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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597826


Organoids are tiny, self-organized, three-dimensional tissue cultures that are derived from the differentiation of stem cells. The growing interest in the use of organoids arises from their ability to mimic the biology and physiology of specific tissue structures in vitro. Organoids indeed represent promising systems for the in vitro modeling of tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, drug therapy testing, toxicology screening, and disease modeling. Although 2D cell cultures have been used for more than 50 years, even for their simplicity and low-cost maintenance, recent years have witnessed a steep rise in the availability of organoid model systems. Exploiting the ability of cells to re-aggregate and reconstruct the original architecture of an organ makes it possible to overcome many limitations of 2D cell culture systems. In vitro replication of the cellular micro-environment of a specific tissue leads to reproducing the molecular, biochemical, and biomechanical mechanisms that directly influence cell behavior and fate within that specific tissue. Lineage-specific self-organizing organoids have now been generated for many organs. Currently, growing cardiac organoid (cardioids) from pluripotent stem cells and cardiac stem/progenitor cells remains an open challenge due to the complexity of the spreading, differentiation, and migration of cardiac muscle and vascular layers. Here, we summarize the evolution of biological model systems from the generation of 2D spheroids to 3D organoids by focusing on the generation of cardioids based on the currently available laboratory technologies and outline their high potential for cardiovascular research.

Adult Stem Cells/cytology , Organ Culture Techniques/methods , Organoids/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Heart/physiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Regeneration , Spheroids, Cellular/cytology
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323268


Organoids represent one of the most important advancements in the field of stem cells during the past decade. They are three-dimensional in vitro culturing models that originate from self-organizing stem cells and can mimic the in vivo structural and functional specificities of body organs. Organoids have been established from multiple adult tissues as well as pluripotent stem cells and have recently become a powerful tool for studying development and diseases in vitro, drug screening, and host-microbe interaction. The use of stem cells-that have self-renewal capacity to proliferate and differentiate into specialized cell types-for organoids culturing represents a major advancement in biomedical research. Indeed, this new technology has a great potential to be used in a multitude of fields, including cancer research, hereditary and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, organoid culturing is still rife with many challenges, not limited to being costly and time consuming, having variable rates of efficiency in generation and maintenance, genetic stability, and clinical applications. In this review, we aim to provide a synopsis of pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids and their use for disease modeling and other clinical applications.

Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Organ Culture Techniques/methods , Organoids/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Animals , Humans , Models, Biological , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism