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1.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104543, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread and caused death worldwide. Preventive measures and infection control are underway, and some areas show signs of convergence. Other viruses in addition to SARS-CoV-2 cause cold-like symptoms and spread in the winter. However, the extent to which SARS-CoV-2, influenza viruses and other causative viruses have prevailed since implementing preventive measures is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to investigate the incidence of causative viruses and pathogens in patients. STUDY DESIGN: We collected 191 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with cold-like symptoms in Japan. All samples were subjected to multiplex PCR with the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: FilmArray Respiratory Panel analysis detected at least one virus in 32 of 191 patients with cold-like symptoms (21 %). Of these, we frequently identified human rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (5.8 %, n=11), human metapneumovirus (3.7 %, n=7), coronavirus 229E (2.1 %, n=4) and coronavirus OC43 (1.6 %, n=3); while no influenza viruses were detected. RT-PCR analysis detected SARS-CoV-2 (4.2 %, n=8) in patients who were not infected with the aforementioned respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses was not observed. Causative viruses remain prevalent after implementing preventive measures. SARS-CoV-2 differs from influenza viruses in its infectivity.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coinfection/virology , Humans , Incidence , Japan , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification
2.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104470, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478301

ABSTRACT

In Italy, the first SARS-CoV-2 infections were diagnosed in Rome, Lazio region, at the end of January 2020, but sustained transmission occurred later, since the end of February. From 1 February to 12 April 2020, 17,164 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested by real time PCR for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of Virology of National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani" (INMI) in Rome. In the same period, coincident with the winter peak of influenza and other respiratory illnesses, 847 samples were analyzed by multiplex PCR assay for the presence of common respiratory pathogens. In our study the time trend of SARS-CoV-2 and that of other respiratory pathogens in the same observation period were analysed. Overall, results obtained suggest that the spread of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2 virus did not substantially affect the time trend of other respiratory infections in our region, highlighting no significant difference in rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with or without other respiratory pathogens. Therefore, in the present scenario of COVID-19 pandemic, differential diagnosis resulting positive for common respiratory pathogen(s) should not exclude testing of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Rome/epidemiology
3.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 676-680, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-203367

ABSTRACT

We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Masks/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Aerosols/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exhalation/physiology , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Shedding
4.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 856-862, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-164686

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has developed into a worldwide pandemic; early identification of severe illness is critical for controlling it and improving the prognosis of patients with limited medical resources. The present study aimed to analyze the characteristics of severe COVID-19 and identify biomarkers for differential diagnosis and prognosis prediction. In total, 27 consecutive patients with COVID-19 and 75 patients with flu were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical parameters were collected from electronic medical records. The disease course was divided into four stages: initial, progression, peak, and recovery stages, according to computed tomography (CT) progress. to mild COVID-19, the lymphocytes in the severe COVID-19 progressively decreased at the progression and the peak stages, but rebound in the recovery stage. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the severe group at the initial and progression stages were higher than those in the mild group. Correlation analysis showed that CRP (R = .62; P < .01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (R = .55; P < .01) and granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio (R = .49; P < .01) were positively associated with the CT severity scores. In contrast, the number of lymphocytes (R = -.37; P < .01) was negatively correlated with the CT severity scores. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that area under the curve of CRP on the first visit for predicting severe COVID-19 was 0.87 (95% CI 0.10-1.00) at 20.42 mg/L cut-off, with sensitivity and specificity 83% and 91%, respectively. CRP in severe COVID-19 patients increased significantly at the initial stage, before CT findings. Importantly, CRP, which was associated with disease development, predicted early severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Early Diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Female , Granulocytes/pathology , Humans , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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