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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010106, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598647

ABSTRACT

The development of safe and effective vaccines in a record time after the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a remarkable achievement, partly based on the experience gained from multiple viral outbreaks in the past decades. However, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis also revealed weaknesses in the global pandemic response and large gaps that remain in our knowledge of the biology of coronaviruses (CoVs) and influenza viruses, the 2 major respiratory viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we review current knowns and unknowns of influenza viruses and CoVs, and we highlight common research challenges they pose in 3 areas: the mechanisms of viral emergence and adaptation to humans, the physiological and molecular determinants of disease severity, and the development of control strategies. We outline multidisciplinary approaches and technological innovations that need to be harnessed in order to improve preparedeness to the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Drug Development , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Influenza, Human/therapy , Influenza, Human/transmission , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selection, Genetic , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590034

ABSTRACT

Disease tolerance has emerged as an alternative way, in addition to host resistance, to survive viral-bacterial co-infections. Disease tolerance plays an important role not in reducing pathogen burden, but in maintaining tissue integrity and controlling organ damage. A common co-infection is the synergy observed between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae that results in superinfection and lethality. Several host cytokines and cells have shown promise in promoting tissue protection and damage control while others induce severe immunopathology leading to high levels of morbidity and mortality. The focus of this review is to describe the host cytokines and innate immune cells that mediate disease tolerance and lead to a return to host homeostasis and ultimately, survival during viral-bacterial co-infection.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Influenza, Human/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Pneumococcal Infections/immunology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Coinfection , Cytokines/immunology , Homeostasis , Humans , Influenza, Human/microbiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Superinfection
3.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2234, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574124

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic is the most serious event of the year 2020, causing considerable global morbidity and mortality. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of reported associations between inter-individual immunogenic variants and disease susceptibility or symptoms caused by the coronavirus strains severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2, and two of the main respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. The results suggest that the genetic background of the host could affect the levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and might modulate the progression of Covid-19 in affected patients. Notably, genetic variations in innate immune components such as toll-like receptors and mannose-binding lectin 2 play critical roles in the ability of the immune system to recognize coronavirus and initiate an early immune response to clear the virus and prevent the development of severe symptoms. This review provides promising clues related to the potential benefits of using immunotherapy and immune modulation for respiratory infectious disease treatment in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Influenza, Human/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 765528, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555219

ABSTRACT

Influenza vaccination is an effective public health measure to reduce the risk of influenza illness, particularly when the vaccine is well matched to circulating strains. Notwithstanding, the efficacy of influenza vaccination varies greatly among vaccinees due to largely unknown immunological determinants, thereby dampening population-wide protection. Here, we report that dietary fibre may play a significant role in humoral vaccine responses. We found dietary fibre intake and the abundance of fibre-fermenting intestinal bacteria to be positively correlated with humoral influenza vaccine-specific immune responses in human vaccinees, albeit without reaching statistical significance. Importantly, this correlation was largely driven by first-time vaccinees; prior influenza vaccination negatively correlated with vaccine immunogenicity. In support of these observations, dietary fibre consumption significantly enhanced humoral influenza vaccine responses in mice, where the effect was mechanistically linked to short-chain fatty acids, the bacterial fermentation product of dietary fibre. Overall, these findings may bear significant importance for emerging infectious agents, such as COVID-19, and associated de novo vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Dietary Fiber/pharmacology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Dietary Fiber/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/pharmacology , Female , Fermentation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza, Human/microbiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Seasons , Vaccination , Young Adult
5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(12): 1537-1544, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab is frequently applied in the treatment of lymphoma as well as autoimmune diseases and confers efficient depletion of recirculating B cells. Correspondingly, B cell-depleted patients barely mount de novo antibody responses during infections or vaccinations. Therefore, efficient immune responses of B cell-depleted patients largely depend on protective T cell responses. METHODS: CD8+ T cell expansion was studied in rituximab-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and B cell-deficient mice on vaccination/infection with different vaccines/pathogens. RESULTS: Rituximab-treated RA patients vaccinated with Influvac showed reduced expansion of influenza-specific CD8+ T cells when compared with healthy controls. Moreover, B cell-deficient JHT mice infected with mouse-adapted Influenza or modified vaccinia virus Ankara showed less vigorous expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells than wild type mice. Of note, JHT mice do not have an intrinsic impairment of CD8+ T cell expansion, since infection with vaccinia virus induced similar T cell expansion in JHT and wild type mice. Direct type I interferon receptor signalling of B cells was necessary to induce several chemokines in B cells and to support T cell help by enhancing the expression of MHC-I. CONCLUSIONS: Depending on the stimulus, B cells can modulate CD8+ T cell responses. Thus, B cell depletion causes a deficiency of de novo antibody responses and affects the efficacy of cellular response including cytotoxic T cells. The choice of the appropriate vaccine to vaccinate B cell-depleted patients has to be re-evaluated in order to efficiently induce protective CD8+ T cell responses.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Rituximab/adverse effects , Animals , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Vaccinia/immunology , Vaccinia virus/immunology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 710647, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468340

ABSTRACT

The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against influenza viruses, which cause severe inflammation of the respiratory tract and are responsible for more than 650,000 deaths annually worldwide. mRNA vaccines are promising alternatives to traditional vaccine approaches due to their safe dosing, low-cost manufacturing, rapid development capability, and high efficacy. In this review, we provide our current understanding of the innate immune response that uses pattern recognition receptors to detect and respond to mRNA vaccination. We also provide an overview of mRNA vaccines, and discuss the future directions and challenges in advancing this promising therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/immunology , /immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/physiology , Vaccination
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e934949, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450987

ABSTRACT

There have been five viral pandemics in the past century, four were due to influenza, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a 99% global reduction in the diagnosis of influenza. Also, from 2020, global mortality rates from influenza fell to record levels during the influenza seasons in the southern and northern hemispheres. However, as social restrictions become lifted and the winter season begins in the northern hemisphere, it is expected that influenza will re-emerge. The World Health Organization (WHO) FluNet surveillance platform provides global surveillance data on influenza, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) records national weekly infection rates. Both surveillance programs have identified zoonotic avian and swine influenza variants in humans. The WHO Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework requires WHO Member States to share data on cases of emerging influenza viruses with pandemic potential in a regular and timely way. The WHO PIP Framework organizes the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), a global network of public health laboratories developing candidate virus vaccines. This Editorial aims to present the reasons for concern regarding the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses driven by the social and public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights the importance of global influenza surveillance at this time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Pandemics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(9): 1059-1063, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348017

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Development of the SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine and its update on an ongoing pandemic is the first subject of the world health agenda. AREAS COVERED: First, we will scrutinize the biological features of the measles virus (MV), variola virus (smallpox virus), influenza virus, and their vaccines to compare them with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and vaccine. Next, we will discuss the statistical details of measuring the effectiveness of an improved vaccine. EXPERT OPINION: Amidst the pandemic, we ought to acknowledge our prior experiences with respiratory viruses and vaccines. In the planning stage of observational Phase-III vaccine effectiveness studies, the sample size, sampling method, statistical model, and selection of variables are crucial in obtaining high-quality and valid results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Mass Vaccination/methods , Measles virus/immunology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Smallpox Vaccine/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Variola virus/immunology
9.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259626

ABSTRACT

Epithelial characteristics underlying the differential susceptibility of chronic asthma to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and other viral infections are currently unclear. By revisiting transcriptomic data from patients with Th2 low versus Th2 high asthma, as well as mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics, we characterized the changes in expression of human coronavirus and influenza viral entry genes relative to sex, airway location, and disease endotype. We found sexual dimorphism in the expression of SARS-CoV-2-related genes ACE2, TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, and SLC6A19. ACE2 receptor downregulation occurred specifically in females in Th2 high asthma, while proteases broadly assisting coronavirus and influenza viral entry, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4, were highly upregulated in both sexes. Overall, changes in SARS-CoV-2-related gene expression were specific to the Th2 high molecular endotype of asthma and different by asthma severity and airway location. The downregulation of ACE2 (COVID-19, SARS) and ANPEP (HCoV-229E) viral receptors wascorrelated with loss of club and ciliated cells in Th2 high asthma. Meanwhile, the increase in DPP4 (MERS-CoV), ST3GAL4, and ST6GAL1 (influenza) was associated with increased goblet and basal activated cells. Overall, this study elucidates sex, airway location, disease endotype, and changes in epithelial heterogeneity as potential factors underlying asthmatic susceptibility, or lack thereof, to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression , Host Microbial Interactions , Influenza, Human/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/virology , COVID-19/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Epithelial Cells/classification , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Characteristics
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575074, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256374

ABSTRACT

Combined cellular and humoral host immune response determine the clinical course of a viral infection and effectiveness of vaccination, but currently the cellular immune response cannot be measured on simple blood samples. As functional activity of immune cells is determined by coordinated activity of signaling pathways, we developed mRNA-based JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity assays to quantitatively measure the cellular immune response on Affymetrix expression microarray data of various types of blood samples from virally infected patients (influenza, RSV, dengue, yellow fever, rotavirus) or vaccinated individuals, and to determine vaccine immunogenicity. JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was increased in blood samples of patients with viral, but not bacterial, infection and was higher in influenza compared to RSV-infected patients, reflecting known differences in immunogenicity. High JAK-STAT3 pathway activity was associated with more severe RSV infection. In contrast to inactivated influenza virus vaccine, live yellow fever vaccine did induce JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity in blood samples, indicating superior immunogenicity. Normal (healthy) JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was established, enabling assay interpretation without the need for a reference sample. The JAK-STAT pathway assays enable measurement of cellular immune response for prognosis, therapy stratification, vaccine development, and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Diagnosis, Differential , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Rotavirus Infections/blood , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus Vaccines , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Yellow fever virus/pathogenicity
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066035

ABSTRACT

Vaccination yields the direct individual benefit of protecting recipients from infectious diseases and also the indirect social benefit of reducing the transmission of infections to others, often referred to as herd immunity This research examines how prosocial concern for vaccination, defined as people's preoccupation with infecting others if they do not vaccinate themselves, motivates vaccination in more and less populated regions of the United States. A nationally representative, longitudinal survey of 2,490 Americans showed that prosocial concern had a larger positive influence on vaccination against influenza in sparser regions, as judged by a region's nonmetropolitan status, lesser population density, and lower proportion of urban land area. Two experiments (total n = 800), one preregistered, provide causal evidence that drawing attention to prosocial (vs. individual) concerns interacted with social density to affect vaccination intentions. Specifically, prosocial concern led to stronger intentions to vaccinate against influenza and COVID-19 but only when social density was low (vs. high). Moderated mediation analyses show that, in low-density conditions, the benefits of inducing prosocial concern were due to greater perceived impact of one's vaccination on others. In this light, public health communications may reap more benefits from emphasizing the prosocial aspects of vaccination in sparser environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Population Density , Probability , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
12.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 429-438, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Claims of influenza vaccination increasing COVID-19 risk are circulating. Within the I-MOVE-COVID-19 primary care multicentre study, we measured the association between 2019-20 influenza vaccination and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre test-negative case-control study at primary care level, in study sites in five European countries, from March to August 2020. Patients presenting with acute respiratory infection were swabbed, with demographic, 2019-20 influenza vaccination and clinical information documented. Using logistic regression, we measured the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), adjusting for study site and age, sex, calendar time, presence of chronic conditions. The main analysis included patients swabbed ≤7 days after onset from the three countries with <15% of missing influenza vaccination. In secondary analyses, we included five countries, using multiple imputation with chained equations to account for missing data. RESULTS: We included 257 COVID-19 cases and 1631 controls in the main analysis (three countries). The overall aOR between influenza vaccination and COVID-19 was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.66-1.32). The aOR was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.58-1.46) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.51-1.67) among those aged 20-59 and ≥60 years, respectively. In secondary analyses, we included 6457 cases and 69 272 controls. The imputed aOR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79-0.95) among all ages and any delay between swab and symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that COVID-19 cases were more likely to be vaccinated against influenza than controls. Influenza vaccination should be encouraged among target groups for vaccination. I-MOVE-COVID-19 will continue documenting influenza vaccination status in 2020-21, in order to learn about effects of recent influenza vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Immunol ; 5(53)2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999190

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory viral infections, such as influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections, often cause severe viral pneumonia in aged individuals. Here, we report that influenza viral pneumonia leads to chronic nonresolving lung pathology and exacerbated accumulation of CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) in the respiratory tract of aged hosts. TRM cell accumulation relies on elevated TGF-ß present in aged tissues. Further, we show that TRM cells isolated from aged lungs lack a subpopulation characterized by expression of molecules involved in TCR signaling and effector function. Consequently, TRM cells from aged lungs were insufficient to provide heterologous protective immunity. The depletion of CD8+ TRM cells dampens persistent chronic lung inflammation and ameliorates tissue fibrosis in aged, but not young, animals. Collectively, our data demonstrate that age-associated TRM cell malfunction supports chronic lung inflammatory and fibrotic sequelae after viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lung/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998063

ABSTRACT

Vaccination yields the direct individual benefit of protecting recipients from infectious diseases and also the indirect social benefit of reducing the transmission of infections to others, often referred to as herd immunity This research examines how prosocial concern for vaccination, defined as people's preoccupation with infecting others if they do not vaccinate themselves, motivates vaccination in more and less populated regions of the United States. A nationally representative, longitudinal survey of 2,490 Americans showed that prosocial concern had a larger positive influence on vaccination against influenza in sparser regions, as judged by a region's nonmetropolitan status, lesser population density, and lower proportion of urban land area. Two experiments (total n = 800), one preregistered, provide causal evidence that drawing attention to prosocial (vs. individual) concerns interacted with social density to affect vaccination intentions. Specifically, prosocial concern led to stronger intentions to vaccinate against influenza and COVID-19 but only when social density was low (vs. high). Moderated mediation analyses show that, in low-density conditions, the benefits of inducing prosocial concern were due to greater perceived impact of one's vaccination on others. In this light, public health communications may reap more benefits from emphasizing the prosocial aspects of vaccination in sparser environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Population Density , Probability , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
15.
Vaccine ; 39(2): 255-262, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemic planning has historically been oriented to respond to an influenza virus, with vaccination strategy being a key focus. As the current COVID-19 pandemic plays out, the Australian government is closely monitoring progress towards development of SARS-CoV2 vaccines as a definitive intervention. However, as in any pandemic, initial supply will likely be exceeded by demand due to limited manufacturing output. METHODS: We convened community juries in three Australian locations in 2019 to assess public acceptability and perceived legitimacy of influenza pandemic vaccination distribution strategies. Preparatory work included literature reviews on pandemic vaccine allocation strategies and on vaccine allocation ethics, and simulation modelling studies. We assumed vaccine would be provided to predefined priority groups. Jurors were then asked to recommend one of two strategies for distributing remaining early doses of vaccine: directly vaccinate people at higher risk of adverse outcomes from influenza; or indirectly protect the general population by vaccinating primary school students, who are most likely to spread infection. RESULTS: Thirty-four participants of diverse backgrounds and ages were recruited through random digit dialling and topic-blinded social media advertising. Juries heard evidence and arguments supporting different vaccine distribution strategies, and questioned expert presenters. All three community juries supported prioritising school children for influenza vaccination (aiming for indirect protection), one by 10-2 majority and two by consensus. Justifications included that indirect protection benefits more people and is likely to be more publicly acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of an influenza pandemic, informed citizens were not opposed to prioritising groups at higher risks of adverse outcomes, but if resources and epidemiological conditions allow, achieving population benefits should be a strategic priority. These insights may inform future SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Influenza Vaccines/supply & distribution , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/ethics , Adolescent , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/economics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Public Health/economics , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 579480, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945659

ABSTRACT

While individuals infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifested a broad range in susceptibility and severity to the disease, the pre-existing immune memory to related pathogens cross-reactive against SARS-CoV-2 can influence the disease outcome in COVID-19. Here, we investigated the potential extent of T cell cross-reactivity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that can be conferred by other coronaviruses and influenza virus, and generated an in silico map of public and private CD8+ T cell epitopes between coronaviruses. We observed 794 predicted SARS-CoV-2 epitopes of which 52% were private and 48% were public. Ninety-nine percent of the public epitopes were shared with SARS-CoV and 5.4% were shared with either one of four common coronaviruses, 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43. Moreover, to assess the potential risk of self-reactivity and/or diminished T cell response for peptides identical or highly similar to the host, we identified predicted epitopes with high sequence similarity with human proteome. Lastly, we compared predicted epitopes from coronaviruses with epitopes from influenza virus deposited in IEDB, and found only a small number of peptides with limited potential for cross-reactivity between the two virus families. We believe our comprehensive in silico profile of private and public epitopes across coronaviruses would facilitate design of vaccines, and provide insights into the presence of pre-existing coronavirus-specific memory CD8+ T cells that may influence immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Computer Simulation , Databases, Factual , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology
17.
J Immunol ; 206(1): 37-50, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934539

ABSTRACT

There is a pressing need for an in-depth understanding of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we investigated human T cell recall responses to fully glycosylated spike trimer, recombinant N protein, as well as to S, N, M, and E peptide pools in the early convalescent phase and compared them with influenza-specific memory responses from the same donors. All subjects showed SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses to at least one Ag. Both SARS-CoV-2-specific and influenza-specific CD4+ T cell responses were predominantly of the central memory phenotype; however SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells exhibited a lower IFN-γ to TNF ratio compared with influenza-specific memory responses from the same donors, independent of disease severity. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were less multifunctional than influenza-specific T cells, particularly in severe cases, potentially suggesting exhaustion. Most SARS-CoV-2-convalescent subjects also produced IFN-γ in response to seasonal OC43 S protein. We observed granzyme B+/IFN-γ+, CD4+, and CD8+ proliferative responses to peptide pools in most individuals, with CD4+ T cell responses predominating over CD8+ T cell responses. Peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) responses to S or N strongly correlated with serum neutralization assays as well as receptor binding domain-specific IgA; however, the frequency of pTfh responses to SARS-CoV-2 was lower than the frequency of pTfh responses to influenza virus. Overall, T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 are robust; however, CD4+ Th1 responses predominate over CD8+ T cell responses, have a more inflammatory profile, and have a weaker pTfh response than the response to influenza virus within the same donors, potentially contributing to COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Nature ; 584(7821): 353-363, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643609

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease is a general concern for the development of vaccines and antibody therapies because the mechanisms that underlie antibody protection against any virus have a theoretical potential to amplify the infection or trigger harmful immunopathology. This possibility requires careful consideration at this critical point in the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we review observations relevant to the risks of ADE of disease, and their potential implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection. At present, there are no known clinical findings, immunological assays or biomarkers that can differentiate any severe viral infection from immune-enhanced disease, whether by measuring antibodies, T cells or intrinsic host responses. In vitro systems and animal models do not predict the risk of ADE of disease, in part because protective and potentially detrimental antibody-mediated mechanisms are the same and designing animal models depends on understanding how antiviral host responses may become harmful in humans. The implications of our lack of knowledge are twofold. First, comprehensive studies are urgently needed to define clinical correlates of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Second, because ADE of disease cannot be reliably predicted after either vaccination or treatment with antibodies-regardless of what virus is the causative agent-it will be essential to depend on careful analysis of safety in humans as immune interventions for COVID-19 move forward.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dengue Virus/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Pandemics , Rats , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology
19.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 98(4): 253-263, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601138

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in utilizing antibody fragment crystallizable (Fc) functions to prevent and control viral infections. The protective and therapeutic potential of Fc-mediated antibody functions have been assessed for some clinically important human viruses, including HIV, hemorrhagic fever viruses and influenza virus. There is mounting evidence that influenza-specific antibodies with Fc-mediated functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, can aid in the clearance of influenza virus infection. Recent influenza challenge studies and intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy studies in humans suggest a protective role for Fc effector functions in vivo. Broadly reactive influenza antibodies with Fc-mediated functions are prevalent in the human population and could inform the development of a universally protective influenza vaccine or therapy. In this review, we explore the utility of antibodies with Fc-mediated effector functions against viral infections with a focus on influenza virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Phagocytosis/immunology , Receptors, Fc/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral/adverse effects , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/virology , Virus Diseases/immunology
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2688, 2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-432476

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoVs) are zoonotic pathogens with high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Vaccine development focuses on the principal target of the neutralizing humoral immune response, the spike (S) glycoprotein. Coronavirus S proteins are extensively glycosylated, encoding around 66-87 N-linked glycosylation sites per trimeric spike. Here, we reveal a specific area of high glycan density on MERS S that results in the formation of oligomannose-type glycan clusters, which were absent on SARS and HKU1 CoVs. We provide a comparison of the global glycan density of coronavirus spikes with other viral proteins including HIV-1 envelope, Lassa virus glycoprotein complex, and influenza hemagglutinin, where glycosylation plays a known role in shielding immunogenic epitopes. Overall, our data reveal how organisation of glycosylation across class I viral fusion proteins influence not only individual glycan compositions but also the immunological pressure across the protein surface.


Subject(s)
Glycoproteins/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes/metabolism , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycoproteins/ultrastructure , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Immune Evasion/physiology , Lassa virus/immunology , Lassa virus/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/ultrastructure , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure
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