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis, histologically and microbiologically proven, in a patient after COVID-19 infection in Bulgaria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Bulgaria , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Orbit ; 41(6): 670-679, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To present a literature review on various immunopathologic dysfunctions following COVID-19 infection and their potential implications in development of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). METHODS: A literature search was performed via Google Scholar and PubMed with subsequent review of the accompanying references. Analogies were drawn between the immune and physiologic deviations caused by COVID-19 and the tendency of the same to predispose to ROCM. RESULTS: Sixty-two articles were reviewed. SARS-CoV-2 virus infection leads to disruption of epithelial integrity in the respiratory passages, which may be a potential entry point for the ubiquitous Mucorales to become invasive. COVID-19 related GRP78 protein upregulation may aid in spore germination and hyphal invasion by Mucorales. COVID-19 causes interference in macrophage functioning by direct infection, a tendency for hyperglycemia, and creation of neutrophil extracellular traps. This affects innate immunity against Mucorales. Thrombocytopenia and reduction in the number of natural killer (NK) cells and infected dendritic cells is seen in COVID-19. This reduces the host immune response to pathogenic invasion by Mucorales. Cytokines released in COVID-19 cause mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which cause oxidative damage to the leucocytes. Hyperferritinemia also occurs in COVID-19 resulting in suppression of the hematopoietic proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has a role in the occurrence of ROCM due to its effects at the entry point of the fungus in the respiratory mucosa, effects of the innate immune system, creation of an environment of iron overload, propagation of hyperglycemia, and effects on the adaptive immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Hyperglycemia , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Mucormycosis/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Orbital Diseases/microbiology
4.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 38(3): 242-249, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593635

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To correlate the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features in Covid-associated Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis cases presenting with acute visual loss. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Covid-associated Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis cases with unilateral visual loss, planned for exenteration, underwent orbital and ophthalmological ocular examination. The available radiological sequences, doppler ultrasonography and histopathology findings were correlated with clinical manifestations. RESULTS: The median age was 51 years and the male: female ratio was 3:1. All except one presented with unilateral ophthalmoplegia. The ocular media were hazy in 2 eyes. In 8 eyes, retinal changes were suggestive of occlusion of CRA (6), combined occlusion of CRA and central retinal vein (1), and myopic degeneration with hypertensive retinopathy (1). The contralateral eye showed retinal ischemic changes in one patient. Radiological imaging showed orbital apex involvement in the 10 affected eyes and one contralateral eye. Ipsilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis, diffusion restriction on MRI of optic nerve, internal carotid artery narrowing/thrombosis, and cortical watershed infarcts were seen in 8, 4, 4, and 2 cases, respectively. The blood flow in CRA and ophthalmic artery was absent or reduced in all the 10 affected eyes and in 1 contralateral eye. On histopathology, orbital fat necrosis, fungal hyphae, acute inflammation, granuloma formation, ischemic thrombosis of ophthalmic artery was observed in 10 specimens. CRA was patent in 9 and thrombosed in 1 eye. Optic nerve was ischemic in 8 and viable in 2 eyes. CONCLUSION: Acute visual loss in ROCM cases is associated with orbital apex involvement and thrombotic ischemia of ophthalmic artery. Cessation of flow in CRA possibly occurs secondary to ophthalmic artery thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/etiology
5.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 942-946, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a recent deluge of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis in our country. It affects the paranasal sinuses; however, it has a rapid extrasinus progression (the orbit being most common), which can be fatal if not detected early. It may meander into the orbit through various foramina without frank bone destruction. METHODS: This paper reviews the various gateways of the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis to the orbit, even before advent of bone destruction or ocular symptoms. Plausible pathways of invasion and subtle imaging findings are depicted, to enable an early diagnosis. RESULTS: Relevant anatomy and imaging examples have been illustrated to familiarise the surgeons with various routes of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis spread to the orbit. Emphasis is laid on searching for subtle imaging findings for the detection of early orbital invasion. CONCLUSION: Early detection and extension of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis is facilitated by knowledge of its gateways of spread, which aids the surgeon in prognostication and planning of the surgical approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/virology , Mucorales , Mucormycosis/virology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Medical Illustration
7.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(6): 1431-1432, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526736

ABSTRACT

An increasing incidence of rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) among patients with COVID-19 has recently been reported in India. We report the imaging findings for 25 patients with COVID-19 and invasive ROCM at a single hospital in India. Findings included sinus wall erosions (n = 20), air within bony sinus structures (n = 11), and focal mucosal nonenhancement (n = 8). Orbital, vascular, and intracranial complications were also observed. Radiologists should recognize the increasing incidence of ROCM among patients with COVID-19 to facilitate early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Optic Nerve Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/epidemiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
8.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 981-986, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 infection can result in immunosuppression. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is a frequent co-infection, even after recovery. METHODS: An ambispective interventional study was conducted of 41 coronavirus patients with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis at a tertiary care centre from March to May 2021. RESULTS: There were 28 males and 13 females with a mean age of 48.2 years (range, 21-68 years). Twelve had long-standing diabetes mellitus and 28 had been recently diagnosed. Thirty-six had received systemic corticosteroids for coronavirus disease 2019. Nasal signs were present in 95 per cent of patients, ophthalmic symptoms and signs in 87 per cent, palatal necrosis in 46.3 per cent, facial signs in 24.3 per cent, nerve palsies in 60.9 per cent, and intracranial involvement in 21.9 per cent. Treatment with amphotericin B was based on clinical features and co-morbidities. Endonasal debridement was performed in 51.2 per cent of patients, total maxillectomy in 14.6 per cent and orbital exenteration in 9.7 per cent. At the last follow up, 37 patients (90.24 per cent) were on antifungal therapy; 4 (9.75 per cent) did not survive. CONCLUSION: Early detection may improve survival. Follow up of high-risk patients after coronavirus disease 2019 infection is paramount.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Epidemics , Mucorales , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Debridement , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Young Adult
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377695

ABSTRACT

AIMS: 1: Describe the epidemiology and determine risk factors for COVID-19 associated mucormycosis. 2: Elaborate the clinical spectrum of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM), pattern of neuroaxis involvement and it's radiological correlates. METHODS: Observational study. Consecutive, confirmed cases of mucormycosis (N = 55) were included. A case of mucormycosis was defined as one who had clinical and radiological features consistent with mucormycosis along with demonstration of the fungus in tissue via KOH mount/culture/histopathological examination (HPE). Data pertaining to epidemiology, risk factors, clinico-radiological features were analysed using percentage of total cases. RESULTS: Middle aged, diabetic males with recent COVID-19 infection were most affected. New onset upper jaw toothache was a striking observation in several cases. Among neurological manifestations headache, proptosis, vision loss, extraocular movement restriction; cavernous sinus, meningeal and parenchymal involvement were common. Stroke in ROCM followed a definitive pattern with watershed infarction. CONCLUSIONS: New onset upper jaw toothache and loosening of teeth should prompt an immediate search for mucormycosis in backdrop of diabetic patients with recent COVID-19 disease, aiding earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation. Neuroaxis involvement was characterized by a multitude of features pertaining to involvement of optic nerve, extraocular muscles, meninges, brain parenchyma and internal carotid artery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Orbit/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Prevalence , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 317-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367964

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, parallel opportunistic infections have also been emerging as another disease spectrum. Among all these opportunistic infection, mucormycosis has become a matter of concern with its rapid increase of cases with rapid spread as compared to pre-COVID-19 era. Cases have been reported in post-COVID-19-related immune suppression along with the presence of comorbidity which adds on the deadly outcome. There is no systematic review addressing the issue of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. This is the first systematic review of published studies of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. The aim was to analyze the real scenario of the disease statement including all the published studies from first November 2019 to 30th June to analyze the contemporary epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor, prognosis, and treatment outcome of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis. A comprehensive literature search was done in following databases, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using keywords mucormycosis, rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis, COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 (from November 01, 2019 to June 30, 2021). Our study shows that, while corticosteroids have proved to be lifesaving in severe to critical COVID-19 patients, its indiscriminate use has come with its price of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis epidemic, especially in India especially in patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus with higher mortality. Corticosteroid use should be monitored and all COVID-19 patients should be closely evaluated/monitored for sequelae of immunosuppression following treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/immunology , Meningitis, Fungal/mortality , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/immunology , Orbital Diseases/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Clin Radiol ; 76(10): 784.e27-784.e33, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336359

ABSTRACT

AIM: To analyse combined computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of invasive rhino-orbital mucormycosis (IROM) in post-COVID-19 infection patients for accurate diagnosis and delineation of the extent of involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 50 patients who developed IROM post-COVID-19 infection who underwent combined CT/MRI evaluation. RESULTS: The age range of the 50 affected patients was 23-73 years. Out of these, 41 were diabetic. CT/MRI showed predominant involvement of the maxillary (n=26) and ethmoid (n=19) sinuses. Extension of disease to the orbit (n=35), cavernous sinus (n=18), hard palate (n=15), skull base (n=8), and intracranial involvement (n=3) was seen. Perineural spread of the disease was analysed along all divisions of the trigeminal nerve and its branches. MRI showed T2-hypointense soft-tissue thickening with heterogeneous contrast enhancement with corresponding hyperdensities on CT diagnosing the presence of fungal elements. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of IROM post-COVID-19 infection. Conjunctive use of CT, which depicts bone destruction and other reactive bony changes along with MRI, which reveals characteristic findings of soft-tissue thickening of the involved sinuses with extension of disease to the orbits, cavernous sinus, dura, hard palate, skull base, and intracranial structures. Accurate diagnosis and early recognition of the disease and its extension with appropriate use of these techniques helps to initiate appropriate and timely treatment, which is vital to prevent a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Clin Radiol ; 76(11): 812-819, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330728

ABSTRACT

A subset of diabetic COVID-19 patients treated with steroids, oxygen, and/or prolonged intensive care admission develop rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Radiologists must have a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis, which prompts immediate institution of antifungal therapy that limits morbidity and mortality. Assessment of disease extent by imaging is crucial for planning surgical debridement. Complete debridement of necrotic tissue improves survival. Imaging features reflect the angioinvasive behaviour of fungal hyphae from the Mucoraceae family, which cause necrotising vasculitis and thrombosis resulting in extensive tissue infarction. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging technique of choice. The classic "black turbinate" on contrast-enhanced imaging represents localised invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS). A striking radiological feature of disseminated craniofacial disease is non-enhancing devitalised and necrotic soft tissue at the orbits and central skull base. Sinonasal and extrasinonasal non-enhancing lesions in IFRS are secondary to coagulative necrosis induced by fungal elements. Multicompartmental and extrasinonasal tissue infarction is possible without overt bone involvement and caused by the propensity of fungal elements to disseminate from the nasal cavity via perineural and perivascular routes. Fungal vasculitis can result in internal carotid artery occlusion and cerebral infarction. Remnant non-enhancing lesions after surgical debridement portend a poor prognosis. Assessment for the non-enhancing MRI lesion is crucial, as it is a sole independent prognostic factor for IFRS-specific mortality. In this review, we describe common and uncommon imaging presentations of biopsy-proven rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in a cohort of nearly 40 COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/microbiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , Humans , Orbit/diagnostic imaging , Orbit/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mycoses ; 64(11): 1366-1377, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients, especially the patients requiring hospitalisation, have a high risk of several complications such as opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections. Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic fungal infection that mainly affects diabetic and immunocompromised patients. An increase has been observed in the number of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19 admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, since October 2020. This is a report of the frequency, risk factors, clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis of COVID-19 associated with mucormycosis infection. METHODS: The medical records of COVID-19 patients with rhino-orbital mucormycosis who were diagnosed in an educational therapeutic hospital in Kermanshah, west of Iran were surveyed. Several parameters were analysed including demographic, clinical, therapeutic and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: Twelve patients with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis were identified from 12 October to 18 November 2020. All cases reported as proven mucormycosis had a history of hospitalisation due to COVID-19. Comorbidities mainly included diabetes mellitus (83.33%) and hypertension (58.33%). Seventy-five per cent of patients received corticosteroids for COVID- 19 treatment. The sites of involvement were rhino-sino-orbital (83%) and rhino-sino (17%). Amphotericin B/liposomal amphotericin B alone or in combination with surgical debridement or orbital exenteration was used as the first-line therapy. The overall mortality rate was 66.7% (8/12). CONCLUSIONS: We found a high incidence of mucormycosis among COVID-19 patients. Diabetes mellitus and corticosteroid use were the dominant predisposing factor of mucormycosis. Mucormycosis is a life-threatening and opportunistic infection; therefore, physicians should know the signs and symptoms of the disease so that a timely diagnosis and therapy can be performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis/complications , Rhinitis/diagnostic imaging
14.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 37(2): e40-e80, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940832

ABSTRACT

Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a rare, although highly morbid, infection primarily affecting immunosuppressed individuals. The same population is at particularly high risk of complications and mortality in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. The authors present a case of acute invasive fungal rhino-orbital mucormycosis in a patient with COVID-19 and discuss the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of fungal coinfections in COVID-19. Prompt recognition, initiation of therapy, and consideration of the challenges of rapidly evolving COVID-19 therapy guidelines are important for improving patient survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Mycoses/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sinusitis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL