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2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6610, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521737

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 typically manifests as a respiratory illness, but several clinical reports have described gastrointestinal symptoms. This is particularly true in children in whom gastrointestinal symptoms are frequent and viral shedding outlasts viral clearance from the respiratory system. These observations raise the question of whether the virus can replicate within the stomach. Here we generate gastric organoids from fetal, pediatric, and adult biopsies as in vitro models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To facilitate infection, we induce reverse polarity in the gastric organoids. We find that the pediatric and late fetal gastric organoids are susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2, while viral replication is significantly lower in undifferentiated organoids of early fetal and adult origin. We demonstrate that adult gastric organoids are more susceptible to infection following differentiation. We perform transcriptomic analysis to reveal a moderate innate antiviral response and a lack of differentially expressed genes belonging to the interferon family. Collectively, we show that the virus can efficiently infect the gastric epithelium, suggesting that the stomach might have an active role in fecal-oral SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stomach/virology , Virus Replication/physiology , Aborted Fetus , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Infant , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Middle Aged , Organoids/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stomach/pathology
3.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518199

ABSTRACT

Kidneys are critical target organs of COVID-19, but susceptibility and responses to infection remain poorly understood. Here, we combine SARS-CoV-2 variants with genome-edited kidney organoids and clinical data to investigate tropism, mechanism, and therapeutics. SARS-CoV-2 specifically infects organoid proximal tubules among diverse cell types. Infections produce replicating virus, apoptosis, and disrupted cell morphology, features of which are revealed in the context of polycystic kidney disease. Cross-validation of gene expression patterns in organoids reflects proteomic signatures of COVID-19 in the urine of critically ill patients indicating interferon pathway upregulation. SARS-CoV-2 viral variants alpha, beta, gamma, kappa, and delta exhibit comparable levels of infection in organoids. Infection is ameliorated in ACE2-/- organoids and blocked via treatment with de novo-designed spike binder peptides. Collectively, these studies clarify the impact of kidney infection in COVID-19 as reflected in organoids and clinical populations, enabling assessment of viral fitness and emerging therapies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/urine , COVID-19/urine , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/virology , Kidney/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Apoptosis , Bowman Capsule/cytology , Bowman Capsule/virology , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Gene Knockout Techniques , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Organoids/metabolism , Podocytes/virology , Polycystic Kidney Diseases , Proteome , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Transcriptome , Vero Cells , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication
4.
mSphere ; 6(6): e0062321, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501544

ABSTRACT

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are acute viral gastroenteritis pathogens that affect all age groups, yet no approved vaccines and drugs to treat HuNoV infection are available. In this study, we screened an antiviral compound library to identify compound(s) showing anti-HuNoV activity using a human intestinal enteroid (HIE) culture system in which HuNoVs are able to replicate reproducibly. Dasabuvir (DSB), which has been developed as an anti-hepatitis C virus agent, was found to inhibit HuNoV infection in HIEs at micromolar concentrations. Dasabuvir also inhibited severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human rotavirus A (RVA) infection in HIEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to screen an antiviral compound library for HuNoV using HIEs, and we successfully identified dasabuvir as a novel anti-HuNoV inhibitor that warrants further investigation. IMPORTANCE Although there is an urgent need to develop effective antiviral therapy directed against HuNoV infection, compound screening to identify anti-HuNoV drug candidates has not been reported so far. Using a human HIE culture system, our compound screening successfully identified dasabuvir as a novel anti-HuNoV inhibitor. Dasabuvir's inhibitory effect was also demonstrated in the cases of SARS-CoV-2 and RVA infection, highlighting the usefulness of the HIE platform for screening antiviral agents against various viruses that target the intestines.


Subject(s)
2-Naphthylamine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Intestines/virology , Organoids/virology , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Uracil/analogs & derivatives , Biopsy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caliciviridae Infections/drug therapy , Cell Line , Humans , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/pathology , Organoids/drug effects , Rotavirus/drug effects , Rotavirus Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Uracil/pharmacology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457746

ABSTRACT

Various pathogens, such as Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2, are threatening human health worldwide. The natural hosts of these pathogens are thought to be bats. The rousette bat, a megabat, is thought to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Additionally, the rousette bat showed a transient infection in the experimental inoculation of SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, we established and characterized intestinal organoids from Leschenault's rousette, Rousettus leschenaultii. The established organoids successfully recapitulated the characteristics of intestinal epithelial structure and morphology, and the appropriate supplements necessary for long-term stable culture were identified. The organoid showed susceptibility to Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) but not to SARS-CoV-2 in experimental inoculation. This is the first report of the establishment of an expandable organoid culture system of the rousette bat intestinal organoid and its sensitivity to bat-associated viruses, PRV and SARS-CoV-2. This organoid is a useful tool for the elucidation of tolerance mechanisms of the emerging rousette bat-associated viruses such as Ebola and Marburg virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Organoids/virology , Orthoreovirus/physiology , Reoviridae Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Chiroptera/physiology , Humans , Intestines/cytology , Intestines/virology , Organoids/cytology , Reoviridae Infections/veterinary
6.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 105, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination programs have been launched worldwide to halt the spread of COVID-19. However, the identification of existing, safe compounds with combined treatment and prophylactic properties would be beneficial to individuals who are waiting to be vaccinated, particularly in less economically developed countries, where vaccine availability may be initially limited. METHODS: We used a data-driven approach, combining results from the screening of a large transcriptomic database (L1000) and molecular docking analyses, with in vitro tests using a lung organoid model of SARS-CoV-2 entry, to identify drugs with putative multimodal properties against COVID-19. RESULTS: Out of thousands of FDA-approved drugs considered, we observed that atorvastatin was the most promising candidate, as its effects negatively correlated with the transcriptional changes associated with infection. Atorvastatin was further predicted to bind to SARS-CoV-2's main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and was shown to inhibit viral entry in our lung organoid model. CONCLUSIONS: Small clinical studies reported that general statin use, and specifically, atorvastatin use, are associated with protective effects against COVID-19. Our study corroborrates these findings and supports the investigation of atorvastatin in larger clinical studies. Ultimately, our framework demonstrates one promising way to fast-track the identification of compounds for COVID-19, which could similarly be applied when tackling future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Organoids/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Atorvastatin/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Line , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Doxycycline/pharmacology , Drug Approval , Drug Repositioning , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Lung/virology , Models, Biological , Molecular Docking Simulation , Organoids/virology , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/chemistry , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Trifluoperazine/chemistry , Trifluoperazine/pharmacology , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vesiculovirus/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
7.
Elife ; 102021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380072

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, causes widespread damage in the lungs in the setting of an overzealous immune response whose origin remains unclear. Methods: We present a scalable, propagable, personalized, cost-effective adult stem cell-derived human lung organoid model that is complete with both proximal and distal airway epithelia. Monolayers derived from adult lung organoids (ALOs), primary airway cells, or hiPSC-derived alveolar type II (AT2) pneumocytes were infected with SARS-CoV-2 to create in vitro lung models of COVID-19. Results: Infected ALO monolayers best recapitulated the transcriptomic signatures in diverse cohorts of COVID-19 patient-derived respiratory samples. The airway (proximal) cells were critical for sustained viral infection, whereas distal alveolar differentiation (AT2→AT1) was critical for mounting the overzealous host immune response in fatal disease; ALO monolayers with well-mixed proximodistal airway components recapitulated both. Conclusions: Findings validate a human lung model of COVID-19, which can be immediately utilized to investigate COVID-19 pathogenesis and vet new therapies and vaccines. Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes for Health (NIH) grants 1R01DK107585-01A1, 3R01DK107585-05S1 (to SD); R01-AI141630, CA100768 and CA160911 (to PG) and R01-AI 155696 (to PG, DS and SD); R00-CA151673 and R01-GM138385 (to DS), R01- HL32225 (to PT), UCOP-R00RG2642 (to SD and PG), UCOP-R01RG3780 (to P.G. and D.S) and a pilot award from the Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center at UC San Diego Health (P.G, S.D, D.S). GDK was supported through The American Association of Immunologists Intersect Fellowship Program for Computational Scientists and Immunologists. L.C.A's salary was supported in part by the VA San Diego Healthcare System. This manuscript includes data generated at the UC San Diego Institute of Genomic Medicine (IGC) using an Illumina NovaSeq 6000 that was purchased with funding from a National Institutes of Health SIG grant (#S10 OD026929).


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells , COVID-19 , Lung/pathology , Models, Biological , Organoids , Adult Stem Cells/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Organoids/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/cytology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
8.
Science ; 373(6551): 231-236, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304152

ABSTRACT

In mammals, early resistance to viruses relies on interferons, which protect differentiated cells but not stem cells from viral replication. Many other organisms rely instead on RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by a specialized Dicer protein that cleaves viral double-stranded RNA. Whether RNAi also contributes to mammalian antiviral immunity remains controversial. We identified an isoform of Dicer, named antiviral Dicer (aviD), that protects tissue stem cells from RNA viruses-including Zika virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-by dicing viral double-stranded RNA to orchestrate antiviral RNAi. Our work sheds light on the molecular regulation of antiviral RNAi in mammalian innate immunity, in which different cell-intrinsic antiviral pathways can be tailored to the differentiation status of cells.


Subject(s)
DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA Viruses/physiology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribonuclease III/genetics , Ribonuclease III/metabolism , Stem Cells/enzymology , Stem Cells/virology , Alternative Splicing , Animals , Brain/enzymology , Brain/virology , Cell Line , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/chemistry , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Isoenzymes/chemistry , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Mice , Organoids/enzymology , Organoids/virology , RNA Virus Infections/enzymology , RNA Virus Infections/immunology , RNA Virus Infections/virology , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA Viruses/immunology , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Ribonuclease III/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus/immunology , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/enzymology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/virology
10.
Dis Model Mech ; 14(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295507

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasised the need to develop effective treatments to combat emerging viruses. Model systems that poorly represent a virus' cellular environment, however, may impede research and waste resources. Collaborations between cell biologists and virologists have led to the rapid development of representative organoid model systems to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We believe that lung organoids, in particular, have advanced our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, and have laid a foundation to study future pandemic viruses and develop effective treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lung/virology , Models, Biological , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Research Design/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 377-383, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289259

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the identity, functional characteristics and therapeutic targets of the virus and the diseases, appropriate infection models that recapitulate the in vivo pathophysiology of the viral infection are necessary. This article reviews the various infection models, including Vero cells, human cell lines, organoids, and animal models, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. This knowledge will be helpful for establishing an efficient system for defense against emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Models, Theoretical , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cats , Cell Line, Tumor , Chickens/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops/virology , Cricetinae , Dogs , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mice , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/pathology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Swine/virology , Vero Cells
12.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(4): 940-953, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180038

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually results in respiratory disease, but extrapulmonary manifestations are of major clinical interest. Intestinal symptoms of COVID-19 are present in a significant number of patients, and include nausea, diarrhea, and viral RNA shedding in feces. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids (HIOs) represent an inexhaustible cellular resource that could serve as a valuable tool to study SARS-CoV-2 as well as other enteric viruses that infect the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 productively infects both proximally and distally patterned HIOs, leading to the release of infectious viral particles while stimulating a robust transcriptomic response, including a significant upregulation of interferon-related genes that appeared to be conserved across multiple epithelial cell types. These findings illuminate a potential inflammatory epithelial-specific signature that may contribute to both the multisystemic nature of COVID-19 as well as its highly variable clinical presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Colon/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Organoids/pathology , Cell Line , Colon/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Inflammation/virology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Models, Biological , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
13.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2227, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148855

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Covid-19 which was classified as a global pandemic in March 2020. The increasing global health and economic burden of SARS-CoV-2 has necessitated urgent investigations into the pathogenesis of disease and development of therapeutic and vaccination regimens. Human trials of vaccine and antiviral candidates have been undertaken, but basic pathogenetic studies are still required to inform these trials. Gaps in understanding of cellular infection by, and immunity to, SARS-CoV-2 mean additional models are required to assist in improved design of these therapeutics. Human organoids are three-dimensional models that contain multiple cell types and mimic human organs in ex vivo culture conditions. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been implicated in causing not only respiratory injury but also injury to other organs such as the brain, liver and kidneys. Consequently, a variety of different organoid models have been employed to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of disease due to SARS-CoV-2. Data on these models have not been systematically assembled. In this review, we highlight key findings from studies that have utilised different human organoid types to investigate the expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors, permissiveness, immune response, dysregulation of cellular functions, and potential antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Models, Biological , Organoids/immunology , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/immunology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Culture Techniques , Colon/drug effects , Colon/immunology , Colon/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/immunology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 412-418, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125251

ABSTRACT

Many pathogenic viruses that affect man display species specificity, limiting the use of animal models. Studying viral biology and identifying potential treatments therefore benefits from the development of in vitro cell systems that closely mimic human physiology. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, rapid scientific insights are of the utmost importance to limit its impact on public health and society. Organoids are emerging as versatile tools to progress the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 biology and to aid in the quest for novel treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Organoids/virology , Animals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115421

ABSTRACT

In this Review, we briefly describe the basic virology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, highlighting how stem cell technology and organoids can contribute to the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 cell tropisms and the mechanism of disease in the human host, supporting and clarifying findings from clinical studies in infected individuals. We summarize here the results of studies, which used these technologies to investigate SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in different organs. Studies with in vitro models of lung epithelia showed that alveolar epithelial type II cells, but not differentiated lung alveolar epithelial type I cells, are key targets of SARS-CoV-2, which triggers cell apoptosis and inflammation, while impairing surfactant production. Experiments with human small intestinal organoids and colonic organoids showed that the gastrointestinal tract is another relevant target for SARS-CoV-2. The virus can infect and replicate in enterocytes and cholangiocytes, inducing cell damage and inflammation. Direct viral damage was also demonstrated in in vitro models of human cardiomyocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells. At variance, endothelial cells and neurons are poorly susceptible to viral infection, thus supporting the hypothesis that neurological symptoms and vascular damage result from the indirect effects of systemic inflammatory and immunological hyper-responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stem Cells/virology , Animals , Apoptosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular System/cytology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Central Nervous System/cytology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/cytology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Organoids/pathology , Stem Cells/pathology , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization
16.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 373-384, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101516

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a socioeconomic burden, which exhibits respiratory illness along with unexpected neurological complications. Concerns have been raised about whether the observed neurological symptoms are due to direct effects on CNS or associated with the virus's systemic effect. Recent SARS-CoV-2 infection studies using human brain organoids revealed that SARS-CoV-2 targets human neurons. Human brain organoids are stem cell-derived reductionist experimental systems that have highlighted the neurotropic effects of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we summarize the neurotoxic effects of SARS-CoV-2 using brain organoids and comprehensively discuss how brain organoids could further improve our understanding when they are fine-tuned.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Neurons/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Humans , Stem Cells/virology
17.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 493-504, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099264

ABSTRACT

Enteroviruses, such as EV-A71 and CVA16, mainly infect the human gastrointestinal tract. Human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, have been variably associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. We aimed to optimize the human intestinal organoids and hypothesize that these optimized intestinal organoids can recapitulate enteric infections of enterovirus and coronavirus. We demonstrate that the optimized human intestinal organoids enable better simulation of the native human intestinal epithelium, and that they are significantly more susceptible to EV-A71 than CVA16. Higher replication of EV-A71 than CVA16 in the intestinal organoids triggers a more vigorous cellular response. However, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 exhibit distinct dynamics of virus-host interaction; more robust propagation of SARS-CoV triggers minimal cellular response, whereas, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits lower replication capacity but elicits a moderate cellular response. Taken together, the disparate profile of the virus-host interaction of enteroviruses and coronaviruses in human intestinal organoids may unravel the cellular basis of the distinct pathogenicity of these viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Enterovirus A, Human/pathogenicity , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Intestines/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/physiology
18.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 437-445, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084274

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a transmissible respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and has become a global health emergency. There is an urgent need for robust and practical in vitro model systems to investigate viral pathogenesis. Here, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived lung organoids (LORGs), cerebral organoids (CORGs), neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neurons, and astrocytes. LORGs containing epithelial cells, alveolar types 1 and 2, highly express ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces interferons, cytokines, and chemokines and activates critical inflammasome pathway genes. Spike protein inhibitor, EK1 peptide, and TMPRSS2 inhibitors (camostat/nafamostat) block viral entry in LORGs. Conversely, CORGs, NPCs, astrocytes, and neurons express low levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and correspondingly are not highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Infection in neuronal cells activates TLR3/7, OAS2, complement system, and apoptotic genes. These findings will aid in understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis and facilitate drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Lung/virology , Neural Stem Cells/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Apoptosis/physiology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Lung/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/virology , Organoids/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Stem Cells/metabolism , Stem Cells/virology
19.
EMBO J ; 40(5): e107651, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082516

ABSTRACT

Defining the pulmonary cell types infected by SARS-CoV-2 and finding ways to prevent subsequent tissue damage are key goals for controlling COVID-19. Recent work establishing a human lung organoid-derived air-liquid interface model permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection identifies alveolar type II cells as the primary cell type infected, reports an infection-induced interferon response and demonstrates the effectiveness of interferon lambda 1 treatment in dampening lung infection.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Models, Biological , Organoids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology
20.
Nature ; 589(7841): 270-275, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065893

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to create novel models using human disease-relevant cells to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) biology and to facilitate drug screening. Here, as SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects the respiratory tract, we developed a lung organoid model using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-LOs). The hPSC-LOs (particularly alveolar type-II-like cells) are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and showed robust induction of chemokines following SARS-CoV-2 infection, similar to what is seen in patients with COVID-19. Nearly 25% of these patients also have gastrointestinal manifestations, which are associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes1. We therefore also generated complementary hPSC-derived colonic organoids (hPSC-COs) to explore the response of colonic cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that multiple colonic cell types, especially enterocytes, express ACE2 and are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using hPSC-LOs, we performed a high-throughput screen of drugs approved by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) and identified entry inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, including imatinib, mycophenolic acid and quinacrine dihydrochloride. Treatment at physiologically relevant levels of these drugs significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of both hPSC-LOs and hPSC-COs. Together, these data demonstrate that hPSC-LOs and hPSC-COs infected by SARS-CoV-2 can serve as disease models to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide a valuable resource for drug screening to identify candidate COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Colon/cytology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Lung/cytology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colon/drug effects , Colon/virology , Drug Approval , Female , Heterografts/drug effects , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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