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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3706, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908236

ABSTRACT

Scaling up SARS-CoV-2 testing and tracing continues to be plagued with the limitation of the sample collection method, which requires trained healthcare workers to perform and causes discomfort to the patients. In response, we assessed the performance and user preference of gargle specimens for qRT-PCR-based detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Indonesia. Inpatients who had recently been diagnosed with COVID-19 and outpatients who were about to perform qRT-PCR testing were asked to provide nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NPOP) swabs and self-collected gargle specimens. We demonstrated that self-collected gargle specimens can be an alternative specimen to detect SARS-CoV-2 and the viral RNA remained stable for 31 days at room temperature storage. The developed method was validated for use on multiple RNA extraction kits and commercially available COVID-19 RT-PCR kits. Our developed method achieved a sensitivity of 91.38% when compared to paired NPOP swab specimens (Ct < 35), with 97.10% of patients preferring the self-collected gargle method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0059121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691413

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to severe respiratory illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The diagnostic accuracy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)- or World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) primers in clinical practice remains unproven. We conducted a prospective study on the accuracy of RT-qPCR using an in-house-designed primer set (iNP) targeting the nucleocapsid protein as well as various recommended and commercial primers. The accuracy was assessed by culturing or seroconversion. We enrolled 12 confirmed COVID-19 patients with a total of 590 clinical samples. When a cutoff value of the cycle threshold (Ct) was set to 35, RT-qPCRs with WHO RdRp primers and CDC N1, N2, and N3 primers showed sensitivity of 42.1% to 63.2% and specificity of 90.5% to 100% in sputum, and sensitivity of 65.2% to 69.6% and specificity of 65.2% to 69.6% in nasopharyngeal samples. The sensitivity and specificity of iNP RT-qPCR in sputum and nasopharyngeal samples were 94.8%/100% and 69.6%/100%, respectively. Sputum testing had the highest sensitivity, followed by nasopharyngeal testing (P = 0.0193); self-collected saliva samples yielded better characteristics than oropharyngeal samples (P = 0.0032). Our results suggest that iNP RT-qPCR has better sensitivity and specificity than RT-PCR with WHO (P < 0.0001) or CDC (N1: P = 0.0012, N2: P = 0.0013, N3: P = 0.0012) primers. Sputum RT-qPCR analysis has the highest sensitivity, followed by nasopharyngeal, saliva, and oropharyngeal assays. Our study suggests that considerable improvement is needed for the RT-qPCR WHO and CDC primer sets for detecting SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE Numerous research campaigns have addressed the vast majority of clinical and diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of various primer sets of SARS-CoV2 viral detection. Despite the impressive progress made to resolve the pandemic, there is still a need for continuous and active improvement of primers used for diagnosis in clinical practice. Our study significantly exceeds the scale of previously published research on the specificity and sensitivity of different primers comparing with different specimens and is the most comprehensive to date in terms of constant monitoring of primer sets of current usage. Henceforth, our results suggest that sputum samples sensitivity is the highest, followed by nasopharyngeal, saliva, and oropharyngeal samples. The CDC recommends the use of oropharyngeal specimens, leading to certain discrepancy between the guidelines set forth by the CDC and IDSA. We proved that the oropharyngeal samples demonstrated the lowest sensitivity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/virology , Viral Load , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263341, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690730

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for the successful control of the current global COVID-19 pandemic. The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) is the most widely used detection technique. This research describes the development of two novel multiplex real-time RT-PCR kits, AccuPower® COVID-19 Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR Kit (NCVM) specifically designed for use with the ExiStation™48 system (comprised of ExiPrep™48 Dx and Exicycler™96 by BIONEER, Korea) for sample RNA extraction and PCR detection, and AccuPower® SARS-CoV-2 Multiplex Real-Time RT-PCR Kit (SCVM) designed to be compatible with manufacturers' on-market PCR instruments. The limit of detection (LoD) of NCVM was 120 copies/mL and the LoD of the SCVM was 2 copies/µL for both the Pan-sarbecovirus gene and the SARS-CoV-2 gene. The AccuPower® kits demonstrated high precision with no cross reactivity to other respiratory-related microorganisms. The clinical performance of AccuPower® kits was evaluated using the following clinical samples: sputum and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab (NPS/OPS) samples. Overall agreement of the AccuPower® kits with a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved emergency use authorized commercial kit (STANDARD™ M nCoV Real-Time Detection kit, SD BIOSENSOR, Korea) was above 95% (Cohen's kappa coefficient ≥ 0.95), with a sensitivity of over 95%. The NPS/OPS specimen pooling experiment was conducted to verify the usability of AccuPower® kits on pooled samples and the results showed greater than 90% agreement with individual NPS/OPS samples. The clinical performance of AccuPower® kits with saliva samples was also compared with NPS/OPS samples and demonstrated over 95% agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficient > 0.95). This study shows the BIONEER NCVM and SCVM assays are comparable with the current standard confirmation assay and are suitable for effective clinical management and control of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Sputum/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Limit of Detection , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Virus Res ; 310: 198673, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635564

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of COVID-19 in domestic cats, focusing on the disease in the northwest of Iran and then showing the natural transmission of SARS-COV-2 circulating between domestic cats and humans. After receiving ethic codes from Tehran University of Medical Sciences (IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1399.303) and confirmed by the Center of Communicable Diseases Control (CDC) of Iran, 124 domestic cats were collected from the homes and only one hospital of Meshkin -Shahr district from northwestern Iran where SARS-CoV-2 patients were hospitalized and quarantined during 2020. Samples were prepared from fluid materials of oropharynx and nasopharynx. All samples were tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) using specific genes N and ORF1ab in Pasteur Institute of Iran, and then partial sequence analyses of S gene were performed. All collected cats were kept in separated cages until SARS-COV-2 infection was confirmed with the RT-PCR. RT- PCR Ct values of 123 collected cats were ≥40; thus, all of them showed negative results, but one of the collected cats with close contact with its owner, whom confirmed SARS-CoV-2 showed positive results with gene N(Ct=30) and gene ORF1ab (Ct=32). Furthermore, the positive pet cat showed respiratory and gastro-intestinal clinical manifestations, and its owner was infected with SARS-CoV-2 two weeks ago. Cats are susceptible animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epidemiological evidence showed that SARS-COV-2 is able to transmit to healthy cats due to having close contact with its owner as a reverse zoonosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cats , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats/virology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Pets/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 331: 111168, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616494

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in dead bodies is essential to prevent infection among those working with dead bodies. This study focused on the Smart Amplification (SmartAmp) method, which has a short examination time (approximately an hour), is simple to perform, and demonstrates high specificity and sensitivity. This method has already been used for clinical specimens; however, its effectiveness in dead bodies has not been reported. This study examined the SmartAmp method using 11 autopsies or postmortem needle biopsies performed from January to May, 2021 (of these, five cases tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and six cases tested negative). Swab samples were collected from the nasopharynx, oropharynx, or anus and the SmartAmp and qRT-PCR results were compared. For the nasopharynx and oropharynx samples, the same results were obtained for both methods in all cases; however, for the anal swabs, there was one case that was positive according to qRT-PCR but negative according to the SmartAmp method. The SmartAmp method may therefore be less sensitive than qRT-PCR and results may differ in specimens with a low viral load, such as anal swabs. However, in the nasopharynx and oropharynx specimens, which are normally used for testing, the results were the same using each method, suggesting that the SmartAmp method is useful in dead bodies. In the future, the SmartAmp method may be applied not only during autopsies, but also in various situations where dead bodies are handled.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , SARS-CoV-2 , Anal Canal/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(2): 115591, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596631

ABSTRACT

Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in resource-poor settings remains a considerable challenge. Gold standard nucleic acid tests are expensive and depend on availability of expensive equipment and highly trained laboratory staff. More affordable and easier rapid antigen tests are an attractive alternative. This study assessed field performance of such a test in western Kenya. We conducted a prospective multi-facility field evaluation study of NowCheck COVID-19 Ag-RDT compared to gold standard PCR. Two pairs of oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for comparative analysis. With 997 enrolled participants the Ag-RDT had a sensitivity 71.5% (63.2-78.6) and specificity of 97.5% (96.2-98.5) at cycle threshold value <40. Highest sensitivity of 87.7% (77.2-94.5) was observed in samples with cycle threshold values ≤30. NowCheck COVID-19 Ag-RDT performed well at multiple healthcare facilities in an African field setting. Operational specificity and sensitivity were close to WHO-recommended thresholds.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Kenya , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Testing , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Med Princ Pract ; 31(1): 93-97, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and estimate viral shedding duration in respiratory specimens. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed from February 25 to March 25, 2020. In Kuwait, all suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, contacts of cases, and returning travelers were systematically tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. All infected persons, regardless of symptoms, were hospitalized and serially tested until they had two negative results. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Two hundred seven cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study. About half of the cases were asymptomatic and 1.9% died. The median time to negative RT-PCR was 22 days. Increasing age, ARDS, and low peripheral white blood cell count were associated with prolonged PCR positivity. CONCLUSION: Predictors for prolonged RT-PCR positivity included increasing age, ARDS, and low white blood cell count. The findings of this study may aid in better understanding of the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and molecular testing dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Lab Med ; 52(6): e154-e158, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the performance of an antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 677 patients. Two nasopharyngeal swabs and 1 oropharyngeal swab were collected from patients. The RDT was performed onsite by a commercially available immune-chromatographic assay on the nasopharyngeal swab. The nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were examined for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of the SARS-CoV-2 RDT was 34.5% and the specificity was 99.8%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the test were 96.6% and 91.5%, respectively. The detection rate of RDT in RT-qPCR positive results was high (45%) for cycle threshold values <25. CONCLUSION: The utility of RDT is in diagnosing symptomatic patients and may not be particularly suited as a screening tool for patients with low viral load. The low sensitivity of RDT does not qualify its use as a single test in patients who test negative; RT-qPCR continues to be the gold standard test.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation, Laboratory , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load/genetics
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6837-6840, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gargle samples have been proposed as a noninvasive method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The clinical performance of gargle specimens diluted in Cobas® PCR Media and in Cobas® Omni Lysis Reagent was compared to oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab (ONPS) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were recruited prospectively in two COVID-19 screening clinics. In addition to the ONPS, participants gargled with 5 ml of natural spring water split in the laboratory as follows: 1 ml was added to 4.3 ml of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) media and 400 µl was added to 200 µl of lysis buffer. Testing was performed with the Cobas® SARS-CoV-2 test on the Cobas® 6800 or 8800 platforms. RESULTS: Overall, 134/647 (20.7%) participants were considered infected because the ONPS or at least one gargle test was positive. ONPS had, respectively, a sensitivity of 96.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.3-98.5); both gargle processing methods were slightly less but equally sensitive (90.3% [95% CI: 83.9-94.3]). When ONPS and gargle specimens were both positive, the mean cycle threshold (Ct ) was significantly higher for gargles, suggesting lower viral loads. CONCLUSION: Gargle specimens directly added in PCR Media provide a similar clinical sensitivity to chemical lysis, both having a slightly, not significantly, lower sensitivity to ONPS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Load/genetics
10.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1261-1269, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New treatment modalities are urgently needed for patients with COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) Solidarity trial showed no effect of remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on mortality, but the antiviral effects of these drugs are not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of remdesivir and HCQ on all-cause, in-hospital mortality; the degree of respiratory failure and inflammation; and viral clearance in the oropharynx. DESIGN: NOR-Solidarity is an independent, add-on, randomized controlled trial to the WHO Solidarity trial that included biobanking and 3 months of clinical follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04321616). SETTING: 23 hospitals in Norway. PATIENTS: Eligible patients were adults hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTION: Between 28 March and 4 October 2020, a total of 185 patients were randomly assigned and 181 were included in the full analysis set. Patients received remdesivir (n = 42), HCQ (n = 52), or standard of care (SoC) (n = 87). MEASUREMENTS: In addition to the primary end point of WHO Solidarity, study-specific outcomes were viral clearance in oropharyngeal specimens, the degree of respiratory failure, and inflammatory variables. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between treatment groups in mortality during hospitalization. There was a marked decrease in SARS-CoV-2 load in the oropharynx during the first week overall, with similar decreases and 10-day viral loads among the remdesivir, HCQ, and SoC groups. Remdesivir and HCQ did not affect the degree of respiratory failure or inflammatory variables in plasma or serum. The lack of antiviral effect was not associated with symptom duration, level of viral load, degree of inflammation, or presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at hospital admittance. LIMITATION: The trial had no placebo group. CONCLUSION: Neither remdesivir nor HCQ affected viral clearance in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Clinical Therapy Research in the Specialist Health Services, Norway.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Oropharynx/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1830-1838, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elucidating the relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and clinical outcomes is critical for understanding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) of nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab specimens collected at baseline, and clinical outcomes were recorded over 60 days from 1362 COVID-19 hospitalized patients enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial of sarilumab for COVID-19 (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04315298). RESULTS: In post hoc analyses, higher baseline viral load, measured by both RT-qPCR cycle threshold and log10 copies/mL, was associated with greater supplemental oxygenation requirements and disease severity at study entry. Higher baseline viral load was associated with higher mortality, lower likelihood of improvement in clinical status and supplemental oxygenation requirements, and lower rates of hospital discharge. Viral load was not impacted by sarilumab treatment over time versus placebo. CONCLUSIONS: These data support viral load as an important determinant of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen or assisted ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Load , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e226, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537267

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread around the world. The pandemic overlapped with two consecutive influenza seasons (2019/2020 and 2020/2021). This provided the opportunity to study community circulation of influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in outpatients with acute respiratory infections during these two seasons within the Bavarian Influenza Sentinel (BIS) in Bavaria, Germany. From September to March, oropharyngeal swabs collected at BIS were analysed for influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In BIS 2019/2020, 1376 swabs were tested for influenza viruses. The average positive rate was 37.6%, with a maximum of over 60% (in January). The predominant influenza viruses were Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 202), Influenza A(H3N2) (n = 144) and Influenza B Victoria lineage (n = 129). In all, 610 of these BIS swabs contained sufficient material to retrospectively test for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable in any of these swabs. In BIS 2020/2021, 470 swabs were tested for influenza viruses and 457 for SARS-CoV-2. Only three swabs (0.6%) were positive for Influenza, while SARS-CoV-2 was found in 30 swabs (6.6%). We showed that no circulation of SARS-CoV-2 was detectable in BIS during the 2019/2020 influenza season, while virtually no influenza viruses were found in BIS 2020/2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , COVID-19/diagnosis , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Oropharynx/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22214, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517639

ABSTRACT

Rapid nucleic-acid based tests that can be performed by non-professionals outside laboratory settings could help the containment of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2 virus and may potentially prevent further widespread lockdowns. Here, we present a novel compact portable detection instrument (the Egoo Health System) for extraction-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 using isothermal reverse transcription strand invasion based amplification (RT-SIBA). The SARS-CoV-2 RT-SIBA assay can be performed directly on crude oropharyngeal swabs without nucleic acid extraction with a reaction time of 30 min. The Egoo Health system uses a capsule system, which is automatically sealed tight in the Egoo instrument after applying the sample, resulting in a closed system optimal for molecular isothermal amplification. The performance of the Egoo Health System is comparable to the PCR instrument with an analytical sensitivity of 25 viral RNA copies per SARS-CoV-2 RT-SIBA reaction and a clinical sensitivity and specificity between 87.0-98.4% and 96.6-98.2% respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Design , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cell Phone , Humans , Mobile Applications , Oropharynx/virology , Point-of-Care Testing , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2090-2097, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479918

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread and threatens public health worldwide. The recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in patients after discharge from hospital signals a risk of transmission from such patients to the community and challenges the current discharge criteria of COVID-19 patients. A wide range of clinical specimens has been used to detect SARS-CoV-2. However, to date, a consensus has not been reached regarding the most appropriate specimens to use for viral RNA detection in assessing COVID-19 patients for discharge. An anal swab sample was proposed as the standard because of prolonged viral detection. In this retrospective longitudinal study of viral RNA detection in 60 confirmed COVID-19 patients, we used saliva, oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab (O/N swab) and anal swab procedures from admission to discharge. The conversion times of saliva and anal swab were longer than that of O/N swab. The conversion time of hyper sensitive-CRP was the shortest and correlated with that of CT scanning and viral detection. Some patients were found to be RNA-positive in saliva while RNA-negative in anal swab while the reverse was true in some other patients, which indicated that false negatives were inevitable if only the anal swab is used for evaluating suitability for discharge. These results indicated that double-checking for viral RNA using multiple and diverse specimens was essential, and saliva could be a candidate to supplement anal swabs to reduce false-negative results and facilitate pandemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Adult , Anal Canal/virology , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Patient Discharge , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1334-1340, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443280

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV2 can present from mild flu-like symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is multi-organ involvement; particularly, hematopoietic system can be associated with morphological changes in blood cells of COVID-19 patients. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a cohort of 50 COVID-19 patients, confirmed on RT-PCR with documented cycle threshold (Ct) value. Peripheral blood sample of these patients was collected and examined for complete blood counts (CBC) on automated haematological analyser as well as Leishman-stained blood smears to look for morphological changes in blood cells. Morphological changes were evaluated with reference to clinical severity and Ct value. Additionally, association between Ct value and clinical severity was also performed. Statistical tests were performed, and P value <.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of our study group was 42.16 ± 15.55 years, with male preponderance. Most commonly observed peripheral blood changes were hypolobation (P value = .002) and toxic granules (P value = .005) in neutrophils, atypical granules with nucleolar prominence in lymphocytes, cytoplasmic granulation with clumped nuclear chromatin in monocytes, giant platelets and thrombocytopenia and normocytic normochromic anaemia. CONCLUSION: No association was found between clinical severity and Ct value as well as peripheral blood morphological changes with Ct value. We conclude that examination of peripheral smear coupled with complete blood count (CBC) is only partially supportive of disease pathogenesis and to assess the viral load other parameters should be utilised instead of relying solely on Ct value.


Subject(s)
Blood Cells/ultrastructure , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Viremia/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/virology , Cell Shape , Cell Size , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytoplasmic Granules/ultrastructure , Female , Hematopoiesis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435609

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide and has become a global health problem. As a result, the demand for inputs for diagnostic tests rose dramatically, as did the cost. Countries with inadequate infrastructure experience difficulties in expanding their qPCR testing capacity. Therefore, the development of sensitive and specific alternative methods is essential. This study aimed to develop, standardize, optimize, and validate conventional RT-PCR targeting the N gene of SARS-CoV-2 in naso-oropharyngeal swab samples compared to qPCR. Using bioinformatics tools, specific primers were determined, with a product expected to be 519 bp. The reaction conditions were optimized using a commercial positive control, and the detection limit was determined to be 100 fragments. To validate conventional RT-PCR, we determined a representative sampling of 346 samples from patients with suspected infection whose diagnosis was made in parallel with qPCR. A sensitivity of 92.1% and specificity of 100% were verified, with an accuracy of 95.66% and correlation coefficient of 0.913. Under current Brazilian conditions, this method generates approximately 60% savings compared to qPCR costs. Conventional RT-PCR, validated herein, showed sufficient results for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and can be used as an alternative for epidemiological studies and interspecies correlations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nose/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Oropharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , DNA Primers/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods
17.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 335, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411927

ABSTRACT

A practical colorimetric assay was developed for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For this purpose, magnetic γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and used as a peroxidase-like mimic activity molecule. In the presence of γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the color change of H2O2 included 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine was monitored at the wavelength of 654 nm when spike protein interacted with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. This oxidation-reduction reaction was examined both spectroscopically and by using electrochemical techniques. The experimental parameters were optimized and the analytical characteristics investigated. The developed assay was applied to real SARS-CoV-2 samples, and very good results that were in accordance with the real time polymerase chain reaction were obtained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Benzidines/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Catalysis , Chromogenic Compounds/chemistry , Cysteine/chemistry , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Oxidation-Reduction , Peroxidase/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110436, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386311

ABSTRACT

Dental professionals work closely with patients and present an increased risk of person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the use of ultrasonic scalers, air-water syringes, and slow and high-speed handpieces, which are common in the dental office, generate spatter and aerosol. The use of preprocedural mouthrinses has been proposed to reduce the viral load in saliva and oropharyngeal tissues, thus decreasing viral load in dental aerosol. Although some mouthrinses demonstrates an antiviral effect, there is limited evidence about the clinical efficacy of any mouthrinse in the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 in the dental aerosol. We hypothesized that mouthrinses may reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the oropharynx and its fluids reducing viral load in dental aerosol. The potential use of mouthrinses is discussed, along with proposal of in vitro and clinical studies, in order to evaluate this hypothesis. If this hypothesis holds true, dental professionals and patients may benefit from the routine use of preprocedural mouthrinses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Models, Biological , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Aerosols , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dental Auxiliaries , Dentists , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saliva/virology
20.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(4): 115519, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370491

ABSTRACT

To improve laboratory safety we thermally treated naso-oropharyngeal samples before testing with the cobas SARS-CoV-2 assay. This study aimed to determine if thermal treatment significantly affects the qualitative detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the quantitative measurement of cobas SARS-CoV-2 ORF1a and E-gene target copy number using an in-house quantitative method. A collection of positive (n = 238) and negative samples (n = 196) was tested in parallel comparing thermal treatment (75 °C for 15 minutes) to room-temperature. There were no significant differences in the final qualitative outcomes for thermal treatment versus room-temperature (99.8% agreement) despite a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05) in target copy number following thermal treatment. The median ORF1a and E-gene reduction in target copy number was -0.07 (1.6%) and -0.22 (4.2%) log10 copies/mL respectively. The standard curves for both ORF1a and E-gene targets were highly linear (r2 = 0.99). Good correlation was observed for ORF1a (r2 = 0.96) and E-gene (r2 = 0.98) comparing thermal treatment to room-temperature control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Hot Temperature , Humans , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Virus Inactivation
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