Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 35
Filter
1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1101-1109, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809302

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance has emerged as a critical monitoring tool during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Wastewater surveillance has the potential to identify and track SARS-CoV-2 variants in the community, including emerging variants. We demonstrate the novel use of multilocus sequence typing to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants in wastewater. Using this technique, we observed the emergence of the B.1.351 (Beta) variant in Linn County, Oregon, USA, in wastewater 12 days before this variant was identified in individual clinical specimens. During the study period, we identified 42 B.1.351 clinical specimens that clustered into 3 phylogenetic clades. Eighteen of the 19 clinical specimens and all wastewater B.1.351 specimens from Linn County clustered into clade 1. Our results provide further evidence of the reliability of wastewater surveillance to report localized SARS-CoV-2 sequence information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Oregon/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
2.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(3): 669-676, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global outbreak allowed a natural experiment to observe how older adults changed social patterns and how it affected their emotional well-being. We studied the frequency and modes of social contact and their effects on older adults' mood before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Phone-based surveys were administered weekly before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Participants were recruited from Portland, Oregon, and Detroit, Michigan. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults ≥75 years old (n = 155, age = 81.0 ± 4.5, 72.3% women) were included in a randomized controlled trial, the Internet-Based Conversational Engagement Clinical Trial (I-CONECT). MEASUREMENTS: Low mood was self-reported as feeling downhearted or blue for three or more days in the past week. Social contact was self-reported by the amount of time spent in interactions, with whom (family, friends, others), and via which modes (in-person, phone/video call, text/email/letter). RESULTS: A total of 5525 weeks of data were derived from 155 participants. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, average social interaction time spent in-person, on phone/video call, and via text/email/letter was 406, 141, and 68 min/week, respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic, time spent in-person was reduced by 135 min/week, while time spent via phone/video call and writing increased by 33 and 26 mins/week, respectively. In-person family contact was associated with less low mood regardless of the pandemic (odds ratio = 0.92, p < 0.05). There was a COVID-19 × text/email/letter with friends interaction (odds ratio = 0.77, p = 0.03), suggesting that during the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase of 1 h of writing with friends per week was associated with a 23% decrease in the likelihood of experiencing low mood. CONCLUSION: The lost in-person time relating to COVID-19 restrictions tended to be partially compensated for with increased calls and writing time, although overall social interaction time decreased. During the COVID-19 pandemic, at least two types of social interactions (writing to friends and in-person family time) showed promise for mitigating low mood for older adults with limited social resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mood Disorders/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Oregon/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone , Writing
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1608-1612, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524680

ABSTRACT

Population-based rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and related health care utilization help determine estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and averted illnesses, especially since the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant began circulating in June 2021. Among members aged ≥12 years of a large integrated health care delivery system in Oregon and Washington, incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations were calculated by COVID-19 vaccination status, vaccine product, age, race, and ethnicity. Infection after full vaccination was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test result ≥14 days after completion of an authorized COVID-19 vaccination series.* During the July-September 2021 surveillance period, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred among 4,146 of 137,616 unvaccinated persons (30.1 per 1,000 persons) and 3,009 of 344,848 fully vaccinated persons (8.7 per 1,000). Incidence was higher among unvaccinated persons than among vaccinated persons across all demographic strata. Unvaccinated persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more than twice as likely to receive ED care (18.5%) or to be hospitalized (9.0%) than were vaccinated persons with COVID-19 (8.1% and 3.9%, respectively). The crude mortality rate was also higher among unvaccinated patients (0.43 per 1,000) than in fully vaccinated patients (0.06 per 1,000). These data support CDC recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination, including additional and booster doses, to protect individual persons and communities against COVID-19, including illness and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant (1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oregon/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21675, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504246

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 led to death of millions of people worldwide. To stave off the spread of the virus, the authorities in the US employed different strategies, including the mask mandate order issued by the states' governors. In the current work, we defined a parameter called average death ratio as the monthly average of the number of daily deaths to the monthly average number of daily cases. We utilized survey data to quantify people's abidance by the mask mandate order. Additionally, we implicitly addressed the extent to which people abide by the mask mandate order, which may depend on some parameters such as population, income, and education level. Using different machine learning classification algorithms, we investigated how the decrease or increase in death ratio for the counties in the US West Coast correlates with the input parameters. The results showed that for the majority of counties, the mask mandate order decreased the death ratio, reflecting the effectiveness of such a preventive measure on the West Coast. Additionally, the changes in the death ratio demonstrated a noticeable correlation with the socio-economic condition of each county. Moreover, the results showed a promising classification accuracy score as high as 90%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/trends , California , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Policy , Humans , Machine Learning , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Oregon , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Washington
7.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(6): 747-757, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Latinos are disproportionately vulnerable to severe COVID-19 due to workplace exposure, multigenerational households, and existing health disparities. Rolling out COVID-19 vaccines among vulnerable Latinos is critical to address disparities. This study explores vaccine perceptions of Latino families to inform culturally centered strategies for vaccine dissemination. METHOD: Semistructured telephone interviews with Latino families (22 mothers and 24 youth, 13-18 years old) explored COVID-19 vaccine perceptions including (1) sources of information, (2) trust of vaccine effectiveness and willingness to get vaccinated, and (3) access to the vaccine distribution. We identified thematic patterns using immersion-crystallization. RESULTS: We found that (1) 41% expressed optimism and willingness to receive the vaccine coupled with concerns about side effects; (2) 45% expressed hesitancy or would refuse vaccination based on mistrust, myths, fear of being used as "guinea pigs," and the perceived role of politics in vaccine development; (3) families "digested" information gathered from social media, the news, and radio through intergenerational communication; and (4) participants called for community-led advocacy and "leading by example" to dispel fear and misinformation. Optimistic participants saw the vaccine as a way to protect their families, allowing youth to return to schools and providing safer conditions for frontline essential workers. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally centered vaccine promotion campaigns may consider the Latino family unit as their target audience by providing information that can be discussed among parents and youth, engaging a range of health providers and advocates that includes traditional practitioners and community health workers, and disseminating information at key venues, such as schools, churches, and supermarkets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Oregon , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(6): 1348-1353, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432591

ABSTRACT

Over 8100 people living with HIV (PLWH) in Oregon are at risk of acquiring COVID-19, and communities of color are disproportionately impacted by both COVID-19 and HIV. This study identifies factors associated with a positive COVID-19 test among PLWH in Oregon, with the goal of promoting health equity. We probabilistically linked COVID-19 laboratory results with laboratory-confirmed HIV cases. Crude and adjusted risk ratios of having a COVID-19 diagnosis were calculated for each covariate. Almost 6% of the 2390 PLWH tested for COVID-19 had a positive COVID-19 result. PLWH with positive results tended to identify as American Indian/Alaska Native or Hispanic/Latinx. Younger (age < 50) immigrant PLWH were more than twice as likely to have a positive COVID-19 result than did older (age ≥ 50) US-born PLWH. The pandemic has magnified disparities among American Indian/Alaska Native, Latinx, and younger immigrant PLWH. Dismantling institutional racism and redistributing power are strategies that could be considered to help reduce health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , HIV Infections , Racism , COVID-19 Testing , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Oregon , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(8): e1009351, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378132

ABSTRACT

Decision-making about pandemic mitigation often relies upon simulation modelling. Models of disease transmission through networks of contacts-between individuals or between population centres-are increasingly used for these purposes. Real-world contact networks are rich in structural features that influence infection transmission, such as tightly-knit local communities that are weakly connected to one another. In this paper, we propose a new flow-based edge-betweenness centrality method for detecting bottleneck edges that connect nodes in contact networks. In particular, we utilize convex optimization formulations based on the idea of diffusion with p-norm network flow. Using simulation models of COVID-19 transmission through real network data at both individual and county levels, we demonstrate that targeting bottleneck edges identified by the proposed method reduces the number of infected cases by up to 10% more than state-of-the-art edge-betweenness methods. Furthermore, the proposed method is orders of magnitude faster than existing methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Models, Biological , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Oregon/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Social Media
10.
Int J Drug Policy ; 98: 103384, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Following emergency declarations related to COVID-19 in the United States, many states issued stay-at-home orders and designated essential business categories. Most states allowed medical and/or non-medical adult-use cannabis retailers to remain open. This study assesses changes in cannabis sales across Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Pre-tax sales data from cannabis marketplaces in four states were analyzed to identify trends from January 2018-December 2020. Mean monthly sales and relative percent change in mean monthly sales were compared by state from April-December (coinciding with the pandemic) in 2018, 2019, and 2020. Differences were assessed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney-U test. RESULTS: Mean monthly cannabis sales in all four states were higher during the pandemic period in 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. Sales reached a three-year peak in Washington in May 2020 and in Alaska, Colorado, and Oregon in July 2020. From April-December, the percent change in mean monthly sales from 2019 to 2020 was significantly higher than 2018-2019 in all four states, though Alaska saw similar increases between 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. CONCLUSION: To date, cannabis sales in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington have increased more during the COVID-19 pandemic than in the previous two years. In light of these increases, data monitoring by states and CDC is warranted to understand how patterns of use are changing, which populations are demonstrating changes in use, and how such changes may affect substance use and related public health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Adult , Alaska/epidemiology , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans , Oregon/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Washington/epidemiology
12.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(6): 4073, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276872

ABSTRACT

Approximately six years of underwater noise data recorded from the Regional Cabled Array network are examined to study long-term trends. The data originate from station HYS14 located 87 km offshore of Newport, OR. The results indicate that the third-octave band level centered at 63 Hz and attributable to shipping activity is reduced in the spring of 2020 by about 1.6 dB relative to the mean of the prior five years, owing to the reduced economic activity initiated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The results are subtle, as the noise reduction is less than the typical seasonal fluctuation associated with warming ocean surface temperatures in the summer that reduces mode excitation support at typical ship source depths, causing a repeated annual level change on the order of 4 dB at shipping frequencies. Seasonality of the noise contribution near 20 Hz from fin whales is also discussed. Corroboration of a COVID-19 effect on shipping noise is offered by an analysis of automatic identification system shipping data and shipping container activity for Puget Sound, over the same six-year period, which shows a reduction in the second quarter of 2020 by ∼19% and ∼17%, respectively, relative to the mean of the prior five years.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , COVID-19 , Humans , Oregon , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ships
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e1004-e1009, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, with subsequent worldwide spread. The first US cases were identified in January 2020. METHODS: To determine if SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies were present in sera prior to the first identified case in the United States on 19 January 2020, residual archived samples from 7389 routine blood donations collected by the American Red Cross from 13 December 2019 to 17 January 2020 from donors resident in 9 states (California, Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin) were tested at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Specimens reactive by pan-immunoglobulin (pan-Ig) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the full spike protein were tested by IgG and IgM ELISAs, microneutralization test, Ortho total Ig S1 ELISA, and receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity assay. RESULTS: Of the 7389 samples, 106 were reactive by pan-Ig. Of these 106 specimens, 90 were available for further testing. Eighty-four of 90 had neutralizing activity, 1 had S1 binding activity, and 1 had receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity >50%, suggesting the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies. Donations with reactivity occurred in all 9 states. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may have been introduced into the United States prior to 19 January 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , China , Connecticut , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Iowa , Massachusetts , Michigan , Oregon , Rhode Island , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Washington , Wisconsin
14.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(5): e59-e63, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177351

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae/Chlamydia trachomatis, and syphilis testing decreased with the implementation of mitigation measures for SARS-CoV-2 and did not return to 2019 levels by September 2020. However, primary and secondary syphilis diagnoses increased during mitigation measures. Sexual health services are essential during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Testing/statistics & numerical data , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Humans , Oregon/epidemiology , Pandemics
15.
J Agromedicine ; 25(4): 413-416, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174770

ABSTRACT

Facing the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and increasing outbreaks among farmworkers and food processing workers across the nation, the Oregon Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OR OSHA) issued temporary regulations, in contrast to optional recommendations, in late spring. These regulations aimed to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission among farmworkers, but made compromises that may fail to reduce the risk of further outbreaks among Oregon's agricultural workers, particularly those living in agricultural labor housing. Instead of considering the scientific literature that called for attention to space and length of time for social distancing among unrelated persons in indoor areas, the agency accepted the 6-foot social distancing rule of thumb and allowed even shorter distances between beds with the installation of plastic or plywood barriers. The 6-foot distance (or less with a barrier) between people sleeping next to each other in poorly ventilated housing has proved disastrous. Additionally, testing for migrant and seasonal farmworkers is neither uniform nor thorough, and little data have been collected to assess the success of existing testing efforts. New regulations must be adopted for farm labor housing that limit occupancy to at most two unrelated individuals for a room of 200 square feet; include expanded specification on the provision of fresh air in shared living spaces; and support increased access to testing, surveillance testing, and alternative safe housing at labor housing sites for identified cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Housing , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Farmers , Humans , Occupational Health , Oregon/epidemiology , Sleep , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
16.
J Nurs Care Qual ; 36(2): 112-116, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the need for hospitals to plan for a potential "surge" of COVID-19 patients. PROBLEM: Prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, our hospital adult acute care capacity ranged 90% to 100%, and a potential hospital surge was projected for Oregon that would exceed existing capacity. APPROACH: A multidisciplinary team with stakeholders from nursing leadership, nursing units, nurse-led case management, and physicians from hospital medicine was convened to explore the conversion of an ambulatory surgical center to overflow patient acute care capacity. OUTCOMES: A protocol was rapidly created and implemented, ultimately transferring 12 patients to an ambulatory surgery unit. CONCLUSIONS: This project highlighted the ability for stakeholders and innovators to work together in an interprofessional, multidisciplinary way to rapidly create an overflow unit. While this innovation was designed to address COVID-19, the lessons learned can be applied to any other emerging infectious disease or acute care capacity crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Planning/organization & administration , Organizational Innovation , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Humans , Oregon/epidemiology
17.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1302-1305, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165514

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: In March 2020, the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread rapidly within the United States and began overwhelming the health care system. To conserve personal protective equipment, reduce the spread of the virus, and keep student learners safe, leaders of medical schools across the country made the difficult decision to suspend in-person clinical experiences. As medical students were sent home and hospital systems ramped up their response to the virus, many essential health care workers (HCWs) faced an immediate challenge. As "nonessential" services such as schools and daycare centers abruptly closed, HCWs serving on the frontlines in inpatient settings needed a way to both fight the pandemic and care for their children. APPROACH: Medical students at Oregon Health & Science University were able to rapidly OR organize to provide childcare for essential HCWs. For roughly 8 weeks following the state of emergency (March 13 through May 15, 2020), students used Twitter and emerging technology to match families in need of childcare with a trainee volunteer. OUTCOMES: By May 15th, the service had successfully fulfilled 181 of the 202 requests for childcare (90%) over the course of 8 weeks. Of the 181 completed childcare requests, 172 (95%) were fulfilled by an individual (1:1 volunteer-to-household pairing), and 9 (5%) were fulfilled by 2 or more volunteers. NEXT STEPS: The trainees who provided childcare will apply the skills learned (e.g., clear communication, grassroots organizing, triaging, leveraging new technology) to patient care. Broader applications for this system include organizing volunteers to conduct contract tracing or to provide public health information in languages other than English. Future research includes examining the effect of the service on the productivity, morale, and mental health of both those who provided and received childcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel , Students, Medical , Volunteers , Child , Child Care/methods , Child, Preschool , Emergencies , Humans , Infant , Oregon , Social Media
18.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 13, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe addiction consult services (ACS) adaptations implemented during the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic across four different North American sites: St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia; Oregon Health & Sciences University in Portland, Oregon; Boston Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts; and Yale New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut. EXPERIENCES: ACS made system, treatment, harm reduction, and discharge planning adaptations. System changes included patient visits shifting to primarily telephone-based consultations and ACS leading regional COVID-19 emergency response efforts such as substance use treatment care coordination for people experiencing homelessness in COVID-19 isolation units and regional substance use treatment initiatives. Treatment adaptations included providing longer buprenorphine bridge prescriptions at discharge with telemedicine follow-up appointments and completing benzodiazepine tapers or benzodiazepine alternatives for people with alcohol use disorder who could safely detoxify in outpatient settings. We believe that regulatory changes to buprenorphine, and in Vancouver other medications for opioid use disorder, helped increase engagement for hospitalized patients, as many of the barriers preventing them from accessing care on an ongoing basis were reduced. COVID-19 specific harm reductions recommendations were adopted and disseminated to inpatients. Discharge planning changes included peer mentors and social workers increasing hospital in-reach and discharge outreach for high-risk patients, in some cases providing prepaid cell phones for patients without phones. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE: We believe that ACS were essential to hospitals' readiness to support patients that have been systematically marginilized during the pandemic. We suggest that hospitals invest in telehealth infrastructure within the hospital, and consider cellphone donations for people without cellphones, to help maintain access to care for vulnerable patients. In addition, we recommend hospital systems evaluate the impact of such interventions. As the economic strain on the healthcare system from COVID-19 threatens the very existence of ACS, overdose deaths continue rising across North America, highlighting the essential nature of these services. We believe it is imperative that health care systems continue investing in hospital-based ACS during public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Telemedicine/trends , British Columbia , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Connecticut , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Forecasting , Health Plan Implementation/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Massachusetts , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Oregon , Patient Care Team/trends , Patient Discharge/trends , Remote Consultation/trends
19.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(Suppl): S170-S178, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099982

ABSTRACT

To respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and recover from its aftermath, primary care teams will face waves of overwhelming demand for information and the need to significantly transform care delivery. INNOVATION: Oregon Health & Science University's primary care team envisioned and implemented the COVID-19 Connected Care Center, a statewide telephone "hotline" service. RESULTS: The hotline has taken more than 5825 calls from patients in 33 of Oregon's 36 counties in less than 3 months. In preliminary survey data, 86% of patients said their questions were answered during the call, 90% would recommend this service, and 70% reported a reduction in stress levels about coronavirus. In qualitative interviews, patients reported their questions answered, short wait times, nurses spent time as needed, and appropriate follow-up was arranged. CONCLUSION: Academic health centers may have the capacity to leverage their extensive resources to rapidly launch a multiphased pandemic response that meets peoples' need for information and access to primary care, while minimizing risk of infection and emergency department use and rapidly supporting primary care teams to make the necessary operational changes to do the same in their communities. Such efforts require external funding in a fee-for-service payment model.


Subject(s)
Hotlines/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fee-for-Service Plans , Hotlines/organization & administration , Humans , Oregon/epidemiology , Pandemics , Primary Health Care/economics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/economics , Triage/methods
20.
J Addict Med ; 15(6): 516-518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072433

ABSTRACT

To slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in opioid treatment programs (OTPs), SAMHSA notified State Opioid Treatment Authorities that stable patients could receive up to 27 days of take-homes, less stable patients could receive up to 13 days with fewer take-homes for other patients. An analysis assessed how the relaxed standards affected the number of patient dosing visits and the amount of take-home medications dispensed in Oregon's 20 public, nonprofit, and for-profit OTPs. OTPs reported the number of patients receiving take homes pre and post federal policy change at 3 time points: pre SARS-CoV-2 (February or first half of March), post 1 SARS-CoV-2 (March, April, or May), and post 2 SARS-CoV-2 (April, May, or June). The patients receiving each quantity of take-homes were counted and means calculated for visits and take-homes per patient per month. A negative binomial mixed-effects regression model assessed change in mean dosing visits per patient. During the pre SARS-CoV-2 period, OTPs served 7792 patients monthly with 120,513 medication visits and dispensed 44,883 take-home doses. Mean patient visits per month were 15.5 with 5.8 take-homes per patient per month. Following the policy change, medication visits declined 33% and take-home medication increased 97% with 10.4 mean visits per patient and 11.3 mean take-homes per patient. The negative binomial mixed-effects regression model estimated a 54% reduction in mean visits per patient. The policy change had the intended effect. More research is needed to assess unintended consequences associated with increased access to take-home medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Analgesics, Opioid , Humans , Oregon
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL