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1.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12308, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between perceived organizational support (POS) and COVID-19 vaccination intention as well as the influence of the implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. METHODS: We analyzed data from an Internet survey of workers aged 20-65 years conducted in December 2020, during a period of widespread COVID-19 infection in Japan. RESULTS: Of the 23 846 participants in this survey, 1958 (8%) reported very high POS. In the group with very high POS, 836 (43%) workers wanted the COVID-19 vaccination; in contrast 1382 (36%) workers in the group with very low POS wanted the vaccination. POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.06). In the analysis with POS as a categorical variable, very high POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (reference: very low POS) (OR = 1.34). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.17). High POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (OR = 1.17) but not with vaccination intention after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: High POS during the COVID-19 pandemic increased employees' vaccination intention. The relationship between POS and vaccination intention was strongly influenced by implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. Implementing appropriate workplace infection prevention measures in the event of an emerging infectious disease outbreak may influence the vaccination behavior of employees, which may contribute to the acquisition of herd immunity in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Organizational Culture , Vaccination , Workplace , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology , Young Adult
4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1984667, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510837

ABSTRACT

Background: Research is urgently needed to understand health care workers' (HCWs') experiences of moral-ethical dilemmas encountered throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, and their associations with organizational perceptions and personal well-being. This research is important to prevent long-term moral and psychological distress and to ensure that workers can optimally provide health services. Objective: Evaluate associations between workplace experiences during COVID-19, moral distress, and the psychological well-being of Canadian HCWs. Method: A total of 1362 French- and English-speaking Canadian HCWs employed during the COVID-19 pandemic were recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants completed measures reflecting moral distress, perceptions of organizational response to the pandemic, burnout, and symptoms of psychological disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results: Structural equation modelling showed that when organizational predictors were considered together, resource adequacy, positive work life impact, and ethical work environment negatively predicted severity of moral distress, whereas COVID-19 risk perception positively predicted severity of moral distress. Moral distress also significantly and positively predicted symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and burnout. Conclusions: Our findings highlight an urgent need for HCW organizations to implement strategies designed to prevent long-term moral and psychological distress within the workplace. Ensuring availability of adequate resources, reducing HCW risk of contracting COVID-19, providing organizational support regarding individual priorities, and upholding ethical considerations are crucial to reducing severity of moral distress in HCWs.


Antecedentes: Se necesita con urgencia investigaciones para comprender las experiencias de los dilemas éticos y morales que los trabajadores de la salud encontraron durante la pandemia de la COVID-19 y su asociación con las percepciones de la organización y el bienestar personal. Esta investigación es importante para prevenir la angustia moral y psicológica a largo plazo y para asegurar que los trabajadores de la salud puedan proveer de manera óptima los servicios de salud.Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre las experiencias en el lugar de trabajo durante la COVID-19, la angustia moral y el bienestar psicológico de los trabajadores de salud canadienses.Métodos: Se reclutó a un total de 1362 trabajadores de salud canadienses, que hablaban francés e inglés y que fueron contratados durante la pandemia de la COVID-19, para participar en un cuestionario en línea. Los participantes completaron mediciones que reflejaban la angustia moral, la percepción de la respuesta de la organización a la pandemia, el burnout y los síntomas de trastornos psicológicos, que incluían a la depresión, a la ansiedad y al trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT).Resultados: El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales mostró que cuando los predictores de la organización se consideraban en conjunto ­ los recursos adecuados, el impacto positivo en la vida laboral y un ambiente de trabajo ético ­, predijeron negativamente la gravedad de la angustia moral, mientras que la percepción del riesgo de contraer la COVID-19 predijo positivamente la gravedad de la angustia moral. La angustia moral también predijo de manera significativa y positiva los síntomas de la depresión, la ansiedad, el TEPT y el burnout.Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos resaltan la urgente necesidad de que las organizaciones de trabajadores de salud implementen estrategias diseñadas para prevenir la angustia moral y psicológica a largo plazo en el lugar de trabajo. El asegurar la disponibilidad de los recursos adecuados, el reducir el riesgo de que los trabajadores de salud contraigan la COVID-19, el proveer un soporte organizacional adecuado según las prioridades individuales y el respetar las consideraciones éticas son fundamentales para reducir la gravedad de la angustia moral en los trabajadores de salud.背景:亟需研究以了解卫生保健工作者 (HCW) 在整个 COVID-19 疫情期间遇到的道德伦理困境的经历, 及其与组织观念和个人幸福感的关联。本研究对于预防长期道德和心理困扰并确保工作人员能够最好地提供健康服务非常重要。目的:评估加拿大医护人员的 COVID-19 期间工作场所经历, 道德困扰和心理健康之间的关联。方法:共招募了 1362 名在 COVID-19 疫情期间受雇的讲法语和英语的加拿大 HCW 参与在线调查。参与者完成了反映道德困扰, 组织对疫情, 倦怠和心理障碍症状 (包括抑郁, 焦虑和创伤后应激障碍 (PTSD)) 的看法的测量。结果:结构方程模型表明, 当同时考虑组织预测因素时, 资源充足性, 积极的工作生活影响和道德工作环境负向预测道德困扰的严重程度, 而 COVID-19 风险感知正向预测道德困扰的严重程度。道德困扰也显著且正向预测了抑郁, 焦虑, PTSD和倦怠的症状。结论:我们的结果强调了 HCW 组织迫切需要实施旨在预防工作场所内长期道德和心理困扰的策略。确保可获取足够资源, 降低HCW接触 COVID-19 的风险, 提供个体优先性相关的组织支持以及坚持伦理考虑对于降低医护人员道德困境的严重程度至关重要.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Mental Health/trends , Morals , Psychological Distress , Workplace/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Canada , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/ethics , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Culture , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(11): 543-545, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504076

ABSTRACT

Sufficient sleep is vital to the health and safety of healthcare workers and patients alike. Despite this, formal sleep promotion programs rarely exist within healthcare. Guidance does exist for how to incorporate strategies within healthcare organizations. Nurse leaders can spearhead efforts by promoting healthy sleep and instituting change through scheduling practices, unit policies, and supporting staff when barriers to healthy sleep develop.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Organizational Innovation , Sleep/physiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Leadership , Organizational Culture
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458416

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitality employees face a tremendous amount of job stress due to the decline in revenue and close contact with people. This study has three aims: first, to analyse the status quo of organizational-climate job stress on employee wellness in the hospitality industry during COVID-19; second, to discuss the correlation between organizational-climate job stress and employee wellness in the hospitality industry; and third, to analyze the associations between of personal background and organizational climate on job stress and wellness in the hospitality industry. This research uses a survey method to examine these issues. Participants were employees of franchise hotel branches in Taipei City, which yielded 295 effective sample sizes from five chain hotels. The personal background factor questionnaire, organizational climate questionnaire, job stress questionnaire, and wellness questionnaire served as the main research tools. In this study, Factor analysis, Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis were used for sample analysis. The results revealed a significant relationship between organizational-climate job stress with wellness. Personal background factors, organizational climate, and job stress would affect the wellness of employees. As a result, the present research provides empirical evidence for the impact of organizational climate and job stress on employee wellness in the hospitality industry in Taiwan during COVID-19. The study's findings, as well as its theoretical and practical implications, are discussed. The main contribution of this study is that the results serve as a reference for hospitality business owners to design better organizational environments for their employees, plan human-resource-related strategies, and provide training for their employees during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Organizational Culture , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
7.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(1): 4-13, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455389

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Across the healthcare landscape, the COVID-19 pandemic has been incredibly challenging. It also has been a catalyst for change. It has ignited a redesign of the US health system and presented opportunities in areas such as caregiver and patient communication, digital practice, telehealth and virtual care, and more. Notably, the pandemic also has shined a new light on caregiver well-being. As executive leaders of Cleveland Clinic's Caregiver Office, our top priority throughout the pandemic has been to support our caregivers professionally and personally-to help them be their best for themselves and for their fellow caregivers, our patients, our organization, and our communities. Today, Cleveland Clinic is realizing the profound impact of many of the strategies put in place during the pandemic and seeing how COVID-19 accelerated our organization's unified vision for caregiver well-being. This article offers insight into Cleveland Clinic's commitment to caregiver well-being, highlights actions we undertook during the pandemic, shares the resulting lessons we learned, and showcases how those lessons are shaping our future caregiver well-being strategy.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Caregivers/standards , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel/standards , Holistic Health , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio , Organizational Culture , Organizational Objectives , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(1): 39-44, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455388

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Well-being, engagement, and burnout among clinicians are interconnected, and the common denominator is energy. Decades of research show that employees' energy is a decisive factor in achieving organizational outcomes. Knowing this, healthcare leaders can create well-being programs with measurable outcomes that make a positive impact on the bottom line. Just as important, leaders can avoid wasting money on fruitless efforts. How can clinician well-being be incorporated in organizational culture and strategic and operational plans? What are the special challenges to achieving clinician well-being? What key leadership actions promote and protect the well-being of clinicians? Which approaches are most effective during a crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic? This article addresses those questions by presenting the rationale and methodology behind well-being programs that also address engagement and burnout so that clinicians can succeed in times of crisis and beyond.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Work Engagement , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Culture , Organizational Objectives , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(1): 14-19, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455385

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Enhancing employee well-being and creating a distinct employee experience are crucial to the success of Atrium Health. Our strategies for listening, well-being, and experience have always been deep-rooted in our culture, and the COVID-19 pandemic brought extraordinary opportunities to refresh those strategies as we carried out our mission during a time of uncertainty, crisis, and disruption to our everyday lives. From the start of the pandemic, we have deliberately anticipated the needs of our employees to provide support when they need it most. As the pandemic eases, we continue to make relevant and timely resources available to increase resilience and overall well-being. Our efforts have evolved to support our heroes-including our nonclinical workers-and to better position Atrium Health for future challenges that come our way. Although we are constantly changing, our primary focus remains the same. Employee well-being and experience are a significant part of who we are and an essential element of the care we all provide at Atrium Health.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Facilities , Health Personnel/psychology , Organizational Culture , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North Carolina , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 710743, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450846

ABSTRACT

This research described Chinese listed firms' COVID-19 Outbreak and financial performance using corporate culture (CC) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) evidence. The epidemic's impact on Chinese companies' profits was much less than the impact on their sales growth rates. Although the COVID-19 has had a more significant negative impact on the financial performance of Chinese listed companies in sectors that are more severely impacted, such as travel and entertainment, we believe that the financial performance of the medical industry has improved as a result of the outbreak. Meanwhile, Chinese listed companies in high-risk areas experience more significant financial losses during the epidemic, and the Hubei impact is hefty weight. Corporate social responsibility moderated the inverse relationship between this epidemic and Chinese firms' economic success. This research enhances the current literature on the effects of the COVID-19 on financial success and practical, realistic, and theoretical consequences in companies worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organizational Culture , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Responsibility
11.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(5): 587-592, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439183

ABSTRACT

We, emergency physicians of color, are not okay. We are living and working through a pandemic that has disproportionately affected our communities and a year in which we cannot escape our lived experiences of police brutality. We see you, dear White people in emergency medicine, and are glad you want to support us. However, let us guide you in supporting our cause.


Subject(s)
African Americans/psychology , Emergency Medicine , Organizational Culture , Physicians/psychology , Racism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Violence
12.
J Healthc Manag ; 66(5): 336-339, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434536
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409517

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created workplace challenges for employee safety and health, especially in small enterprises. We used linear mixed-effects regression to examine changes in health climate, safety climate, and worker well-being, prior to the pandemic and at two timepoints during it. We also examined whether employees at organizations that had received a TWH leadership development intervention prior to COVID-19 would better maintain pre-pandemic perceptions of climates and well-being. The final study cohort consisted of 261 employees from 31 organizations. No differences were observed in mean outcome scores between the leadership intervention groups at any of the survey timepoints. We combined intervention groups to examine the difference across timepoints. Perceptions of health and safety climates remained stable across all timepoints. However, employee well-being scores declined between the pre-pandemic period and subsequent COVID-19 timepoints. These findings suggest that while small organizations continued to be viewed as supporting employees' health and safety over the course of the pandemic, well-being scores declined, indicating that other factors contributed to decreased well-being. The findings from this study have implications for small business leaders as they navigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health, safety, and well-being on their organizations and employees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Small Business , Humans , Organizational Culture , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety Management , Workplace
14.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(11): 941-951, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: App-based drivers face work disruptions and infection risk during a pandemic due to the nature of their work, interactions with the public, and lack of workplace protections. Limited occupational health research has focused on their experiences. METHODS: We surveyed 100 app-based drivers in Seattle, WA to assess risk perceptions, supports, and controls received from the company that employs them, sources of trust, stress, job satisfaction, COVID-19 infection status, and how the pandemic had changed their work hours. Data were summarized descriptively and with simple regression models. We complemented this with qualitative interviews to better understand controls and policies enacted during COVID-19, and barriers and facilitators to their implementation. RESULTS: Drivers expressed very high levels of concern for exposure and infection (86%-97% were "very concerned" for all scenarios). Only 31% of drivers reported receiving an appropriate mask from the company for which they drive. Stress (assessed via PSS-4) was significantly higher in drivers who reported having had COVID-19, and also significantly higher in respondents with lower reported job satisfaction. Informants frequently identified supports such as unemployment benefits and peer outreach among the driver community as ways to ensure that drivers could access available benefits during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: App-based drivers received few protections from the company that employed them, and had high fear of exposure and infection at work. There is increased need for health-supportive policies and protections for app-based drivers. The most effective occupational and public health regulations would cover employees who may not have a traditional employer-employee relationship.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Safety Management/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Occupational Diseases/virology , Occupational Health , Organizational Culture , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation , Washington , Workplace/organization & administration , Young Adult
15.
J Healthc Manag ; 66(2): 85-90, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402727
16.
Nurs Stand ; 36(11): 45-50, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395276

ABSTRACT

Nurses are likely to encounter a wide range of distressing, challenging and sometimes traumatic situations. However, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created unprecedented levels of stress, risk, uncertainty and anxiety for nurses. Nurses have been working in highly challenging conditions, particularly on the front line of patient care, which has had adverse effects on their mental health and well-being. The challenges generated by the COVID-19 pandemic have called into question the notion of nursing being an innately resilient profession. Consequently, the pandemic has reinforced the need for individuals, teams and healthcare organisations to foster resilience in nurses. This article discusses the theoretical underpinnings of resilience, explains what resilience in nurses means, and describes the adverse effects of the pandemic on nurses' mental health and resilience. The article also explores how nurses' resilience can be developed and enhanced from an individual and organisational perspective.


Subject(s)
Nursing Staff/psychology , Organizational Culture , Resilience, Psychological , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
17.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(4): 311-323, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381061

ABSTRACT

The promotion of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) in nursing is a topic of renewed importance, given the civil unrest following the death of George Floyd and identified disparities in health and health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite its progress, the nursing profession continues to struggle with recruiting and retaining a workforce that represents the cultural diversity of the patient population. The authors completed a review of the literature on DEI in nursing and found a scarcity of studies, and that a limitation exists due to the strength of the evidence examined. This article aims to provide a review of the literature on DEI in nursing, outcomes and strategies associated with organizational DEI efforts, and knowledge on how the American Nurses Credentialing Center Pathway to Excellence® Designation Program framework supports DEI initiatives. The authors further provided recommendations for nurse leaders and a checklist of proposed questions for assessing commitment, culture, and structural empowerment initiatives toward a more diverse, equitable, and inclusive organization.


Subject(s)
Cultural Diversity , Health Equity , Leadership , Nursing/standards , Social Inclusion , COVID-19/epidemiology , Empowerment , Humans , Organizational Culture , Pandemics , Racism/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce/organization & administration
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378395

ABSTRACT

This study tests organizational trust as the psychosocial mechanism that explains how healthy organizational practices and team resources predict multilevel performance in organizations and teams, respectively. In our methodology, we collect data in a sample of 890 employees from 177 teams and their immediate supervisors from 31 Spanish companies. Our results from the multilevel analysis show two independent processes predicting organizational performance (return on assets, ROA) and performance ratings by immediate supervisors, operating at the organizational and team levels, respectively. We have found evidence for a theoretical and functional quasi-isomorphism. First, based on social exchange theory, we found evidence for our prediction that when organizations implement healthy practices and teams provide resources, employees trust their top managers (vertical trust) and coworkers (horizontal trust) and try to reciprocate these benefits by improving their performance. Second, (relationships among) constructs are similar at different levels of analysis, which may inform HRM officers and managers about which type of practices and resources can help to enhance trust and improve performance in organizations. The present study contributes to the scarce research on the role of trust at collective (i.e., organizational and team) levels as a psychological mechanism that explains how organizational practices and team resources are linked to organizational performance.


Subject(s)
Organizational Culture , Trust , Multilevel Analysis , Organizations
19.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1276-1281, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371750

ABSTRACT

The clinical learning environment (CLE) encompasses the learner's personal characteristics and experiences, social relationships, organizational culture, and the institution's physical and virtual infrastructure. During the COVID-19 pandemic, all 4 of these parts of the CLE have undergone a massive and rapid disruption. Personal and social communications have been limited to virtual interactions or shifted to unfamiliar clinical spaces because of redeployment. Rapid changes to the organizational culture required prompt adaptations from learners and educators in their complex organizational systems yet caused increased confusion and anxiety among them. A traditional reliance on a physical infrastructure for classical educational practices in the CLE was challenged when all institutions had to undergo a major transition to a virtual learning environment. However, disruptions spurred exciting innovations in the CLE. An entire cohort of physicians and learners underwent swift adjustments in their personal and professional development and identity as they rose to meet the clinical and educational challenges they faced due to COVID-19. Social networks and collaborations were expanded beyond traditional institutional walls and previously held international boundaries within multiple specialties. Specific aspects of the organizational and educational culture, including epidemiology, public health, and medical ethics, were brought to the forefront in health professions education, while the physical learning environment underwent a rapid transition to a virtual learning space. As health professions education continues in the era of COVID-19 and into a new era, educators must take advantage of these dynamic systems to identify additional gaps and implement meaningful change. In this article, health professions educators and learners from multiple institutions and specialties discuss the gaps and weaknesses exposed, opportunities revealed, and strategies developed for optimizing the CLE in the post-COVID-19 world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Learning , Physical Distancing , Students, Medical/psychology , Cooperative Behavior , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Humans , Interdisciplinary Placement , Organizational Culture , Social Environment , Social Networking , United States
20.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(8): 1188-1201, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368913

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths in the U.S. As chief strategists of their respective firms, how do Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) react to mortality salience associated with the number of new daily COVID deaths in the U.S.? To answer this question, we integrate terror management theory (TMT) with regulatory focus theory to examine how CEOs respond to mortality salience. Based on a sample of CEOs of S&P 500 firms, we found that mortality salience was associated with CEOs' increased other-orientation, and this association was more pronounced among those with high prevention focus. Mortality salience also was associated with CEOs' decreased self-orientation, particularly among those with high promotion focus. We also found that CEOs' self-orientation was negatively related to the likelihood of their firms' making community donations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce/economics , Death , Fear/psychology , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Charities , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Organizational Culture , SARS-CoV-2
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