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1.
Nat Methods ; 19(4): 418-428, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784012

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the deadliest pandemics in history. SARS-CoV-2 not only infects the respiratory tract, but also causes damage to many organs. Organoids, which can self-renew and recapitulate the various physiology of different organs, serve as powerful platforms to model COVID-19. In this Perspective, we overview the current effort to apply both human pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids and adult organoids to study SARS-CoV-2 tropism, host response and immune cell-mediated host damage, and perform drug discovery and vaccine development. We summarize the technologies used in organoid-based COVID-19 research, discuss the remaining challenges and provide future perspectives in the application of organoid models to study SARS-CoV-2 and future emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Adult , Humans , Organoids , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776139

ABSTRACT

The global health emergency for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) created an urgent need to develop new treatments and therapeutic drugs. In this study, we tested, for the first time on human cells, a new tetravalent neutralizing antibody (15033-7) targeting Spike protein and a synthetic peptide homologous to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) receptor on host cells. Both could represent powerful immunotherapeutic candidates for COVID-19 treatment. The infection begins in the proximal airways, namely the alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells of the distal lung, which express both ACE2 and DPP4 receptors. Thus, to evaluate the efficacy of both approaches, we developed three-dimensional (3D) complex lung organoid structures (hLORGs) derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and resembling the in vivo organ. Afterward, hLORGs were infected by different SARS-CoV-2 S pseudovirus variants and treated by the Ab15033-7 or DPP4 peptide. Using both approaches, we observed a significant reduction of viral entry and a modulation of the expression of genes implicated in innate immunity and inflammatory response. These data demonstrate the efficacy of such approaches in strongly reducing the infection efficiency in vitro and, importantly, provide proof-of-principle evidence that hiPSC-derived hLORGs represent an ideal in vitro system for testing both therapeutic and preventive modalities against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Organoids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 841447, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775647

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to the initiation of unprecedented research efforts to understand the pathogenesis mediated by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). More knowledge is needed regarding the cell type-specific cytopathology and its impact on cellular tropism. Furthermore, the impact of novel SARS-CoV-2 mutations on cellular tropism, alternative routes of entry, the impact of co-infections, and virus replication kinetics along the respiratory tract remains to be explored in improved models. Most applied virology models are not well suited to address the remaining questions, as they do not recapitulate the histoarchitecture and cellular composition of human respiratory tissues. The overall aim of this work was to establish from single biopsy specimens, a human adult stem cell-derived organoid model representing the upper respiratory airways and lungs and explore the applicability of this model to study respiratory virus infection. First, we characterized the organoid model with respect to growth pattern and histoarchitecture, cellular composition, and functional characteristics. Next, in situ expression of viral entry receptors, including influenza virus-relevant sialic acids and SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and TMPRSS2, were confirmed in organoids of bronchiolar and alveolar differentiation. We further showed successful infection by pseudotype influenza A H7N1 and H5N1 virus, and the ability of the model to support viral replication of influenza A H7N1 virus. Finally, successful infection and replication of a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 were confirmed in the organoids by TCID50 assay and immunostaining to detect intracellular SARS-CoV-2 specific nucleocapsid and dsRNA. The prominent syncytia formation in organoid tissues following SARS-CoV-2 infection mimics the findings from infected human tissues in situ. We conclude that the human organotypic model described here may be particularly useful for virology studies to evaluate regional differences in the host response to infection. The model contains the various cell types along the respiratory tract, expresses respiratory virus entry factors, and supports successful infection and replication of influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2. Thus, the model may serve as a relevant and reliable tool in virology and aid in pandemic preparedness, and efficient evaluation of antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Adult , Humans , Lung , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS Biol ; 20(3): e3001592, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770633

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal effects associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are highly variable for reasons that are not understood. In this study, we used intestinal organoid-derived cultures differentiated from primary human specimens as a model to examine interindividual variability. Infection of intestinal organoids derived from different donors with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in orders of magnitude differences in virus replication in small intestinal and colonic organoid-derived monolayers. Susceptibility to infection correlated with angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression level and was independent of donor demographic or clinical features. ACE2 transcript levels in cell culture matched the amount of ACE2 in primary tissue, indicating that this feature of the intestinal epithelium is retained in the organoids. Longitudinal transcriptomics of organoid-derived monolayers identified a delayed yet robust interferon signature, the magnitude of which corresponded to the degree of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, virus with the Omicron variant spike (S) protein infected the organoids with the highest infectivity, suggesting increased tropism of the virus for intestinal tissue. These results suggest that heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 replication in intestinal tissues results from differences in ACE2 levels, which may underlie variable patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Humans , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5375, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768850

ABSTRACT

Although the main route of infection for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the respiratory tract, liver injury is also commonly seen in many patients, as evidenced by deranged parenchymal liver enzymes. Furthermore, the severity of liver damage has been shown to correlate with higher mortality. Overall, the mechanism behind the liver injury remains unclear. We showed in this study that intra-hepatic bile duct cells could be grown using a human liver organoid platform. The cholangiocytes were not only susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, they also supported efficient viral replication. We also showed that SARS-CoV-2 replication was much higher than SARS-CoV. Our findings suggested direct cytopathic viral damage being a mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 liver injury.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , COVID-19 , Humans , Liver , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760845

ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood, and this is partly due to the limitations of currently used preclinical models. Brain organoid models can overcome some of these limitations, as they are generated from human derived stem cells, differentiated in three dimensions (3D), and can mimic human neurodevelopmental characteristics. Therefore, brain organoids have been increasingly used as brain models in research on various viruses, such as Zika virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Brain organoids allow for the study of viral tropism, the effect of infection on organoid function, size, and cytoarchitecture, as well as innate immune response; therefore, they provide valuable insight into the pathogenesis of neurotropic viral infections and testing of antivirals in a physiological model. In this review, we summarize the results of studies on viral CNS infection in brain organoids, and we demonstrate the broad application and benefits of using a human 3D model in virology research. At the same time, we describe the limitations of the studies in brain organoids, such as the heterogeneity in organoid generation protocols and age at infection, which result in differences in results between studies, as well as the lack of microglia and a blood brain barrier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain/pathology , Humans , Organoids , Zika Virus Infection/pathology
7.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(4): 789-803, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757852

ABSTRACT

Several studies have pointed to retinal involvement in COVID-19, yet many questions remain regarding the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect and replicate in retinal cells and its effects on the retina. Here, we have used human pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids to study retinal infection by SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, SARS-CoV-2 can infect and replicate in retinal organoids, as it is shown to infect different retinal lineages, such as retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptors. SARS-CoV-2 infection of retinal organoids also induces the expression of several inflammatory genes, such as interleukin 33, a gene associated with acute COVID-19 and retinal degeneration. Finally, we show that the use of antibodies to block ACE2 significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection of retinal organoids, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 infects retinal cells in an ACE2-dependent manner. These results suggest a retinal involvement in COVID-19 and emphasize the need to monitor retinal pathologies as potential sequelae of "long COVID."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Organoids/metabolism , Retina , Retinal Ganglion Cells , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742493

ABSTRACT

Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bone metastases are treated with androgen pathway directed therapy (APDT). However, this treatment invariably fails and the cancer becomes castration resistant. To elucidate resistance mechanisms and to provide a more predictive pre-clinical research platform reflecting tumor heterogeneity, we established organoids from a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of bone metastatic prostate cancer, PCSD1. APDT-resistant PDX-derived organoids (PDOs) emerged when cultured without androgen or with the anti-androgen, enzalutamide. Transcriptomics revealed up-regulation of neurogenic and steroidogenic genes and down-regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle, circadian pathways and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 host viral entry factors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Time course analysis of the cell cycle in live cells revealed that enzalutamide induced a gradual transition into a reversible dormant state as shown here for the first time at the single cell level in the context of multi-cellular, 3D living organoids using the Fucci2BL fluorescent live cell cycle tracker system. We show here a new mechanism of castration resistance in which enzalutamide induced dormancy and novel basal-luminal-like cells in bone metastatic prostate cancer organoids. These PDX organoids can be used to develop therapies targeting dormant APDT-resistant cells and host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Organoids/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/genetics , Androgens/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , Bone Neoplasms/metabolism , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mice , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transplantation, Heterologous , Virus Internalization
9.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(161)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736334

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, representing a major unmet medical need. New chemical entities rarely make it into the clinic to treat respiratory diseases, which is partially due to a lack of adequate predictive disease models and the limited availability of human lung tissues to model respiratory disease. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may help fill this gap by serving as a scalable human in vitro model. In addition, human in vitro models of rare genetic mutations can be generated using hPSCs. hPSC-derived epithelial cells and organoids have already shown great potential for the understanding of disease mechanisms, for finding new potential targets by using high-throughput screening platforms, and for personalised treatments. These potentials can also be applied to other hPSC-derived lung cell types in the future. In this review, we will discuss how hPSCs have brought, and may continue to bring, major changes to the field of respiratory diseases by understanding the molecular mechanisms of the pathology and by finding efficient therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Organoids
10.
Biomaterials ; 283: 121460, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729556

ABSTRACT

The palatine tonsils (hereinafter referred to as "tonsils") serve as a reservoir for viral infections and play roles in the immune system's first line of defense. The aims of this study were to establish tonsil epithelial cell-derived organoids and examine their feasibility as an ex vivo model for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The tonsil organoids successfully recapitulated the key characteristics of the tonsil epithelium, including cellular composition, histologic properties, and biomarker distribution. Notably, the basal layer cells of the organoids express molecules essential for SARS-CoV-2 entry, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and furin, being susceptible to the viral infection. Changes in the gene expression profile in tonsil organoids revealed that 395 genes associated with oncostatin M signaling and lipid metabolism were highly upregulated within 72 h after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Notably, remdesivir suppressed the viral RNA copy number in organoid culture supernatants and intracellular viral protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Here, we suggest that tonsil epithelial organoids could provide a preclinical and translational research platform for investigating SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and transmissibility or for evaluating antiviral candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organoids , Humans , Palatine Tonsil , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
11.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690348

ABSTRACT

Advances in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technology allow one to deconstruct the human body into specific disease-relevant cell types or create functional units representing various organs. hPSC-based models present a unique opportunity for the study of co-occurring disorders where "cause and effect" can be addressed. Poor neurodevelopmental outcomes have been reported in children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). Intuitively, abnormal cardiac function or surgical intervention may stunt the developing brain, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). However, recent work has uncovered several genetic variants within genes associated with the development of both the heart and brain that could also explain this co-occurrence. Given the scalability of hPSCs, straightforward genetic modification, and established differentiation strategies, it is now possible to investigate both CHD and NDD as independent events. We will first overview the potential for shared genetics in both heart and brain development. We will then summarize methods to differentiate both cardiac & neural cells and organoids from hPSCs that represent the developmental process of the heart and forebrain. Finally, we will highlight strategies to rapidly screen several genetic variants together to uncover potential phenotypes and how therapeutic advances could be achieved by hPSC-based models.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/metabolism , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/metabolism , Organoids/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism
12.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(3): 901-910, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687372

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic evoked by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a major public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms underlying this novel virus is crucial for both fundamental research and clinical trials in order to devise effective therapies and vaccination regimens. Basic research on SARS-CoV-2 largely depends on ex vivo models that allow viral invasion and replication. Organoid models are now emerging as a valuable tool to investigate viral biology and disease progression, serving as an efficient platform to investigate potential therapies for COVID-19. Here, we summarize various human stem cell-derived organoid types employed in SARS-CoV-2 studies. We highlight key findings from these models, including cell tropisms and molecular mechanisms in viral infection. We also describe their use in identifying potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2. As more and more advanced organoids emerge, they will facilitate the understanding of disease pathogenesis for drug development in this dreaded pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2 , Virology/methods , Humans
13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(10): e2105187, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664339

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses an imminent threat to our lives. Although animal models and monolayer cell cultures are utilized for pathogenesis studies and the development of COVID-19 therapeutics, models that can more accurately reflect human-relevant responses to this novel virus are still lacking. Stem cell organoids and bioengineered organs-on-chips have emerged as two cutting-edge technologies used to construct biomimetic in vitro three-dimensional (3D) tissue or organ models. In this review, the key features of these two model systems that allow them to recapitulate organ physiology and function are introduced. The recent progress of these technologies for virology research is summarized and their utility in meeting the COVID-19 pandemic is highlighted. Future opportunities and challenges in the development of advanced human organ models and their potential to accelerate translational applications to provide vaccines and therapies for COVID-19 and other emerging epidemics are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Models, Animal , Organoids , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Mol Biol ; 434(3): 167213, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654786

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus outbreak is the major cause of a respiratory disease known as COVID-19. It has caused a global pandemic and has resulted in mortality in millions. The primary mode of infection is respiratory ailments, however, due to multi-organ complications, COVID-19 patients displays a greater mortality numbers. Due to the 3Rs Principle (Refine, Reduce, Replacement), the scientific community has shifted its focus to 3D organoid models rather than testing animal models. 3D organoid models provide a better physiological architecture as it mimics the real tissue microenvironment and is the best platform to recapitulate organs in a dish. Hence, the organoid approach provides a more realistic drug response in comparison to the traditional 2D cellular models, which lack key physiological relevance due to the absence of proper surface topography and cellular interactions. Furthermore, an adverse outcome pathway (AOPs) provides a best fit model to identify various molecular and cellular events during the exposure of SARS-CoV-2. Hence, 3D organoid research provides information related to gene expression, cell behavior, antiviral studies and ACE2 expression in various organs. In this review, we discuss state-of-the-art lung, liver and kidney 3D organoid system utilizing the AOPs to study SARS-CoV-2 molecular pathogenesis. Furthermore, current challenges are discussed for future application of 3D organoid systems for various disease states.


Subject(s)
Models, Biological , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597826

ABSTRACT

Organoids are tiny, self-organized, three-dimensional tissue cultures that are derived from the differentiation of stem cells. The growing interest in the use of organoids arises from their ability to mimic the biology and physiology of specific tissue structures in vitro. Organoids indeed represent promising systems for the in vitro modeling of tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, drug therapy testing, toxicology screening, and disease modeling. Although 2D cell cultures have been used for more than 50 years, even for their simplicity and low-cost maintenance, recent years have witnessed a steep rise in the availability of organoid model systems. Exploiting the ability of cells to re-aggregate and reconstruct the original architecture of an organ makes it possible to overcome many limitations of 2D cell culture systems. In vitro replication of the cellular micro-environment of a specific tissue leads to reproducing the molecular, biochemical, and biomechanical mechanisms that directly influence cell behavior and fate within that specific tissue. Lineage-specific self-organizing organoids have now been generated for many organs. Currently, growing cardiac organoid (cardioids) from pluripotent stem cells and cardiac stem/progenitor cells remains an open challenge due to the complexity of the spreading, differentiation, and migration of cardiac muscle and vascular layers. Here, we summarize the evolution of biological model systems from the generation of 2D spheroids to 3D organoids by focusing on the generation of cardioids based on the currently available laboratory technologies and outline their high potential for cardiovascular research.


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells/cytology , Organ Culture Techniques/methods , Organoids/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Heart/physiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Regeneration , Spheroids, Cellular/cytology
18.
Cell Stem Cell ; 29(2): 217-231.e8, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586459

ABSTRACT

Kidney failure is frequently observed during and after COVID-19, but it remains elusive whether this is a direct effect of the virus. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 directly infects kidney cells and is associated with increased tubule-interstitial kidney fibrosis in patient autopsy samples. To study direct effects of the virus on the kidney independent of systemic effects of COVID-19, we infected human-induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived kidney organoids with SARS-CoV-2. Single-cell RNA sequencing indicated injury and dedifferentiation of infected cells with activation of profibrotic signaling pathways. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 infection also led to increased collagen 1 protein expression in organoids. A SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitor was able to ameliorate the infection of kidney cells by SARS-CoV-2. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect kidney cells and induce cell injury with subsequent fibrosis. These data could explain both acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients and the development of chronic kidney disease in long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Humans , Kidney , Organoids/pathology
19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(7): e2104192, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589262

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with impact on skin and hair loss are reported. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is detected in the skin of some patients; however, the detailed pathological features of skin tissues from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 at a molecular level are limited. Especially, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect skin cells and impact their function is not well understood. A proteome map of COVID-19 skin is established here and the susceptibility of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived skin organoids with hair follicles and nervous system is investigated, to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is shown that KRT17+ hair follicles can be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and are associated with the impaired development of hair follicles and epidermis. Different types of nervous system cells are also found to be infected, which can lead to neuron death. Findings from the present work provide evidence for the association between COVID-19 and hair loss. hiPSC-derived skin organoids are also presented as an experimental model which can be used to investigate the susceptibility of skin cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can help identify various pathological mechanisms and drug screening strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Models, Biological , Organoids/cytology , Skin/cytology , COVID-19/virology , Hair Follicle/virology , Humans , Nervous System/virology , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Drug Discov Today ; 27(4): 1062-1076, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587950

ABSTRACT

Proposing efficient prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) requires precise knowledge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis. An array of platforms, including organoids and microfluidic devices, have provided a basis for studies of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we summarize available models as well as novel drug screening approaches, from simple to more advanced platforms. Notably, organoids and microfluidic devices offer promising perspectives for the clinical translation of basic science, such as screening therapeutics candidates. Overall, modifying these advanced micro and macro 3D platforms for disease modeling and combining them with recent advances in drug screening has significant potential for the discovery of novel potent drugs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microfluidics , Models, Biological , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Editing , Genome , Humans , Tissue Engineering
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