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1.
Cell Rep ; 37(7): 110020, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509641

ABSTRACT

Variability in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 disease severity between individuals is partly due to genetic factors. Here, we identify 4 genomic loci with suggestive associations for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and 19 for COVID-19 disease severity. Four of these 23 loci likely have an ethnicity-specific component. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals in 11 loci colocalize with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) associated with the expression of 20 genes in 62 tissues/cell types (range: 1:43 tissues/gene), including lung, brain, heart, muscle, and skin as well as the digestive system and immune system. We perform genetic fine mapping to compute 99% credible SNP sets, which identify 10 GWAS loci that have eight or fewer SNPs in the credible set, including three loci with one single likely causal SNP. Our study suggests that the diverse symptoms and disease severity of COVID-19 observed between individuals is associated with variants across the genome, affecting gene expression levels in a wide variety of tissue types.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Chromosome Mapping/methods , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Humans , Organ Specificity/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome/genetics
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 752380, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485056

ABSTRACT

The progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting from a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, may be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Several viruses hijack the host genome machinery for their own advantage and survival, and similar phenomena might occur upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severe cases of COVID-19 may be driven by metabolic and epigenetic driven mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone/chromatin alterations. These epigenetic phenomena may respond to enhanced viral replication and mediate persistent long-term infection and clinical phenotypes associated with severe COVID-19 cases and fatalities. Understanding the epigenetic events involved, and their clinical significance, may provide novel insights valuable for the therapeutic control and management of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review highlights different epigenetic marks potentially associated with COVID-19 development, clinical manifestation, and progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , DNA Methylation/immunology , Epigenesis, Genetic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Organ Specificity , Pandemics
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257878, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443847

ABSTRACT

Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed to function in cross-kingdom gene regulation. Among these, plant-derived miRNAs of dietary origin have been reported to survive the harsh conditions of the human digestive system, enter the circulatory system, and regulate gene expression and metabolic function. However, definitive evidence supporting the presence of plant-derived miRNAs of dietary origin in mammals has been difficult to obtain due to limited sample sizes. We have developed a bioinformatics pipeline (ePmiRNA_finder) that provides strident miRNA classification and applied it to analyze 421 small RNA sequencing data sets from 10 types of human body fluids and tissues and comparative samples from carnivores and herbivores. A total of 35 miRNAs were identified that map to plants typically found in the human diet and these miRNAs were found in at least one human blood sample and their abundance was significantly different when compared to samples from human microbiome or cow. The plant-derived miRNA profiles were body fluid/tissue-specific and highly abundant in the brain and the breast milk samples, indicating selective absorption and/or the ability to be transported across tissue/organ barriers. Our data provide conclusive evidence for the presence of plant-derived miRNAs as a consequence of dietary intake and their cross-kingdom regulatory function within human circulating system.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , MicroRNAs/genetics , Plants/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Brain Chemistry , Carnivora/genetics , Diet , Female , Herbivory/genetics , Humans , Milk, Human/chemistry , Organ Specificity , RNA, Plant/genetics , Sample Size
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 7866992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403126

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is posing a great threat to the global economy and public health security. Together with the acknowledged angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, glucose-regulated protein 78, transferrin receptor, AXL, kidney injury molecule-1, and neuropilin 1 are also identified as potential receptors to mediate SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, how to inhibit or delay the binding of SARS-CoV-2 with the abovementioned receptors is a key step for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. As the third gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Recently, survivors were reported to have significantly higher H2S levels in COVID-19 patients, and mortality was significantly greater among patients with decreased H2S levels. Considering that the beneficial role of H2S against COVID-19 and COVID-19-induced comorbidities and multiorgan damage has been well-examined and reported in some excellent reviews, this review will discuss the recent findings on the potential receptors of SARS-CoV-2 and how H2S modulates the above receptors, in turn blocking SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hydrogen Sulfide/pharmacology , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Organ Specificity/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374535

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the global COVID-19 pandemic, causes a respiratory illness that can severely impact other organ systems and is possibly precipitated by cytokine storm, septic shock, thrombosis, and oxidative stress. SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals may be asymptomatic or may experience mild, moderate, or severe symptoms with or without pneumonia. The mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 infects humans are largely unknown. Mouse hepatitis virus 1 (MHV-1)-induced infection was used as a highly relevant surrogate animal model for this study. We further characterized this animal model and compared it with SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. MHV-1 inoculated mice displayed death as well as weight loss, as reported earlier. We showed that MHV-1-infected mice at days 7-8 exhibit severe lung inflammation, peribronchiolar interstitial infiltration, bronchiolar epithelial cell necrosis and intra-alveolar necrotic debris, alveolar exudation (surrounding alveolar walls have capillaries that are dilated and filled with red blood cells), mononuclear cell infiltration, hyaline membrane formation, the presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages, and interstitial edema. When compared to uninfected mice, the infected mice showed severe liver vascular congestion, luminal thrombosis of portal and sinusoidal vessels, hepatocyte degeneration, cell necrosis, and hemorrhagic changes. Proximal and distal tubular necrosis, hemorrhage in interstitial tissue, and the vacuolation of renal tubules were observed. The heart showed severe interstitial edema, vascular congestion, and dilation, as well as red blood cell extravasation into the interstitium. Upon examination of the MHV-1 infected mice brain, we observed congested blood vessels, perivascular cavitation, cortical pericellular halos, vacuolation of neuropils, darkly stained nuclei, pyknotic nuclei, and associated vacuolation of the neuropil in the cortex, as well as acute eosinophilic necrosis and necrotic neurons with fragmented nuclei and vacuolation in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that the widespread thrombotic events observed in the surrogate animal model for SARS-CoV-2 mimic the reported findings in SARS-CoV-2 infected humans, representing a highly relevant and safe animal model for the study of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 for potential therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Animals , Biomarkers , Biopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Function Tests , Mice , Mortality , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16843, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366832

ABSTRACT

Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in organs that are potential targets of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may increase the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Previous reports show that ACE2 alter its tissue-specific expression patterns under various pathological conditions, including renal diseases. Here, we examined changes in pulmonary ACE2 expression in two mouse chronic kidney disease (CKD) models: adenine-induced (adenine mice) and aristolochic acid-induced (AA mice). We also investigated changes in pulmonary ACE2 expression due to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blocker (olmesartan) treatment in these mice. Adenine mice showed significant renal functional decline and elevated blood pressure, compared with controls. AA mice also showed significant renal functional decline, compared with vehicles; blood pressure did not differ between groups. Renal ACE2 expression was significantly reduced in adenine mice and AA mice; pulmonary expression was unaffected. Olmesartan attenuated urinary albumin excretion in adenine mice, but did not affect renal or pulmonary ACE2 expression levels. The results suggest that the risk of COVID-19 infection may not be elevated in patients with CKD because of their stable pulmonary ACE2 expression. Moreover, RAS blockers can be used safely in treatment of COVID-19 patients with CKD.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenine , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Aristolochic Acids , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Humans , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Kidney/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Organ Specificity , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16814, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366830

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has emerged as a pandemic. Paucity of information concerning the virus and therapeutic interventions have made SARS-CoV-2 infection a genuine threat to global public health. Therefore, there is a growing need for understanding the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection at cellular level. To address this, we undertook a systems biology approach by analyzing publicly available RNA-seq datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infection of different cells and compared with other lung pathogenic infections. Our study identified several key genes and pathways uniquely associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Genes such as interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL8, CCL20, CXCL1 and CXCL3 were upregulated, which in particular regulate the cytokine storm and IL-17 signaling pathway. Of note, SARS-CoV-2 infection strongly activated IL-17 signaling pathway compared with other respiratory viruses. Additionally, this transcriptomic signature was also analyzed to predict potential drug repurposing and small molecule inhibitors. In conclusion, our comprehensive data analysis identifies key molecular pathways to reveal underlying pathological etiology and potential therapeutic targets in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-17/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systems Biology/methods , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CCL20/genetics , Chemokine CXCL1/genetics , Chemokines, CXC/genetics , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Organ Specificity , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome
10.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335012

ABSTRACT

Multiorgan tropism of SARS-CoV-2 has previously been shown for several major organs. We have comprehensively analyzed 25 different formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues/organs from autopsies of fatal COVID-19 cases (n = 8), using histopathological assessment, detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using polymerase chain reaction and RNA in situ hybridization, viral protein using immunohistochemistry, and virus particles using transmission electron microscopy. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was mainly localized in epithelial cells across all organs. Next to lung, trachea, kidney, heart, or liver, viral RNA was also found in tonsils, salivary glands, oropharynx, thyroid, adrenal gland, testicles, prostate, ovaries, small bowel, lymph nodes, skin and skeletal muscle. Viral RNA was predominantly found in cells expressing ACE2, TMPRSS2, or both. The SARS-CoV-2 replicating RNA was also detected in these organs. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy were not suitable for reliable and specific SARS-CoV-2 detection in autopsies. These findings were validated using in situ hybridization on external COVID-19 autopsy samples (n = 9). Apart from the lung, correlation of viral detection and histopathological assessment did not reveal any specific alterations that could be attributed to SARS-CoV-2. In summary, SARS-CoV-2 and its replication could be observed across all organ systems, which co-localizes with ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mainly in epithelial but also in mesenchymal and endothelial cells. Apart from the respiratory tract, no specific (histo-)morphologic alterations could be assigned to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Specificity , Tropism
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(15): 8505-8519, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328926

ABSTRACT

The transcriptomic diversity of cell types in the human body can be analysed in unprecedented detail using single cell (SC) technologies. Unsupervised clustering of SC transcriptomes, which is the default technique for defining cell types, is prone to group cells by technical, rather than biological, variation. Compared to de-novo (unsupervised) clustering, we demonstrate using multiple benchmarks that supervised clustering, which uses reference transcriptomes as a guide, is robust to batch effects and data quality artifacts. Here, we present RCA2, the first algorithm to combine reference projection (batch effect robustness) with graph-based clustering (scalability). In addition, RCA2 provides a user-friendly framework incorporating multiple commonly used downstream analysis modules. RCA2 also provides new reference panels for human and mouse and supports generation of custom panels. Furthermore, RCA2 facilitates cell type-specific QC, which is essential for accurate clustering of data from heterogeneous tissues. We demonstrate the advantages of RCA2 on SC data from human bone marrow, healthy PBMCs and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients. Scalable supervised clustering methods such as RCA2 will facilitate unified analysis of cohort-scale SC datasets.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Cluster Analysis , RNA, Small Cytoplasmic/genetics , RNA-Seq/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Mice , Organ Specificity , Quality Control , RNA-Seq/standards , Single-Cell Analysis/standards , Transcriptome
12.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 546-559, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319033

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and accessory proteases (TMPRSS2 and CTSL) are needed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cellular entry, and their expression may shed light on viral tropism and impact across the body. We assessed the cell-type-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL across 107 single-cell RNA-sequencing studies from different tissues. ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL are coexpressed in specific subsets of respiratory epithelial cells in the nasal passages, airways and alveoli, and in cells from other organs associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission or pathology. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 lung single-cell RNA-sequencing studies with 1,320,896 cells from 377 nasal, airway and lung parenchyma samples from 228 individuals. This revealed cell-type-specific associations of age, sex and smoking with expression levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL. Expression of entry factors increased with age and in males, including in airway secretory cells and alveolar type 2 cells. Expression programs shared by ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in nasal, lung and gut tissues included genes that may mediate viral entry, key immune functions and epithelial-macrophage cross-talk, such as genes involved in the interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and complement pathways. Cell-type-specific expression patterns may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and our work highlights putative molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA/statistics & numerical data , Single-Cell Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Virus Internalization , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Datasets as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Specificity/genetics , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
13.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(6): 38, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing knowledge of the pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the complex interaction between host and viral factors have allowed clinicians to stratify the severity of COVID-19 infection. Epidemiological data has also helped to model viral carriage and infectivity. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the pathophysiology of COVID-19, the mechanisms of action of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the correlation with the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors have emerged as a key player in the mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2. Their distribution throughout the body has been shown to impact the organ-specific manifestations of COVID-19. The immune-evasive and subsequently immunoregulative properties of SARS-CoV-2 are also shown to be implicated in disease proliferation and progression. Information gleaned from the virological properties of SARS-CoV-2 is consistent with and reflects the clinical behavior of the COVID-19 infection. Further study of specific clinical phenotypes and severity classes of COVID-19 may assist in the development of targeted therapeutics to halt progression of disease from mild to moderate-severe. As the understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanism of action of SARS-CoV-2 continues to grow, it is our hope that better and more effective treatment options continue to emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immune Evasion , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
14.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307525

ABSTRACT

Gene expression and immune status in human tissues are changed with aging. There is a need to develop a comprehensive platform to explore the dynamics of age-related gene expression and immune profiles across tissues in genome-wide studies. Here, we collected RNA-Seq datasets from GTEx project, containing 16 704 samples from 30 major tissues in six age groups ranging from 20 to 79 years old. Dynamic gene expression along with aging were depicted and gene set enrichment analysis was performed among those age groups. Genes from 34 known immune function categories and immune cell compositions were investigated and compared among different age groups. Finally, we integrated all the results and developed a platform named ADEIP (http://gb.whu.edu.cn/ADEIP or http://geneyun.net/ADEIP), integrating the age-dependent gene expression and immune profiles across tissues. To demonstrate the usage of ADEIP, we applied two datasets: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and human mesenchymal stem cells-assoicated genes. We also included the expression and immune dynamics of these genes in the platform. Collectively, ADEIP is a powerful platform for studying age-related immune regulation in organogenesis and other infectious or genetic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Organ Specificity/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , Young Adult
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13971, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301179

ABSTRACT

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world and that defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Genomics , Immunity, Innate , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299445

ABSTRACT

Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant that interacts with activated proteases of the coagulation system and with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) on the surface of cells. The protein, which is synthesized in the liver, is also essential to confer the effects of therapeutic heparin. However, AT levels drop in systemic inflammatory diseases. The reason for this decline is consumption by the coagulation system but also by immunological processes. Aside from the primarily known anticoagulant effects, AT elicits distinct anti-inflammatory signaling responses. It binds to structures of the glycocalyx (syndecan-4) and further modulates the inflammatory response of endothelial cells and leukocytes by interacting with surface receptors. Additionally, AT exerts direct antimicrobial effects: depending on AT glycosylation it can bind to and perforate bacterial cell walls. Peptide fragments derived from proteolytic degradation of AT exert antibacterial properties. Despite these promising characteristics, therapeutic supplementation in inflammatory conditions has not proven to be effective in randomized control trials. Nevertheless, new insights provided by subgroup analyses and retrospective trials suggest that a recommendation be made to identify the patient population that would benefit most from AT substitution. Recent experiment findings place the role of various AT isoforms in the spotlight. This review provides an overview of new insights into a supposedly well-known molecule.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/pharmacology , Disease Resistance/drug effects , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Disease Management , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/pathology , Organ Specificity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298159

ABSTRACT

A comparative phytochemical study on the phenylethanoid glycoside (PhEG) composition of the underground organs of three Plantago species (P. lanceolata, P. major, and P. media) and that of the fruit wall and seed parts of Forsythia suspensa and F. europaea fruits was performed. The leaves of these Forsythia species and six cultivars of the hybrid F. × intermedia were also analyzed, demonstrating the tissue-specific accumulation and decomposition of PhEGs. Our analyses confirmed the significance of selected tissues as new and abundant sources of these valuable natural compounds. The optimized heat treatment of tissues containing high amounts of the PhEG plantamajoside (PM) or forsythoside A (FA), which was performed in distilled water, resulted in their characteristic isomerizations. In addition to PM and FA, high amounts of the isomerization products could also be isolated after heat treatment. The isomerization mechanisms were elucidated by molecular modeling, and the structures of PhEGs were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) techniques, also confirming the possibility of discriminating regioisomeric PhEGs by tandem MS. The PhEGs showed no cytostatic activity in non-human primate Vero E6 cells, supporting their safe use as natural medicines and allowing their antiviral potency to be tested.


Subject(s)
Forsythia/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plantago/chemistry , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Forsythia/metabolism , Glycosides/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Isomerism , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Organ Specificity , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plantago/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
18.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4694-4715, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281328

ABSTRACT

The unremitting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) marked a year-long phase of public health adversaries and has severely compromised healthcare globally. Early evidence of COVID-19 noted its impact on the pulmonary and cardiovascular functions, while multiple studies in recent time shed light on its substantial neurological complications, though a comprehensive understanding of the cause(s), the mechanism(s), and their neuropathological outcomes is scarce. In the present review, we conferred evidence of neurological complications in COVID-19 patients and shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 infection routes including the hematogenous, direct/neuronal, lymphatic tissue or cerebrospinal fluid, or infiltration through infected immune cells, while the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 invasion to the central nervous system (CNS) was also discussed. In an up-to-date manner, we further reviewed the impact of COVID-19 in developing diverse neurologic manifestations associated with CNS, peripheral nervous system (PNS), skeletal muscle, and also pre-existing neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and myasthenia gravis. Furthermore, we discussed the involvement of key factors including age, sex, comorbidity, and disease severity in exacerbating the neurologic manifestations in COVID-19 patients. An outlook of present therapeutic strategies and state of existing challenges in COVID-19 management was also accessed. Conclusively, the present report provides a comprehensive review of COVID-19-related neurological complications and emphasizes the need for their early clinical management in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immune System/virology , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Neurons/virology , Organ Specificity , Sex Factors , Viremia/chemically induced , Viremia/immunology , Virus Internalization
19.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273485

ABSTRACT

The human testis and epididymis play critical roles in male fertility, including the spermatogenesis process, sperm storage, and maturation. However, the unique functions of the two organs had not been systematically studied. Herein, we provide a systematic and comprehensive multi-omics study between testis and epididymis. RNA-Seq profiling detected and quantified 19,653 in the testis and 18,407 in the epididymis. Proteomic profiling resulted in the identification of a total of 11,024 and 10,386 proteins in the testis and epididymis, respectively, including 110 proteins that previously have been classified as MPs (missing proteins). Furthermore, Five MPs expressed in testis were validated by the MRM method. Subsequently, multi-omcis between testis and epididymis were performed, including biological functions and pathways of DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes) in each group, revealing that those differences were related to spermatogenesis, male gamete generation, as well as reproduction. In conclusion, this study can help us find the expression regularity of missing protein and help related scientists understand the physiological functions of testis and epididymis more deeply.


Subject(s)
Epididymis/chemistry , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Protein Interaction Maps , Proteomics/methods , Testis/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Mutation , Organ Specificity , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spermatogenesis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
20.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 205(2): 99-105, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273082

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) has been associated with both transient and persistent systemic symptoms that do not appear to be a direct consequence of viral infection. The generation of autoantibodies has been proposed as a mechanism to explain these symptoms. To understand the prevalence of autoantibodies associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we investigated the frequency and specificity of clinically relevant autoantibodies in 84 individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suffering from COVID-19 of varying severity in both the acute and convalescent setting. These were compared with results from 32 individuals who were on the intensive therapy unit (ITU) for non-COVID reasons. We demonstrate a higher frequency of autoantibodies in the COVID-19 ITU group compared with non-COVID-19 ITU disease control patients and that autoantibodies were also found in the serum 3-5 months post-COVID-19 infection. Non-COVID patients displayed a diverse pattern of autoantibodies; in contrast, the COVID-19 groups had a more restricted panel of autoantibodies including skin, skeletal muscle and cardiac antibodies. Our results demonstrate that respiratory viral infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the detection of a limited profile of tissue-specific autoantibodies, detectable using routine clinical immunology assays. Further studies are required to determine whether these autoantibodies are specific to SARS-CoV-2 or a phenomenon arising from severe viral infections and to determine the clinical significance of these autoantibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibody Specificity , Autoantibodies , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
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