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1.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0157821, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759290

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses a severe global threat to public health, as do influenza viruses and other coronaviruses. Here, we present chimpanzee adenovirus 68 (AdC68)-based vaccines designed to universally target coronaviruses and influenza. Our design is centered on an immunogen generated by fusing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) to the conserved stalk of H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA). Remarkably, the constructed vaccine effectively induced both SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibodies and anti-influenza antibodies in mice, consequently affording protection from lethal SARS-CoV-2 and H7N9 challenges as well as effective H3N2 control. We propose our AdC68-vectored coronavirus-influenza vaccine as a universal approach toward curbing respiratory virus-causing pandemics. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic exemplifies the severe public health threats of respiratory virus infection and influenza A viruses. The currently envisioned strategy for the prevention of respiratory virus-causing diseases requires the comprehensive administration of vaccines tailored for individual viruses. Here, we present an alternative strategy by designing chimpanzee adenovirus 68-based vaccines which target both the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-domain and the conserved stalk of influenza hemagglutinin. When tested in mice, this strategy attained potent neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants, enabling an effective protection against lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, it also provided complete protection from lethal H7N9 challenge and efficient control of H3N2-induced morbidity. Our study opens a new avenue to universally curb respiratory virus infection by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , /immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
J Virol ; 95(15): e0053021, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486507

ABSTRACT

Elicitation of lung tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRMs) is a goal of T cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, such as influenza A virus (IAV). C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2)-dependent monocyte trafficking plays an essential role in the establishment of CD8 TRMs in lungs of IAV-infected mice. Here, we used a combination adjuvant-based subunit vaccine strategy that evokes multifaceted (TC1/TC17/TH1/TH17) IAV nucleoprotein-specific lung TRMs to determine whether CCR2 and monocyte infiltration are essential for vaccine-induced TRM development and protective immunity to IAV in lungs. Following intranasal vaccination, neutrophils, monocytes, conventional dendritic cells (DCs), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells internalized and processed vaccine antigen in lungs. We found that basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 3 (BATF3)-dependent DCs were essential for eliciting T cell responses, but CCR2 deficiency enhanced the differentiation of CD127hi, KLRG-1lo, OX40+ve CD62L+ve, and mucosally imprinted CD69+ve CD103+ve effector and memory CD8 T cells in lungs and airways of vaccinated mice. Mechanistically, increased development of lung TRMs induced by CCR2 deficiency was linked to dampened expression of T-bet but not altered TCF-1 levels or T cell receptor signaling in CD8 T cells. T1/T17 functional programming, parenchymal localization of CD8/CD4 effector and memory T cells, recall T cell responses, and protective immunity to a lethal IAV infection were unaffected in CCR2-deficient mice. Taken together, we identified a negative regulatory role for CCR2 and monocyte trafficking in mucosal imprinting and differentiation of vaccine-induced TRMs. Mechanistic insights from this study may aid the development of T-cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, including IAV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). IMPORTANCE While antibody-based immunity to influenza A virus (IAV) is type and subtype specific, lung- and airway-resident memory T cells that recognize conserved epitopes in the internal viral proteins are known to provide heterosubtypic immunity. Hence, broadly protective IAV vaccines need to elicit robust T cell memory in the respiratory tract. We have developed a combination adjuvant-based IAV nucleoprotein vaccine that elicits strong CD4 and CD8 T cell memory in lungs and protects against H1N1 and H5N1 strains of IAV. In this study, we examined the mechanisms that control vaccine-induced protective memory T cells in the respiratory tract. We found that trafficking of monocytes into lungs might limit the development of antiviral lung-resident memory T cells following intranasal vaccination. These findings suggest that strategies that limit monocyte infiltration can potentiate vaccine-induced frontline T-cell immunity to respiratory viruses, such as IAV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunologic Memory , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Receptors, CCR2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Animals , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Lung/immunology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Receptors, CCR2/genetics
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8112783, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378089

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to participate in regulating many biological processes, including immune response to influenza A virus (IAV). However, the association between lncRNA expression profiles and influenza infection susceptibility has not been well elucidated. Here, we analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs among IAV-infected adult rat (IAR), normal adult rat (AR), IAV-infected junior rat (IJR), and normal junior rat (JR) by RNA sequencing. Compared with differently expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) between AR and IAR, 24 specific DElncRNAs were found between IJR and JR. Then, based on the fold changes and P value, the top 5 DElncRNAs, including 3 upregulated and 2 downregulated lncRNAs, were chosen to establish a ceRNA network for further disclosing their regulatory mechanisms. To visualize the differentially expressed genes in the ceRNA network, GO and KEGG pathway analysis was performed to further explore their roles in influenza infection of junior rats. The results showed that the downregulated DElncRNA-target genes were mostly enriched in the IL-17 signaling pathway. It indicated that the downregulated lncRNAs conferred the susceptibility of junior rats to IAV via mediating the IL-17 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , MicroRNAs/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
J Virol ; 95(14): e0011121, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358015

ABSTRACT

The current fears of a future influenza pandemic have resulted in an increased emphasis on the development and testing of novel therapeutic strategies against the virus. Fundamental to this is the ferret model of influenza infection, which is critical in examining pathogenesis and treatment. Nevertheless, a precise evaluation of the efficacy of any treatment strategy in ferrets is reliant on understanding the immune response in this model. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are interferon-stimulated proteins shown to be critically important in the host immune response against viral infections. These proteins confer intrinsic innate immunity to pH-dependent viruses such as influenza viruses and can inhibit cytosolic entry of such viruses to limit the severity of infection following interferon upregulation. Mutations in IFITM genes in humans have been identified as key risk factors for worsened disease progression, particularly in the case of avian influenza viruses such as H7N9. While the IFITM genes of humans and mice have been well characterized, no studies have been conducted to classify the IFITM locus and interferon-driven upregulation of IFITMs in ferrets. Here, we show the architecture of the ferret IFITM locus and its synteny to the IFITM locus of other mammalian and avian species. Furthermore, we show that ferret IFITM1, -2, and -3 are functionally responsive to both interferon-α (IFN-α) and influenza virus stimulation. Thus, we show that ferret IFITMs exhibit interferon-stimulated properties similar to those shown in other species, furthering our knowledge of the innate immune response in the ferret model of human influenza virus infections. IMPORTANCE IFITM proteins can prevent the entry of several pH-dependent viruses, including high-consequence viruses such as HIV, influenza viruses, and SARS-coronaviruses. Mutations in these genes have been associated with worsened disease outcomes with mutations in their IFITM genes, highlighting these genes as potential disease risk factors. Ferrets provide a valuable tool to model infectious diseases; however, there is a critical shortage of information regarding their interferon-stimulated genes. We identified the putative ferret IFITM genes and mapped their complete gene locus. Thus, our study fills a critical gap in knowledge and supports the further use of the ferret model to explore the importance of IFITMs in these important diseases.


Subject(s)
Ferrets , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Conserved Sequence , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets/immunology , Ferrets/metabolism , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Up-Regulation
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009759, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329138

ABSTRACT

The host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection provide insights into both viral pathogenesis and patient management. The host-encoded microRNA (miRNA) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, remains poorly defined. Here we profiled circulating miRNAs from ten COVID-19 patients sampled longitudinally and ten age and gender matched healthy donors. We observed 55 miRNAs that were altered in COVID-19 patients during early-stage disease, with the inflammatory miR-31-5p the most strongly upregulated. Supervised machine learning analysis revealed that a three-miRNA signature (miR-423-5p, miR-23a-3p and miR-195-5p) independently classified COVID-19 cases with an accuracy of 99.9%. In a ferret COVID-19 model, the three-miRNA signature again detected SARS-CoV-2 infection with 99.7% accuracy, and distinguished SARS-CoV-2 infection from influenza A (H1N1) infection and healthy controls with 95% accuracy. Distinct miRNA profiles were also observed in COVID-19 patients requiring oxygenation. This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust host miRNA response that could improve COVID-19 detection and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets , Gene Expression , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Longitudinal Studies , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Pandemics , Supervised Machine Learning
6.
J Virol ; 95(14): e0011121, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287245

ABSTRACT

The current fears of a future influenza pandemic have resulted in an increased emphasis on the development and testing of novel therapeutic strategies against the virus. Fundamental to this is the ferret model of influenza infection, which is critical in examining pathogenesis and treatment. Nevertheless, a precise evaluation of the efficacy of any treatment strategy in ferrets is reliant on understanding the immune response in this model. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are interferon-stimulated proteins shown to be critically important in the host immune response against viral infections. These proteins confer intrinsic innate immunity to pH-dependent viruses such as influenza viruses and can inhibit cytosolic entry of such viruses to limit the severity of infection following interferon upregulation. Mutations in IFITM genes in humans have been identified as key risk factors for worsened disease progression, particularly in the case of avian influenza viruses such as H7N9. While the IFITM genes of humans and mice have been well characterized, no studies have been conducted to classify the IFITM locus and interferon-driven upregulation of IFITMs in ferrets. Here, we show the architecture of the ferret IFITM locus and its synteny to the IFITM locus of other mammalian and avian species. Furthermore, we show that ferret IFITM1, -2, and -3 are functionally responsive to both interferon-α (IFN-α) and influenza virus stimulation. Thus, we show that ferret IFITMs exhibit interferon-stimulated properties similar to those shown in other species, furthering our knowledge of the innate immune response in the ferret model of human influenza virus infections. IMPORTANCE IFITM proteins can prevent the entry of several pH-dependent viruses, including high-consequence viruses such as HIV, influenza viruses, and SARS-coronaviruses. Mutations in these genes have been associated with worsened disease outcomes with mutations in their IFITM genes, highlighting these genes as potential disease risk factors. Ferrets provide a valuable tool to model infectious diseases; however, there is a critical shortage of information regarding their interferon-stimulated genes. We identified the putative ferret IFITM genes and mapped their complete gene locus. Thus, our study fills a critical gap in knowledge and supports the further use of the ferret model to explore the importance of IFITMs in these important diseases.


Subject(s)
Ferrets , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Conserved Sequence , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets/immunology , Ferrets/metabolism , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Up-Regulation
7.
J Virol ; 95(15): e0053021, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218208

ABSTRACT

Elicitation of lung tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRMs) is a goal of T cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, such as influenza A virus (IAV). C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2)-dependent monocyte trafficking plays an essential role in the establishment of CD8 TRMs in lungs of IAV-infected mice. Here, we used a combination adjuvant-based subunit vaccine strategy that evokes multifaceted (TC1/TC17/TH1/TH17) IAV nucleoprotein-specific lung TRMs to determine whether CCR2 and monocyte infiltration are essential for vaccine-induced TRM development and protective immunity to IAV in lungs. Following intranasal vaccination, neutrophils, monocytes, conventional dendritic cells (DCs), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells internalized and processed vaccine antigen in lungs. We found that basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 3 (BATF3)-dependent DCs were essential for eliciting T cell responses, but CCR2 deficiency enhanced the differentiation of CD127hi, KLRG-1lo, OX40+ve CD62L+ve, and mucosally imprinted CD69+ve CD103+ve effector and memory CD8 T cells in lungs and airways of vaccinated mice. Mechanistically, increased development of lung TRMs induced by CCR2 deficiency was linked to dampened expression of T-bet but not altered TCF-1 levels or T cell receptor signaling in CD8 T cells. T1/T17 functional programming, parenchymal localization of CD8/CD4 effector and memory T cells, recall T cell responses, and protective immunity to a lethal IAV infection were unaffected in CCR2-deficient mice. Taken together, we identified a negative regulatory role for CCR2 and monocyte trafficking in mucosal imprinting and differentiation of vaccine-induced TRMs. Mechanistic insights from this study may aid the development of T-cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, including IAV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). IMPORTANCE While antibody-based immunity to influenza A virus (IAV) is type and subtype specific, lung- and airway-resident memory T cells that recognize conserved epitopes in the internal viral proteins are known to provide heterosubtypic immunity. Hence, broadly protective IAV vaccines need to elicit robust T cell memory in the respiratory tract. We have developed a combination adjuvant-based IAV nucleoprotein vaccine that elicits strong CD4 and CD8 T cell memory in lungs and protects against H1N1 and H5N1 strains of IAV. In this study, we examined the mechanisms that control vaccine-induced protective memory T cells in the respiratory tract. We found that trafficking of monocytes into lungs might limit the development of antiviral lung-resident memory T cells following intranasal vaccination. These findings suggest that strategies that limit monocyte infiltration can potentiate vaccine-induced frontline T-cell immunity to respiratory viruses, such as IAV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunologic Memory , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Receptors, CCR2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Animals , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Lung/immunology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Receptors, CCR2/genetics
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 556: 87-92, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173393

ABSTRACT

Virus-induced cytokine storm has been a devastating actuality in clinic. The abnormal production of type I interferon (IFN-1) and upregulation of multiple cytokines induced strong inflammation and thus lead to shock and organ failure. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif-containing 37 (TRIM37) regulates the ubiquitination of multiple proteins including TRAFs. RNA sequencing was performed to investigated the alteration of transcriptional profile of H1N1-infected patients. qRT-PCR assay was performed to investigate the RNA levels of certain genes. The group of immune cells was examined by the Flow cytometry analysis. H&E staining was applied to evaluate lung inflammation of WT and TRIM37-KO mice. ELISA assay was performed to demonstrate the alteration of multiple cytokines. The protein levels in NF-kB signaling was estimated by western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays were applied to demonstrate the direct interaction between TRIM37 and TRAF-6. The RNA level of TRIM37 decreased in CD11b+ cells of Flu-infected patients. Knockout of TRIM37 inhibited the immune responses of H1N1-infected mice. TRIM37 deficiency reduced the levels of virous proinflammatory cytokines in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). Mechanically, TRIM37 promoted the K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6. TRIM37 negatively regulated inflammatory responses induced by virus infection via promoting TRAF6 ubiquitination at K63.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Animals , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/chemistry , Tripartite Motif Proteins/deficiency , Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
9.
J Virol ; 95(9)2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102152

ABSTRACT

Current influenza vaccines, live attenuated or inactivated, do not protect against antigenically novel influenza A viruses (IAVs) of pandemic potential, which has driven interest in the development of universal influenza vaccines. Universal influenza vaccine candidates targeting highly conserved antigens of IAV nucleoprotein (NP) are promising as vaccines that induce T cell immunity, but concerns have been raised about the safety of inducing robust CD8 T cell responses in the lungs. Using a mouse model, we systematically evaluated effects of recombinant adenovirus vectors (rAd) expressing IAV NP (A/NP-rAd) or influenza B virus (IBV) NP (B/NP-rAd) on pulmonary inflammation and function after vaccination and following live IAV challenge. After A/NP-rAd or B/NP-rAd vaccination, female mice exhibited robust systemic and pulmonary vaccine-specific B cell and T cell responses and experienced no morbidity (e.g., body mass loss). Both in vivo pulmonary function testing and lung histopathology scoring revealed minimal adverse effects of intranasal rAd vaccination compared with unvaccinated mice. After IAV challenge, A/NP-rAd-vaccinated mice experienced significantly less morbidity, had lower pulmonary virus titers, and developed less pulmonary inflammation than unvaccinated or B/NP-rAd-vaccinated mice. Based on analysis of pulmonary physiology using detailed testing not previously applied to the question of T cell damage, mice protected by vaccination also had better lung function than controls. Results provide evidence that, in this model, adenoviral universal influenza vaccine does not damage pulmonary tissue. In addition, adaptive immunity, in particular, T cell immunity in the lungs, does not cause damage when restimulated but instead mitigates pulmonary damage following IAV infection.IMPORTANCE Respiratory viruses can emerge and spread rapidly before vaccines are available. It would be a tremendous advance to use vaccines that protect against whole categories of viruses, such as universal influenza vaccines, without the need to predict which virus will emerge. The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza virus provides a target conserved among strains and is a dominant T cell target. In animals, vaccination to NP generates powerful T cell immunity and long-lasting protection against diverse influenza strains. Concerns have been raised, but not evaluated experimentally, that potent local T cell responses might damage the lungs. We analyzed lung function in detail in the setting of such a vaccination. Despite CD8 T cell responses in the lungs, lungs were not damaged and functioned normally after vaccination alone and were protected upon subsequent infection. This precedent provides important support for vaccines based on T cell-mediated protection, currently being considered for both influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Genetic Vectors , Influenza B virus , Influenza Vaccines , Lung , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
10.
EMBO J ; 40(6): e105543, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084490

ABSTRACT

Influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) cause pandemic infections where cytokine storm syndrome and lung inflammation lead to high mortality. Given the high social and economic cost of respiratory viruses, there is an urgent need to understand how the airways defend against virus infection. Here we use mice lacking the WD and linker domains of ATG16L1 to demonstrate that ATG16L1-dependent targeting of LC3 to single-membrane, non-autophagosome compartments - referred to as non-canonical autophagy - protects mice from lethal IAV infection. Mice with systemic loss of non-canonical autophagy are exquisitely sensitive to low-pathogenicity IAV where extensive viral replication throughout the lungs, coupled with cytokine amplification mediated by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, leads to fulminant pneumonia, lung inflammation and high mortality. IAV was controlled within epithelial barriers where non-canonical autophagy reduced IAV fusion with endosomes and activation of interferon signalling. Conditional mouse models and ex vivo analysis showed that protection against IAV infection of lung was independent of phagocytes and other leucocytes. This establishes non-canonical autophagy in airway epithelial cells as a novel innate defence that restricts IAV infection and lethal inflammation at respiratory surfaces.


Subject(s)
Autophagy-Related Proteins/genetics , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Sequence Deletion , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Proteins/chemistry , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , Chick Embryo , Cytokines/metabolism , Dogs , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/mortality , Protein Domains , Virus Replication
11.
Cell Rep ; 31(3): 107549, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100496

ABSTRACT

Importin-α adaptor proteins orchestrate dynamic nuclear transport processes involved in cellular homeostasis. Here, we show that importin-α3, one of the main NF-κB transporters, is the most abundantly expressed classical nuclear transport factor in the mammalian respiratory tract. Importin-α3 promoter activity is regulated by TNF-α-induced NF-κB in a concentration-dependent manner. High-level TNF-α-inducing highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) isolated from fatal human cases harboring human-type polymerase signatures (PB2 627K, 701N) significantly downregulate importin-α3 mRNA expression in primary lung cells. Importin-α3 depletion is restored upon back-mutating the HPAIV polymerase into an avian-type signature (PB2 627E, 701D) that can no longer induce high TNF-α levels. Importin-α3-deficient mice show reduced NF-κB-activated antiviral gene expression and increased influenza lethality. Thus, importin-α3 plays a key role in antiviral immunity against influenza. Lifting the bottleneck in importin-α3 availability in the lung might provide a new strategy to combat respiratory virus infections.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , alpha Karyopherins/biosynthesis , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vero Cells , alpha Karyopherins/genetics , alpha Karyopherins/immunology
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