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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of COVID-19 pandemic in Catalonia (Spain), the present study analyses respiratory samples collected by the primary care network using Acute Respiratory Infections Sentinel Surveillance System (PIDIRAC) during the 2019-2020 season to complement the pandemic surveillance system in place to detect SARS-CoV-2. The aim of the study is to describe whether SARS-CoV-2 was circulating before the first confirmed case was detected in Catalonia, on February 25th, 2020. METHODS: The study sample was made up of all samples collected by the PIDIRAC primary care network as part of the Influenza and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) surveillance system activities. The study on respiratory virus included coronavirus using multiple RT-PCR assays. All positive samples for human coronavirus were subsequently typed for HKU1, OC43, NL63, 229E. Every respiratory sample was frozen at-80°C and retrospectively studied for SARS-CoV-2 detection. A descriptive study was performed, analysing significant differences among variables related to SARS-CoV- 2 cases comparing with rest of coronaviruses cases through a bivariate study with Chi-squared test and statistical significance at 95%. RESULTS: Between October 2019 and April 2020, 878 respiratory samples from patients with acute respiratory infection or influenza syndrome obtained by PIDIRAC were analysed. 51.9% tested positive for influenza virus, 48.1% for other respiratory viruses. SARS-CoV-2 was present in 6 samples. The first positive SARS-CoV-2 case had symptom onset on 2 March 2020. These 6 cases were 3 men and 3 women, aged between 25 and 50 years old. 67% had risk factors, none had previous travel history nor presented viral coinfection. All of them recovered favourably. CONCLUSION: Sentinel Surveillance PIDIRAC enhances global epidemiological surveillance by allowing confirmation of viral circulation and describes the epidemiology of generalized community respiratory viruses' transmission in Catalonia. The system can provide an alert signal when identification of a virus is not achieved in order to take adequate preparedness measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Surveillance , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e226, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537267

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread around the world. The pandemic overlapped with two consecutive influenza seasons (2019/2020 and 2020/2021). This provided the opportunity to study community circulation of influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in outpatients with acute respiratory infections during these two seasons within the Bavarian Influenza Sentinel (BIS) in Bavaria, Germany. From September to March, oropharyngeal swabs collected at BIS were analysed for influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In BIS 2019/2020, 1376 swabs were tested for influenza viruses. The average positive rate was 37.6%, with a maximum of over 60% (in January). The predominant influenza viruses were Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 202), Influenza A(H3N2) (n = 144) and Influenza B Victoria lineage (n = 129). In all, 610 of these BIS swabs contained sufficient material to retrospectively test for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable in any of these swabs. In BIS 2020/2021, 470 swabs were tested for influenza viruses and 457 for SARS-CoV-2. Only three swabs (0.6%) were positive for Influenza, while SARS-CoV-2 was found in 30 swabs (6.6%). We showed that no circulation of SARS-CoV-2 was detectable in BIS during the 2019/2020 influenza season, while virtually no influenza viruses were found in BIS 2020/2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , COVID-19/diagnosis , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Oropharynx/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons
3.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(5): 573-576, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218118

ABSTRACT

The world has experienced five pandemics in just over one hundred years, four due to influenza and one due to coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). In each case of pandemic influenza, the pandemic influenza strain has replaced the previous seasonal influenza virus. Notably, throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been a 99% reduction in influenza isolation globally. It is anticipated that influenza will re-emerge following the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and circulate again. The potential for which influenza viruses will emerge is examined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Pandemics
4.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(2): 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105918

ABSTRACT

This review provides results obtained by scientists from different countries on the antiviral activity of medicinal mushrooms against influenza viruses that can cause pandemics. Currently, the search for antiviral compounds is relevant in connection with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Medicinal mushrooms contain biologically active compounds (polysaccharides, proteins, terpenes, melanins, etc.) that exhibit an antiviral effect. The authors present the work carried out at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector in Russia, whose mission is to protect the population from biological threats. The research center possesses a collection of numerous pathogenic viruses, which allowed screening of water extracts, polysaccharides, and melanins from fruit bodies and fungal cultures. The results of investigations on different subtypes of influenza virus are presented, and special attention is paid to Inonotus obliquus (chaga mushroom). Compounds produced from this mushroom are characterized by the widest range of antiviral activity. Comparative data are presented on the antiviral activity of melanin from natural I. obliquus and submerged biomass of an effective strain isolated in culture against the pandemic strain of influenza virus A/California/07/09 (H1N1 pdm09).


Subject(s)
Agaricales/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Factors/pharmacology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Biological Factors/isolation & purification , Humans , Inonotus/chemistry , Melanins/isolation & purification , Melanins/pharmacology , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3209, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065951

ABSTRACT

Viral co-infections occur in COVID-19 patients, potentially impacting disease progression and severity. However, there is currently no dedicated method to identify viral co-infections in patient RNA-seq data. We developed PACIFIC, a deep-learning algorithm that accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other common RNA respiratory viruses from RNA-seq data. Using in silico data, PACIFIC recovers the presence and relative concentrations of viruses with > 99% precision and recall. PACIFIC accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections in 63 independent in vitro cell culture and patient datasets. PACIFIC is an end-to-end tool that enables the systematic monitoring of viral infections in the current global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Deep Learning , RNA Virus Infections/diagnosis , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/virology , Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Humans , Metapneumovirus/classification , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Neural Networks, Computer , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA Virus Infections/virology , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA-Seq , Rhinovirus/classification , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(2): 227-234, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-based studies of influenza and other respiratory viruses (eg, SARS-CoV-2) require laboratory confirmation of infection. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing guidelines require alternative data collection in order to protect both research staff and participants. Home-collected respiratory specimens are less resource-intensive, can be collected earlier after symptom onset, and provide a low-contact means of data collection. A prospective, multi-year, community-based cohort study is an ideal setting to examine the utility of home-collected specimens for identification of influenza. METHODS: We describe the feasibility and reliability of home-collected specimens for the detection of influenza. We collected data and specimens between October 2014 and June 2017 from the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) Study. Cohort participants were asked to collect a nasal swab at home upon onset of acute respiratory illness. Research staff also collected nose and throat swab specimens in the study clinic within 7 days of onset. We estimated agreement using Cohen's kappa and calculated sensitivity and specificity of home-collected compared to staff-collected specimens. RESULTS: We tested 336 paired staff- and home-collected respiratory specimens for influenza by RT-PCR; 150 staff-collected specimens were positive for influenza A/H3N2, 23 for influenza A/H1N1, 14 for influenza B/Victoria, and 31 for influenza B/Yamagata. We found moderate agreement between collection methods for influenza A/H3N2 (0.70) and B/Yamagata (0.69) and high agreement for influenza A/H1N1 (0.87) and B/Victoria (0.86). Sensitivity ranged from 78% to 86% for all influenza types and subtypes. Specificity was high for influenza A/H1N1 and both influenza B lineages with a range from 96% to 100%, and slightly lower for A/H3N2 infections (88%). CONCLUSIONS: Collection of nasal swab specimens at home is both feasible and reliable for identification of influenza virus infections.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Nasal Cavity/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Genomics ; 113(1 Pt 2): 778-784, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867194

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic became a major risk in global public health. The outbreak is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a member of the coronavirus family. Though the images of the virus are familiar to us, in the present study, an attempt is made to hear the coronavirus by translating its protein spike into audio sequences. The musical features such as pitch, timbre, volume and duration are mapped based on the coronavirus protein sequence. Three different viruses Influenza, Ebola and Coronavirus were studied and compared through their auditory virus sequences by implementing Haar wavelet transform. The sonification of the coronavirus benefits in understanding the protein structures by enhancing the hidden features. Further, it makes a clear difference in the representation of coronavirus compared with other viruses, which will help in various research works related to virus sequence. This evolves as a simplified and novel way of representing the conventional computational methods.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Music , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wavelet Analysis , Amino Acid Sequence , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Ebolavirus/classification , Ebolavirus/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/classification , SARS Virus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
9.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104470, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478301

ABSTRACT

In Italy, the first SARS-CoV-2 infections were diagnosed in Rome, Lazio region, at the end of January 2020, but sustained transmission occurred later, since the end of February. From 1 February to 12 April 2020, 17,164 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested by real time PCR for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of Virology of National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani" (INMI) in Rome. In the same period, coincident with the winter peak of influenza and other respiratory illnesses, 847 samples were analyzed by multiplex PCR assay for the presence of common respiratory pathogens. In our study the time trend of SARS-CoV-2 and that of other respiratory pathogens in the same observation period were analysed. Overall, results obtained suggest that the spread of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2 virus did not substantially affect the time trend of other respiratory infections in our region, highlighting no significant difference in rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with or without other respiratory pathogens. Therefore, in the present scenario of COVID-19 pandemic, differential diagnosis resulting positive for common respiratory pathogen(s) should not exclude testing of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Rome/epidemiology
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