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1.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(2): e21spe2, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1862369

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: This paper reviews the history of women scientists in the 'Western world', whilst highlighting the persistent socio-structural issues that have led to the hiding and masking of the participation of women in Science. Further, a reflection is made of the situation of Dentistry, specifically in the field of Orthodontics in Brazil. The difference between genders is discussed, with the intention to map the progress of women in management and leadership positions, in both the academic and professional fields. Description: In Brazil, within Dentistry and Orthodontics, despite being in a numerical majority, women are still underrepresented in the area of professional leadership. This is true for Research Groups and Research Productivity; an example being the relatively low authorship of publications in a Brazilian journal of Orthodontics. They are also underrepresented as lead presenters at professional meetings, whilst there are also few female Presidents of professional organizations and associations. Conclusion: Despite being in a numerical majority, it is also important that women act in a more co-ordinated and consistent manner to achieve greater representation in these areas. The necessary changes in the structure in order to achieve this are not only of women and for women, but they must also involve the whole of society so that leadership, rights and duties are equally distributed between the genders.


RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo objetivou resgatar a história de mulheres cientistas nos principais períodos históricos do mundo ocidental, para realçar a questão socioestrutural persistente que "invisibiliza" e mascara a participação das mulheres na Ciência. A partir disso, realizou-se uma reflexão sobre a situação da Odontologia, especificamente na área de Ortodontia no Brasil, no que tange à diferença de gêneros, com a finalidade de mapear a atuação das mulheres nos cargos de gestão e liderança nos âmbitos acadêmico e profissional. Descrição: No Brasil, na área de Odontologia e Ortodontia, apesar de serem maioria numérica, as mulheres ainda são minoria na liderança de Grupos de Pesquisa, Produtividade em Pesquisa, na autoria de artigos em um periódico nacional da área de Ortodontia, palestrantes de congressos e na presidência de Associações de Classe. Conclusão: Apesar de apresentar maioria numérica, é importante que as mulheres atuem de maneira mais consistente. As mudanças necessárias na estrutura não são apenas da mulher e para a mulher, mas devem envolver toda a sociedade para que direitos e deveres sejam distribuídos de forma igualitária entre os sexos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontics , Physicians, Women , Authorship , Brazil , Leadership
2.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 11(2): 116-126, 2021. ilus, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1498040

ABSTRACT

La continuidad de la formación del especialista de Ortodoncia, en tiempos de pandemia por la COVID-19, constituye todo un reto para los docentes. Por ello, este ensayo reflexiona y presenta, tomando como referencia el primer año de la mencionada especialidad (debido a su complejidad), la experiencia con la virtualización de la formación posgraduada durante este periodo en Santiago de Cuba. Durante esta experiencia, las alternativas que se han propuesto incluyen a las diferentes habilidades a desarrollar según formas de organización de la enseñanza, las cuales abarcan desde actividades (base de datos, foro, tarea), recursos virtuales (archivo, carpeta o tarea) hasta tipos de evaluación. En todas estas clases, a excepción de la Educación en el Trabajo, se implementó la modalidad de clase invertida. Finalmente, se consideró que esta modalidad se configuró como una alternativa para darle continuidad al proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje y favorecer la adquisición de habilidades de manera independiente y creadora.


Continuing the training of the Orthodontic specialist in times of a COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a challenge for teachers. For this reason, this essay reflects and presents, taking as a reference the first year of the aforementioned specialty (due to its complexity), the experience with the virtualization of postgraduate training during this period in Santiago de Cuba. During this experience, the alternatives that have been proposed include the different skills to be developed according to forms of teaching organization, which range from activities (database, forum, task), virtual resources (file, folder or task) to types of evaluation. In all these classes, with the exception of education at work, the inverted class modality was implemented. Finally, it was considered that this modality was configured as an alternative to give continuity to the teaching-learning process and favor the acquisition of skills in an independent and creative way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthodontics/education , COVID-19 , Teaching , Lecture , Education, Distance , Virtual Reality
3.
Br Dent J ; 231(8): 503-511, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479805

ABSTRACT

Introduction The Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCSEng) and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (RCPSG) offer the bi-collegiate Membership in Orthodontics (MOrth) examination, a summative assessment of specialist knowledge, skill and behaviour in orthodontics. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound global effect on almost every facet of normal life, including the conduct of face-to-face examinations. We highlight development, implementation and feedback for the bi-collegiate MOrth Part 2 examination delivered remotely to a cohort of candidates in September 2020 by RCSEng/RCPSG.Methods Two anonymised online surveys (Google Forms) were distributed via electronic mail following completion of the examination diet. Forty-two candidates were sent a survey covering four domains and comprising a total of 31 questions. The 20 examiners were sent a survey containing eight questions. In both surveys, free-text responses were also collected. A rating system was used to categorise responses. All survey responses were summarised in an online data collection sheet.Results The response rate was 78.5% (33/42) and 75% (15/20) for candidates and examiners, respectively. Overall, favourable responses in relation to all sections of the assessment were elicited from candidates with the majority (mean 79.8%; 75.8-81.9%) reporting that the online examination format worked well. Equally, favourable responses were reported by examiners. Notably, 80% of examiners felt that the online exam style did not affect the mark a candidate would receive, and 100% were confident that the marks the candidates received were a reflection of their ability and were not affected by the online delivery of the assessment.Conclusions The feedback from both candidates and examiners relating to an online remote assessment of the bi-collegiate MOrth Part 2 was generally positive. Based on the survey responses, this format of a high-stakes examination was acceptable to all stakeholders, and demonstrated a high level of perceived validity and reliability in terms of content.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthodontics , Educational Measurement , Feedback , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 161(2): e136-e146, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442223

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to characterize the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on predoctoral and postdoctoral orthodontic education. METHODS: Electronic surveys were distributed via e-mail to predoctoral orthodontic directors at accredited dental schools (n = 66), postgraduate orthodontic program directors at orthodontic programs (n = 73), and craniofacial orthodontic fellowship directors (n = 5) in the United States and Canada. RESULTS: The predoctoral orthodontic survey received a response rate of 38%, of the which 62% indicated significant curriculum modifications. However, orthodontic curriculum hours were largely unchanged because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the responding predoctoral orthodontic programs with graduate orthodontic programs in which dental students can gain clinical experience (n = 14), all but 2 reported not allowing or limiting observation or assisting opportunities. The postdoctoral orthodontic survey received a response rate of 39% and was affected by clinic modifications, including financial limitations, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing, decreased clinical hours, among other modifications. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic has had a measurable impact on orthodontic clinical education for the predoctoral and postdoctoral orthodontic programs evaluated. Overall, less patient care was delivered, potentially resulting in delayed treatment for patients and fewer training opportunities for learners, particularly for predoctoral dental students, whose clinical observation and assisting hours were limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthodontics , COVID-19 Testing , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Dental , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
5.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(6): 852-855, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382160
6.
J World Fed Orthod ; 10(3): 127-131, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to unprecedented challenges in the arts, sports, education, finance, and healthcare. The aim of this study was to compare demographic characteristics of new-patient visits for orthodontic treatment in the pandemic year (2020) versus previous years. METHODS: The retrospective study included patients who sought care at a tertiary orthodontic referral center between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2020. Clinical and demographic characteristics, including age, age group (child, young adult, adult), gender, and numbers of monthly and annual new-patient visits were compared between the pre-pandemic (2017-2020) and post-pandemic (2020) periods. The daily average numbers of appointments were compared for 2019 versus 2020. RESULTS: The average number of monthly new-patient visits was 240.69 ± 81.48 in the pre-pandemic period, as opposed to 113.75 ± 88.89 in the year 2020 (P < 0.001). The average number of monthly new-patient visits decreased by 48.3% in 2020 compared to 2019, while the average number of daily new-patient visits in 2020 decreased significantly in all months (P < 0.05), except for January (P = 0.613) compared to the monthly numbers from the previous year. No significant difference was found between the pre-pandemic period and 2020 with regard to gender (P = 0.410). In all years, the numbers of new-patient visits were higher for women, compared with men, and for children, compared with adults. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated a sharp decrease in the number of new-patient visits for orthodontic treatment in the pandemic year (2020) compared to previous years.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Orthodontics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
7.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e21ins3, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1288727

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: A pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization on 30th January 2020, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged, and led to standstill of Dentistry and Orthodontics. Description: The COVID-19 is a very multivariant disease. It affects in many different ways; the most reported symptoms resemble very much to that of a seasonal flu. Patients feel rising fever, dry cough and shortness of breath. There are two ways to handle them, the first being remotely guiding and helping them with aid of telecommunication, and second you can prepare the clinic by following all sanitization protocols and keep the clinic open only for such patients. Usage of Environment Protection agents, N95 masks, PPE kits and HEPA filters are some of the basic things to go about. Conclusion: With the non-stop change of scenario of the COVID-19, meticulous monitoring of the local situation and one eye on the latest instructions given by the WHO and Health ministry should be followed.


RESUMO Introdução: Uma pandemia foi declarada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde em 30 de janeiro de 2020. A doença do Coronavírus (COVID-19) surgiu, e levou à paralisação da Odontologia e da Ortodontia. Descrição: A COVID-19 é uma doença muito multivariante. Afeta de muitas formas diferentes; e seus sintomas mais relatados assemelham-se muito aos de uma gripe sazonal. Os doentes sentem febre crescente, tosse seca e falta de ar. Há duas maneiras de lidar com eles, sendo o primeiro guiar e ajudar os pacientes remotamente com a ajuda das telecomunicações; e segundo, preparar a clínica, seguindo todos os protocolos de sanitização e manter a clínica aberta apenas para esses pacientes. A utilização de agentes de proteção ambiental, máscaras N95, kits EPI e filtros HEPA são algumas das coisas básicas a serem feitas. Conclusão: Com a mudança contínua do cenário da COVID-19, deve-se seguir um acompanhamento meticuloso da situação local, observando as últimas instruções dadas pela OMS e pelo Ministério da Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthodontics , COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9954615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285105

ABSTRACT

The last decade (2010-2021) has witnessed the evolution of robotic applications in orthodontics. This review scopes and analyzes published orthodontic literature in eight different domains: (1) robotic dental assistants; (2) robotics in diagnosis and simulation of orthodontic problems; (3) robotics in orthodontic patient education, teaching, and training; (4) wire bending and customized appliance robotics; (5) nanorobots/microrobots for acceleration of tooth movement and for remote monitoring; (6) robotics in maxillofacial surgeries and implant placement; (7) automated aligner production robotics; and (8) TMD rehabilitative robotics. A total of 1,150 records were searched, of which 124 potentially relevant articles were retrieved in full. 87 studies met the selection criteria following screening and were included in the scoping review. The review found that studies pertaining to arch wire bending and customized appliance robots, simulative robots for diagnosis, and surgical robots have been important areas of research in the last decade (32%, 22%, and 16%). Rehabilitative robots and nanorobots are quite promising and have been considerably reported in the orthodontic literature (13%, 9%). On the other hand, assistive robots, automated aligner production robots, and patient robots need more scientific data to be gathered in the future (1%, 1%, and 6%). Technological readiness of different robotic applications in orthodontics was further assessed. The presented eight domains of robotic technologies were assigned to an estimated technological readiness level according to the information given in the publications. Wire bending robots, TMD robots, nanorobots, and aligner production robots have reached the highest levels of technological readiness: 9; diagnostic robots and patient robots reached level 7, whereas surgical robots and assistive robots reached lower levels of readiness: 4 and 3, respectively.


Subject(s)
Orthodontics/methods , Orthodontics/trends , Robotics/instrumentation , Robotics/trends , Stomatognathic System , Automation , Equipment Design , Forecasting , Humans , Orthodontic Wires , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Software
9.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(6): 709-710, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272283
10.
J Med Life ; 14(2): 205-209, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262736

ABSTRACT

During the first two months of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, Romania was in lockdown, and all dental practices were closed, so orthodontic patients had to postpone their check-ups for at least eight weeks. This led not only to a delayed end of treatment but also to accidents and complications. The present study tried to evaluate the orthodontic situation both from the patient's and orthodontist's point of view, so the patients were given a few questions to answer, and the orthodontist analyzed each treatment before and after the two-month lockdown and decided if it was mildly or severely affected by the absence of check-ups. The study group consisted of 105 patients evaluated by three orthodontists in the same private practice. Patients that have gotten worse after the lockdown or who had problems were included in the study. Also, all the patients were given a 7-question form in order to find out their opinion. After two months without check-ups, our orthodontists found that 9.52% got worse because of the lack of intermaxillary elastics, broken brackets, broken removable orthodontic appliances, and others. Most of the patients believe that their treatment was delayed by the Covid-19 pandemic, but none of the patients felt unsafe when visiting the clinic. The Covid-19 pandemic had severe effects on orthodontic treatments. Orthodontists noticed a delay for about one-third of their patients. However, from the patient's point of view, half believe that their treatment was negatively affected by the Covid-19 pandemic in different degrees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Orthodontics , Adolescent , Adult , Bruxism/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Male , Nail Biting , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259481

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade, medical education changed from traditional teaching methods to telematic and networking scholar and e-learning approach. The objective of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness and teachers/student's acceptability of e-learning applied to the field of orthodontics and paediatric dentistry. A database search of the literature was conducted on PubMed and Embase databases from January 2005 to May 2021. A total of 172 articles were identified by the electronic search, while a total of 32 papers were selected for qualitative analysis. Overall, 19 articles investigated the effectiveness of e-learning, and no difference of acceptability was reported between e-learning and traditional methods for a wide part of the articles selected. A total of 25 papers provided a satisfaction questionnaire for learners and all were positive in their attitude towards e-learning. The results showed that e-learning is an effective method of instruction, complementing the traditional teaching methods, and learners had a positive attitude and perception. The evidence of the present study reported a high level of acceptability and knowledge level of e-learning techniques, compared to frontal lecture methods, in the fields of orthodontics and paediatric dentistry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthodontics , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Dentistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
12.
Int Orthod ; 19(3): 329-345, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240529

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique challenges to orthodontic profession by adversely impacting provision of in-office orthodontic care due to prevailing uncertainty around risks pertaining to splatter and 'aerosol-generating procedures' (AGPs). This review aims to provide an insight into the prevailing and emerging evidence informing potential risks related to splatter and AGPs, and risk mitigation strategies employed for reducing the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from dental bioaerosols. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, LILACS, WHO COVID-19 databases and preprint databases were searched for eligible English language publications. Citation chasing was undertaken up until the review date of 4 January 2021. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment was undertaken independently in duplicate, or else by consultation with a third author. RESULTS: Following filter application and duplicates removed, a total of 13 articles assessing procedural mitigation measures were included. Seven included studies revealed overall low-risk of bias. The overall risk varied from unclear to high for rest of the studies, with the most concerning domains being blinding of the participants and the personnel and blinding of the outcome assessors. Accumulated consensual evidence points towards the use of dental suction devices with wide bore aspirating tips as effective procedural mitigation strategies. Variations in the literature can be observed concerning aerosol transmission associated with water spray use during debonding. Emerging direct evidence consistently supports adjunctive use of pre-procedural povidone-iodine mouthrinse to mitigate direct transmission risk in the orthodontic practice. CONCLUSIONS: A thorough risk assessment concerning AGPs and implementation of consistent and evidence-based procedural mitigation strategies may play an indispensable role in navigating optimal orthodontic practice through unforeseen similar pandemic threats. High-quality robust research focussing on more biologically relevant models of dental bioaerosols in orthodontic settings is warranted.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Orthodontics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 45(1): 48-53, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125542

ABSTRACT

Technology has transformed almost every aspect of our lives. Smartphones enable patients to request, receive, and transmit information irrespective of the time and place. The global pandemic has forced healthcare providers to employ technology to aid in 'flattening the curve. The Novel Coronavirus, which is responsible for COVID-19, is transmitted primarily through person-to-person contact but may also be spread through aerosol generating procedures, so many clinics have severely limited interpersonal interactions. The purpose of this article is to provide helpful information for those orthodontists considering some form of remote practice. Various HIPAA-compliant telecommunication or teledentistry systems that can be used for orthodontic treatment are introduced and discussed. Detailed information about each platform that can potentially be used for orthodontics is provided in Figure 1. The authors do not endorse any of the products listed and the included software is not all inclusive but instead is a glimpse into the options available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthodontics , Dental Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(5): e411-e422, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103655

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the introduction of direct to consumer orthodontic (DTCO) products in the last decade, these products have been increasing in popularity among orthodontic patients. The purpose of the current article was to assess the populations' perception of DTCOs and to examine various factors that may influence their decision in choosing treatment with DTCO products. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in the United States. The 35-question survey was disseminated through Amazon Mechanical Turk (Amazon.com, Inc, Seattle, Wash), and participants were asked questions about their demographics, their perceptions of DTCOs, orthodontists, and factors that may influence their decision should they decide to pursue orthodontic treatment. Pearson's correlations were conducted to assess the association between various factors and the participants' likelihood to choose DTCO products. RESULTS: A total of 1441 subjects participated in the study. More than 83% of the participants have considered pursuing orthodontic treatment to some extent. Twenty-three percent reported that they would highly likely choose DTCO products. The majority of participants reported convenience to be the greatest benefit of DTCOs, followed by cost. The majority of responses seemed to favor DTCOs. Forty-seven percent reported that the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic did not affect their preference, whereas 26.6% reported to be more likely to pursue DTCOs because of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of participants seemed to perceive DTCOs as a viable alternative for seeking orthodontic care. Although participants had concerns about the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, results showed that the pandemic might not significantly affect the preferences. Orthodontists and their constituent organizations may consider more robust awareness and advocacy campaigns to educate the population about orthodontic treatment and the benefits of pursuing treatment with a trained orthodontist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthodontics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Orthodontists , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
15.
J World Fed Orthod ; 10(1): 9-13, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101206

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in technology, growing patient demand, and the need for social distancing due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 has expedited adoption of teledentistry in orthodontics as a means of consulting and monitoring a patient without an in-office visit. However, a lack of computer literacy and knowledge of software choices, and concerns regarding patient safety and potential infringement of regulations can make venturing into this new technology intimidating. In this article, various types of teledentistry systems for orthodontic practices, implementation guidelines, and important regulatory considerations on the use of teledentistry for orthodontic purposes are discussed. A thorough evaluation of the intended use of the software should precede commitment to a service. Selected service should be Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant at minimum and a Business Associate Agreement should be in place for protection of privacy. Ensuring the compatibility of the designated clinic computer with the system's requirements and installation of all safeguards must follow. Appointments should be documented in the same manner as in-office visits and teledentistry patients must be located within the clinician's statutory license boundary. Informed consent forms should include teledentistry or a supplemental teledentistry consent form should be used. Malpractice insurance covers everything usual and customary under the provider's license but the need for cyber liability insurance increases with teledentistry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Orthodontics , Telemedicine/methods , Artificial Intelligence , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Privacy/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
16.
J World Fed Orthod ; 9(4): 159-163, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a major public health issue; most dental clinics were closed and millions of orthodontic patients were unable to complete their treatment. This study aimed to assess the challenges faced by patients receiving orthodontic treatment and their preferred solutions to overcoming these challenges during this pandemic. METHODS: An online questionnaire was developed and sent to patients receiving orthodontic treatment at a public or private clinic. RESULTS: A total of 388 responses were analyzed: mean age 20.4 ± 4 years, 75% (291) female, and 58% (226) received their treatment at a public clinic. Of all participants, 27.3% (106) were still unable to attend their appointments and 69% (244) stated that closing of the clinic was the main reason for missing their appointments. Depending on their type of appliance, the patients faced different problems and chose multiple ways to deal with them. Most participants had fixed appliances, 84% (327), and only 21% (64) of them stated that they had no problem compared with 39% (11) and 36% (8) for removable appliance and clear aligner groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on orthodontic treatments. Almost every orthodontic patient had to stop attending their appointments, which put them in complicated situations and in fear of delayed treatment. Patients from a public clinic and patients with fixed appliances reported more problems than others. More attention should be giving to teleorthodontics; also orthodontists should prepare their patients to deal with some of the problems related to their appliances when possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Orthodontics , Appointments and Schedules , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Young Adult
17.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 158(1): 13-13.e1, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893422
18.
J World Fed Orthod ; 9(3S): S3-S14, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834331

ABSTRACT

The idea of a global orthodontic organization, the World Federation of Orthodontists (WFO), made up of national and regional orthodontic organizations, was realized in 1995 in San Francisco at the 4th International Orthodontic Congress that was held in conjunction with the 95th annual American Association of Orthodontists meeting. This umbrella organization strives to promote quality orthodontic care, practiced and delivered by orthodontic specialists in all parts of the world. In addition, it supports its member organizations with governing principles that promote appropriate membership criteria, qualified individual leadership participation, and long-term stability of the organization over time. In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, the WFO has responded proactively and plans to augment its digital resources even further in the near future. This article describes the formation of the organization, the idea that germinated through the first three international orthodontic congresses, its workflow and membership criteria, the accountability and commitment it has toward its affiliates and individual members, and its plans for future years to come.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Orthodontics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Societies, Dental/history , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Congresses as Topic/history , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , International Cooperation/history , Organizational Objectives , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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