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1.
J Cell Biol ; 222(7)2023 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305708

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent for the global COVID-19 pandemic, triggers the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived replication organelles, including double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), in the host cell to support viral replication. Here, we clarify how SARS-CoV-2 hijacks host factors to construct the DMVs. We show that the ER morphogenic proteins reticulon-3 (RTN3) and RTN4 help drive DMV formation, enabling viral replication, which leads to productive infection. Different SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the delta variant, use the RTN-dependent pathway to promote infection. Mechanistically, our results reveal that the membrane-embedded reticulon homology domain (RHD) of the RTNs is sufficient to functionally support viral replication and physically engage NSP3 and NSP4, two viral non-structural membrane proteins known to induce DMV formation. Our findings thus identify the ER morphogenic RTN3 and RTN4 membrane proteins as host factors that help promote the biogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced DMVs, which can act as viral replication platforms.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum , Membrane Proteins , Organelles , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Organelles/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
2.
Cells ; 11(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580995

ABSTRACT

The lamellar body (LB) of the alveolar type II (ATII) cell is a lysosome-related organelle (LRO) that contains surfactant, a complex mix of mainly lipids and specific surfactant proteins. The major function of surfactant in the lung is the reduction of surface tension and stabilization of alveoli during respiration. Its lack or deficiency may cause various forms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Surfactant is also part of the innate immune system in the lung, defending the organism against air-borne pathogens. The limiting (organelle) membrane that encloses the LB contains various transporters that are in part responsible for translocating lipids and other organic material into the LB. On the other hand, this membrane contains ion transporters and channels that maintain a specific internal ion composition including the acidic pH of about 5. Furthermore, P2X4 receptors, ligand gated ion channels of the danger signal ATP, are expressed in the limiting LB membrane. They play a role in boosting surfactant secretion and fluid clearance. In this review, we discuss the functions of these transporting pathways of the LB, including possible roles in disease and as therapeutic targets, including viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Ion Channels/metabolism , Lamellar Bodies/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Organelles/metabolism , Organelles/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010113, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553552

ABSTRACT

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) pose a severe threat to human and animal health worldwide. To identify host factors required for CoV infection, we used α-CoV transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as a model for genome-scale CRISPR knockout (KO) screening. Transmembrane protein 41B (TMEM41B) was found to be a bona fide host factor involved in infection by CoV and three additional virus families. We found that TMEM41B is critical for the internalization and early-stage replication of TGEV. Notably, our results also showed that cells lacking TMEM41B are unable to form the double-membrane vesicles necessary for TGEV replication, indicating that TMEM41B contributes to the formation of CoV replication organelles. Lastly, our data from a mouse infection model showed that the KO of this factor can strongly inhibit viral infection and delay the progression of a CoV disease. Our study revealed that targeting TMEM41B is a highly promising approach for the development of broad-spectrum anti-viral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Membrane Proteins/physiology , Organelles/virology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/genetics , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/transmission , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Swine
4.
Cell Microbiol ; 23(8): e13328, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142875

ABSTRACT

Annulate lamellae (AL) have been observed many times over the years on electron micrographs of rapidly dividing cells, but little is known about these unusual organelles consisting of stacked sheets of endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranes with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Evidence is growing for a role of AL in viral infection. AL have been observed early in the life cycles of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and, more recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), suggesting a specific induction of mechanisms potentially useful to these pathogens. Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, these viruses induce host cells membranes rearrangements. The NPCs of AL could potentially mediate exchanges between these partially sealed compartments and the cytoplasm. AL may also be involved in regulating Ca2+ homeostasis or cell cycle control. They were recently observed in cells infected with Theileria annulata, an intracellular protozoan parasite inducing cell proliferation. Further studies are required to clarify their role in intracellular pathogen/host-cell interactions.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Organelles/microbiology , Organelles/parasitology , Animals , COVID-19 , Cytoplasm/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/microbiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/parasitology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Humans , Organelles/ultrastructure , Organelles/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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