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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 801133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731766

ABSTRACT

Background: acute illnesses, like COVID-19, can act as a catabolic stimulus on muscles. So far, no study has evaluated muscle mass and quality through limb ultrasound in post-COVID-19 patients. Methods: cross sectional observational study, including patients seen one month after hospital discharge for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The patients underwent a multidimensional evaluation. Moreover, we performed dominant medial gastrocnemius ultrasound (US) to characterize their muscle mass and quality. Results: two hundred fifty-nine individuals (median age 67, 59.8% males) were included in the study. COVID-19 survivors with reduced muscle strength had a lower muscle US thickness (1.6 versus 1.73 cm, p =0.02) and a higher muscle stiffness (87 versus 76.3, p = 0.004) compared to patients with normal muscle strength. Also, patients with reduced Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores had a lower muscle US thickness (1.3 versus 1.71 cm, p = 0.01) and a higher muscle stiffness (104.9 versus 81.07, p = 0.04) compared to individuals with normal SPPB scores. The finding of increased muscle stiffness was also confirmed in patients with a pathological value (≥ 4) at the sarcopenia screening tool SARC-F (103.0 versus 79.55, p < 0.001). Muscle stiffness emerged as a significant predictor of probable sarcopenia (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% C.I. 1.002 - 1.04, p = 0.03). The optimal ultrasound cut-offs for probable sarcopenia were 1.51 cm for muscle thickness (p= 0.017) and 73.95 for muscle stiffness (p = 0.004). Discussion: we described muscle ultrasound characteristics in post COVID-19 patients. Muscle ultrasound could be an innovative tool to assess muscle mass and quality in this population. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed by future studies comparing muscle ultrasound with already validated techniques for measuring muscle mass and quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Survivors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Extremities/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/pathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Organ Size , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography
2.
J Perinat Med ; 50(2): 139-143, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on the fetal immune system by fetal thymus size measurements with ultrasound (USG). METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in the Turkish Ministry of Health Ankara City Hospital between November 1, 2020 and April 1, 2021, with recovered, pregnant women, four weeks after they had been confirmed for the SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR). COVID-19 recovered (CR) pregnant women compared with age-matched pregnant controls in terms of demographic features, fetal thymic-thoracic ratio (TTR), and laboratory parameters. RESULTS: There was no difference in demographic features between the two groups. TTR found significantly lower in the CR group than the control group (p=0.001). The fetal TTR showed a significant and moderate correlation with maternal monocyte counts, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and red cell distribution width (RDW); while it did not correlate with lymphocyte counts, c-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin levels. CONCLUSIONS: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reduces fetal thymus size in pregnant women with mild or moderate symptoms after recovery from the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fetus/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Thymus Gland/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Organ Size , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5189, 2020 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454803

ABSTRACT

Stapled hemorrhoidopexy has a few advantages such as less postoperative pain and faster recovery compared with conventional hemorrhoidectomy. There are two major devices used for stapled hemorrhoidopexy, PPH stapler (Ethicon EndoSurgery) and DST stapler (Covidien). This study was conducted to investigate the postoperative outcomes among patients with grade III and IV hemorrhoids who underwent hemorrhoidopexy with either of these two devices. A total of 242 consecutive patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidopexy with either PPH stapler (110 patients) or DST stapler (132 patients) at a single center in 2017. We performed a retrospective case-control study to compare the short-term postoperative outcomes and the complications between these two groups. After matching the cases in terms of age, gender, and the grade of hemorrhoids, there were 100 patients in each group (PPH versus DST). There were no significant differences in the postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score and analgesic usage. Among complications, the incidence of anorectal stricture was significantly higher in the DST group (p = 0.02). Evaluation of the mucosal specimen showed that the total surface area, the muscle/mucosa ratio and the surface area of the muscle were also significantly higher in the DST group (p = 0.03). Further analysis of the DST group demonstrated that patients with anorectal stricture after surgery are younger than patients without anorectal stricture, and higher muscle/mucosa ratio (p = 0.03) and a higher surface area of the muscle (p = 0.03) also measured in the surgical specimen. The two devices provide similar outcomes of postoperative recovery. Patients who underwent DST stapled hemorrhoidopexy had a higher incidence rate of stricture, larger area of muscle excision, and higher muscle/mucosa ratio in the surgical specimen. Further investigation is warranted for a better understanding of the correlation between muscle excision and anorectal stricture.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhoidectomy/instrumentation , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Surgical Staplers , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Anal Canal/pathology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anus Diseases/etiology , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Equipment Design , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Isoxazoles/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Retention/etiology
5.
Neurodegener Dis Manag ; 11(5): 387-409, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394696

ABSTRACT

Teriflunomide, a once daily, oral disease-modifying therapy, has demonstrated consistent efficacy, safety and tolerability in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and with a first clinical episode suggestive of MS treated up to 12 years. This review is an update to a previous version that examined data from the teriflunomide core clinical development program and extension studies. Data have since become available from active comparator trials with other disease-modifying therapies, treatment-related changes in brain volume (analyzed using structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy) and real-world evidence including patient-reported outcomes. Initial data on the potential antiviral effects of teriflunomide in patients with MS, including case reports of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), are also presented.


Lay abstract Teriflunomide, a treatment taken orally once a day, has shown consistent effectiveness and safety in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). This review is an update to a previous version that summarized the trials from when teriflunomide was in clinical development for MS. Some of the newer studies described here compared teriflunomide with other MS treatments. Studies have shown positive effects of teriflunomide on brain volume; teriflunomide may also be effective against some viruses. People taking teriflunomide generally report stable cognition and quality of life, with no worsening of fatigue or disability. In the EU, teriflunomide has been recently approved for use in pediatric patients 10 years of age and above.


Subject(s)
Crotonates/therapeutic use , Hydroxybutyrates/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Toluidines/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/physiopathology , Organ Size
6.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 165, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 diabetic adults are at increased risk of severe forms irrespective of obesity. In patients with type-II diabetes, fat distribution is characterized by visceral and ectopic adipose tissues expansion, resulting in systemic inflammation, which may play a role in driving the COVID-19 cytokine storm. Our aim was to determine if cardiac adipose tissue, combined to interleukin-6 levels, could predict adverse short-term outcomes, death and ICU requirement, in COVID-19 diabetic patients during the 21 days after admission. METHODS: Eighty one consecutive patients with type-II diabetes admitted for COVID-19 were included. Interleukin-6 measurement and chest computed tomography with total cardiac adipose tissue index (CATi) measurement were performed at admission. The primary outcome was death during the 21 days following admission while intensive care requirement with or without early death (ICU-R) defined the secondary endpoint. Associations of CATi and IL-6 and threshold values to predict the primary and secondary endpoints were determined. RESULTS: Of the enrolled patients (median age 66 years [IQR: 59-74]), 73% male, median body mass index (BMI) 27 kg/m2 [IQR: 24-31]) 20 patients had died from COVID-19, 20 required intensive care and 41 were in conventional care at day 21 after admission. Increased CATi and IL-6 levels were both significantly related to increased early mortality (respectively OR = 6.15, p = 0.002; OR = 18.2, p < 0.0001) and ICU-R (respectively OR = 3.27, p = 0.01; OR = 4.86, p = 0.002). These associations remained significant independently of age, sex, BMI as well as troponin-T level and pulmonary lesion extension in CT. We combined CATi and IL-6 levels as a multiplicative interaction score (CATi*IL-6). The cut-point for this score was ≥ 6386 with a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.87 (AUC = 0.88) and an OR of 59.6 for early mortality (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac adipose tissue index and IL-6 determination at admission could help physicians to better identify diabetic patients with a potentially severe and lethal short term course irrespective of obesity. Diabetic patients with high CATi at admission, a fortiori associated with high IL-6 levels could be a relevant target population to promptly initiate anti-inflammatory therapies.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/pathology , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Interleukin-6/blood , Myocardium/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(2): 175-179, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the optic nerve and macular parameters of children who recovered from COVID-19 compared with healthy children using optical coherence tomography (OCT). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid. PATIENTS: Children between 6 and 18 years old who recovered from COVID-19 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and historical controls were included. INTERVENTIONS: All patients underwent an ophthalmological examination, including macular and optic nerve OCT. Demographic data, medical history and COVID-19 symptoms were noted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, macular retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, macular ganglion cell layer thickness and retinal thickness. RESULTS: 90 patients were included: 29 children who recovered from COVID-19 and 61 controls. Patients with COVID-19 presented an increase in global peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (mean difference 7.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 12.1), temporal superior (mean difference 11.0; 95% CI 3.3 to 18.6), temporal inferior (mean difference 15.6; 95% CI 6.5 to 24.7) and nasal (mean difference 9.8; 95% CI 2.9 to 16.7) sectors. Macular retinal nerve fibre layer analysis showed decreased thickness in the nasal outer (p=0.011) and temporal inner (p=0.036) sectors in patients with COVID-19, while macular ganglion cell layer thickness increased in these sectors (p=0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). No differences in retinal thickness were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Children with recent history of COVID-19 present significant changes in peripapillary and macular OCT analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Macula Lutea/cytology , Macula Lutea/diagnostic imaging , Macula Lutea/immunology , Macula Lutea/pathology , Male , Nerve Fibers/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Optic Nerve/immunology , Optic Nerve/pathology , Organ Size , Retinal Ganglion Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/statistics & numerical data
8.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(8): 786-790, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are a limited number of studies investigating the changes in olfactory bulb volume (OBV) and olfactory sulcus depth (OSD) values in the acute and subacute periods after COVID-19 infection, there are no studies conducted in the chronic period. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to reveal the changes in OBV and OSD after COVID-19 in the chronic period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 83 people were included in our study, including 42 normal healthy individuals (control group) and 41 patients with COVID-19 infection (10-12 months after infection). RESULTS: The COVID-19 group included 41 patients with the mean age 40.27 ± 14.5 years and the control group included 42 individuals with the mean age 40.27 ± 14.4. The mean OBV was 67.97 ± 14.27 mm3 in the COVID-19 group and 94.21 ± 7.56 mm3 in the control group. The mean OSD was 7.98 ± 0.37 mm in the COVID-19 group and 8.82 ± 0.74 mm in the control group. Left, right, and mean OBVs and OSD were significantly lower in patients with COVID- 19 than the control individuals (all p < .05). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that COVID-19 infection causes a significant decrease in the OBV and OSD measurements in the chronic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies
9.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(6): 501-507, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cochlear dimensions on cochlear implant selection in cochlear hypoplasia patients. METHODS: Temporal bone computed tomography images of 36 patients diagnosed with cochlear hypoplasia between 2010 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 40 controls without sensorineural hearing loss. RESULTS: Basal turn length and mid-modiolar height were significantly lower in the cochlear hypoplasia patients with subtypes I, II and III than in the control group (p < 0.001). Mid-scalar length was significantly shorter in subtype I-III patients as compared with the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, cochlear canal length (measured along the lateral wall) was significantly shorter in subtype I-IV patients than in the control group (subtypes I-III, p < 0.001; subtype IV, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Cochlear hypoplasia should be considered if basal turn length is less than 7.5 mm and mid-modiolar height is less than 3.42 mm. The cochlear implant should be selected according to cochlear hypoplasia subgroup. It is critically important to differentiate subtype II from incomplete partition type I and subtype III from a normal cochlea, to ensure the most appropriate implant electrode selection so as to optimise cochlear implantation outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cochlea/abnormalities , Cochlea/diagnostic imaging , Cochlear Implants , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cochlea/pathology , Cochlea/surgery , Female , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/pathology , Humans , Infant , Male , Organ Size , Retrospective Studies , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
10.
Neuroimage ; 239: 118311, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284405

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak introduced unprecedented health-risks, as well as pressure on the economy, society, and psychological well-being due to the response to the outbreak. In a preregistered study, we hypothesized that the intense experience of the outbreak potentially induced stress-related brain modifications in the healthy population, not infected with the virus. We examined volumetric changes in 50 participants who underwent MRI scans before and after the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown in Israel. Their scans were compared with those of 50 control participants who were scanned twice prior to the pandemic. Following COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown, the test group participants uniquely showed volumetric increases in bilateral amygdalae, putamen, and the anterior temporal cortices. Changes in the amygdalae diminished as time elapsed from lockdown relief, suggesting that the intense experience associated with the pandemic induced transient volumetric changes in brain regions commonly associated with stress and anxiety. The current work utilizes a rare opportunity for real-life natural experiment, showing evidence for brain plasticity following the COVID-19 global pandemic. These findings have broad implications, relevant both for the scientific community as well as the general public.


Subject(s)
Brain/anatomy & histology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Quarantine , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Organ Size , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Young Adult
11.
Neurobiol Dis ; 156: 105422, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267874

ABSTRACT

Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX), while used to mitigate inflammation and disease progression in premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), are also associated with significant adverse neurologic effects such as reductions in myelination and abnormalities in neuroanatomical development. Ciclesonide (CIC) is a sGC prodrug approved for asthma treatment that exhibits limited systemic side effects. Carboxylesterases enriched in the lower airways convert CIC to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist des-CIC. We therefore examined whether CIC would likewise activate GR in neonatal lung but have limited adverse extra-pulmonary effects, particularly in the developing brain. Neonatal rats were administered subcutaneous injections of CIC, DEX or vehicle from postnatal days 1-5 (PND1-PND5). Systemic effects linked to DEX exposure, including reduced body and brain weight, were not observed in CIC treated neonates. Furthermore, CIC did not trigger the long-lasting reduction in myelin basic protein expression in the cerebral cortex nor cerebellar size caused by neonatal DEX exposure. Conversely, DEX and CIC were both effective at inducing the expression of select GR target genes in neonatal lung, including those implicated in lung-protective and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, CIC is a promising, novel candidate drug to treat or prevent BPD in neonates given its activation of GR in neonatal lung and limited adverse neurodevelopmental effects. Furthermore, since sGCs such as DEX administered to pregnant women in pre-term labor can adversely affect fetal brain development, the neurological-sparing properties of CIC, make it an attractive alternative for DEX to treat pregnant women severely ill with respiratory illness, such as with asthma exacerbations or COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Cerebellum/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Glucocorticoids , Lung/drug effects , Pregnenediones/pharmacology , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Brain/drug effects , Brain/growth & development , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myelin Basic Protein/biosynthesis , Organ Size/drug effects , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/drug effects
12.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 44(9): 551-565, 2020 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243085

ABSTRACT

The clinical picture of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) is characterized in its more severe form, by an acute respiratory failure which can worsen to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and get complicated with thrombotic events and heart dysfunction. Therefore, admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is common. Ultrasound, which has become an everyday tool in the ICU, can be very useful during COVID-19 pandemic, since it provides the clinician with information which can be interpreted and integrated within a global assessment during the physical examination. A description of some of the potential applications of ultrasound is depicted in this document, in order to supply the physicians taking care of these patients with an adapted guide to the intensive care setting. Some of its applications since ICU admission include verification of the correct position of the endotracheal tube, contribution to safe cannulation of lines, and identification of complications and thrombotic events. Furthermore, pleural and lung ultrasound can be an alternative diagnostic test to assess the degree of involvement of the lung parenchyma by means of the evaluation of specific ultrasound patterns, identification of pleural effusions and barotrauma. Echocardiography provides information of heart involvement, detects cor pulmonale and shock states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Blood Vessels/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Echocardiography , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Pleura/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Heart Disease/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Shock/diagnostic imaging , Transducers
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 858, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065926

ABSTRACT

To compare the performance of artificial intelligence (AI) and Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) scores from frontal chest radiographs (CXRs) for predicting patient outcomes and the need for mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 pneumonia. Our IRB-approved study included 1367 serial CXRs from 405 adult patients (mean age 65 ± 16 years) from two sites in the US (Site A) and South Korea (Site B). We recorded information pertaining to patient demographics (age, gender), smoking history, comorbid conditions (such as cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases), vital signs (temperature, oxygen saturation), and available laboratory data (such as WBC count and CRP). Two thoracic radiologists performed the qualitative assessment of all CXRs based on the RALE score for assessing the severity of lung involvement. All CXRs were processed with a commercial AI algorithm to obtain the percentage of the lung affected with findings related to COVID-19 (AI score). Independent t- and chi-square tests were used in addition to multiple logistic regression with Area Under the Curve (AUC) as output for predicting disease outcome and the need for mechanical ventilation. The RALE and AI scores had a strong positive correlation in CXRs from each site (r2 = 0.79-0.86; p < 0.0001). Patients who died or received mechanical ventilation had significantly higher RALE and AI scores than those with recovery or without the need for mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). Patients with a more substantial difference in baseline and maximum RALE scores and AI scores had a higher prevalence of death and mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). The addition of patients' age, gender, WBC count, and peripheral oxygen saturation increased the outcome prediction from 0.87 to 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97) for RALE scores and from 0.82 to 0.91 (95% CI 0.87-0.95) for the AI scores. AI algorithm is as robust a predictor of adverse patient outcome (death or need for mechanical ventilation) as subjective RALE scores in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
14.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(4): 589-595, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057681

ABSTRACT

Olfactory dysfunction is one of the most frequent and specific symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Information on the damage and repair of the neuroepithelium and its impact on olfactory function after COVID-19 is still incomplete. While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the ongoing worldwide outbreak of COVID-19, little is known about the changes triggered by SARS-CoV-2 in the olfactory epithelium (OE) at the cellular level. Here, we report profiles of the OE after SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden Syrian hamsters, which is a reliable animal model of COVID-19. We observed severe damage in the OE as early as 3 days postinoculation and regionally specific damage and regeneration of the OE within the nasal cavity; the nasal septal region demonstrated the fastest recovery compared to other regions in the nasal turbinates. These findings suggest that anosmia related to SARS-CoV-2 infection may be fully reversible.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/pathology , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/pathology , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mesocricetus , Nasal Cavity , Nasal Septum , Olfactory Mucosa/physiology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/physiology , Organ Size , Turbinates
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(4): 978-984, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002140

ABSTRACT

Disordered coagulation, endothelial dysfunction, dehydration and immobility contribute to a substantially elevated risk of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism (PE) and systemic thrombosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary thrombosis and reported RV (right ventricular) dilatation/dysfunction associated with Covid-19 in a tertiary referral Covid-19 centre. Of 370 patients, positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 39 patients (mean age 62.3 ± 15 years, 56% male) underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), due to increasing oxygen requirements or refractory hypoxia, not improving on oxygen, very elevated D-dimer or tachycardia disproportionate to clinical condition. Thrombosis in the pulmonary vasculature was found in 18 (46.2%) patients. However, pulmonary thrombosis did not predict survival (46.2% survivors vs 41.7% non-survivors, p = 0.796), but RV dilatation was less frequent among survivors (11.5% survivors vs 58.3% non-survivors, p = 0.002). Over the following month, we observed four Covid-19 patients, who were admitted with high and intermediate-high risk PE, and we treated them with UACTD (ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis), and four further patients, who were admitted with PE up to 4 weeks after recovery from Covid-19. Finally, we observed a case of RV dysfunction and pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension, associated with Covid-19 extensive lung disease. We demonstrated that pulmonary thrombosis is common in association with Covid-19. Also, the thrombotic risk in the pulmonary vasculature is present before and during hospital admission, and continues at least up to four weeks after discharge, and we present UACTD for high and intermediate-high risk PE management in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Ventricles , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , United Kingdom , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
19.
Cardiol Young ; 30(9): 1358-1359, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851194

ABSTRACT

A 16-year-old girl with history of treated congenital mitral valve disease and signs of respiratory infection was admitted to our paediatric cardiology department. She was tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Despite her severe pre-existing cardiac conditions with pulmonary hypertension, atrial arrhythmias and mitral valve stenosis, the infection did not lead to any cardiac or pulmonary deterioration. In adults, cardiac co-morbidities are known risk factors for a severe course of coronavirus disease 2019 infections. This case illustrates that in children even severe cardiac disease is not necessarily associated with a severe course of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Heart Atria , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Mitral Valve Stenosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Prosthesis Failure/adverse effects , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Mitral Valve/pathology , Mitral Valve/physiopathology , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/complications , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/congenital , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Mitral Valve Stenosis/complications , Mitral Valve Stenosis/congenital , Mitral Valve Stenosis/surgery , Organ Size , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(6): 1337-1344, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the differences in olfactory cleft (OC) morphology in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) anosmia compared to control subjects and postviral anosmia related to infection other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: This study comprises 91 cases, including 24 cases with anosmia due to SARS-CoV-2, 38 patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD) due to viral infection other than SARS-CoV-2, and a control group of 29 normosmic cases. METHODS: All cases had paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT), and cases with OD had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dedicated to the olfactory nerve. The OC width and volumes were measured on CT, and T2-weighted signal intensity (SI), olfactory bulb volumes, and olfactory sulcus depths were assessed on MRI. RESULTS: This study showed 3 major findings: the right and left OC widths were significantly wider in anosmic patients due to SARS-CoV-2 (group 1) or OD due to non-SARS-CoV-2 viral infection (group 2) when compared to healthy controls. OC volumes were significantly higher in group 1 or 2 than in healthy controls, and T2 SI of OC area was higher in groups 1 and 2 than in healthy controls. There was no significant difference in olfactory bulb volumes and olfactory sulcus depths on MRI among groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: In this study, patients with COVID-19 anosmia had higher OC widths and volumes compared to control subjects. In addition, there was higher T2 SI of the olfactory bulb in COVID-19 anosmia compared to control subjects, suggesting underlying inflammatory changes. There was a significant negative correlation between these morphological findings and threshold discrimination identification scores. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Adult , Anosmia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Organ Size , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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