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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of COVID-19 pandemic in Catalonia (Spain), the present study analyses respiratory samples collected by the primary care network using Acute Respiratory Infections Sentinel Surveillance System (PIDIRAC) during the 2019-2020 season to complement the pandemic surveillance system in place to detect SARS-CoV-2. The aim of the study is to describe whether SARS-CoV-2 was circulating before the first confirmed case was detected in Catalonia, on February 25th, 2020. METHODS: The study sample was made up of all samples collected by the PIDIRAC primary care network as part of the Influenza and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) surveillance system activities. The study on respiratory virus included coronavirus using multiple RT-PCR assays. All positive samples for human coronavirus were subsequently typed for HKU1, OC43, NL63, 229E. Every respiratory sample was frozen at-80°C and retrospectively studied for SARS-CoV-2 detection. A descriptive study was performed, analysing significant differences among variables related to SARS-CoV- 2 cases comparing with rest of coronaviruses cases through a bivariate study with Chi-squared test and statistical significance at 95%. RESULTS: Between October 2019 and April 2020, 878 respiratory samples from patients with acute respiratory infection or influenza syndrome obtained by PIDIRAC were analysed. 51.9% tested positive for influenza virus, 48.1% for other respiratory viruses. SARS-CoV-2 was present in 6 samples. The first positive SARS-CoV-2 case had symptom onset on 2 March 2020. These 6 cases were 3 men and 3 women, aged between 25 and 50 years old. 67% had risk factors, none had previous travel history nor presented viral coinfection. All of them recovered favourably. CONCLUSION: Sentinel Surveillance PIDIRAC enhances global epidemiological surveillance by allowing confirmation of viral circulation and describes the epidemiology of generalized community respiratory viruses' transmission in Catalonia. The system can provide an alert signal when identification of a virus is not achieved in order to take adequate preparedness measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Surveillance , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264855, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736511

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 the world has been facing the outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Identification of infected patients and discrimination from other respiratory infections have so far been accomplished by using highly specific real-time PCRs. Here we present a rapid multiplex approach (RespiCoV), combining highly multiplexed PCRs and MinION sequencing suitable for the simultaneous screening for 41 viral and five bacterial agents related to respiratory tract infections, including the human coronaviruses NL63, HKU1, OC43, 229E, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. RespiCoV was applied to 150 patient samples with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared with specific real-time PCR. Additionally, several respiratory tract pathogens were identified in samples tested positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. Finally, RespiCoV was experimentally compared to the commercial RespiFinder 2SMART multiplex screening assay (PathoFinder, The Netherlands).


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , RNA Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nanopores , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2145669, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653129

ABSTRACT

Importance: A critical need exists in low-income and middle-income countries for low-cost, low-tech, yet highly reliable and scalable testing for SARS-CoV-2 virus that is robust against circulating variants. Objective: To assess whether a smartphone-based assay is suitable for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus testing without requiring specialized equipment, accessory devices, or custom reagents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study enrolled 2 subgroups of participants (symptomatic and asymptomatic) at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital. The symptomatic group consisted of 20 recruited patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with symptoms; 30 asymptomatic patients were recruited from the same community, through negative admission screening tests for SARS-CoV-2. The smartphone-based real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (smaRT-LAMP) was first optimized for analysis of human saliva samples spiked with either SARS-CoV-2 or influenza A or B virus; these results then were compared with those obtained by side-by-side analysis of spiked samples using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criterion-standard reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Next, both assays were used to test for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses present in blinded clinical saliva samples obtained from 50 hospitalized patients. Statistical analysis was performed from May to June 2021. Exposures: Testing for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A and B viruses. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection status and quantitative viral load were determined. Results: Among the 50 eligible participants with no prior SARS-CoV-2 infection included in the study, 29 were men. The mean age was 57 years (range, 21 to 93 years). SmaRT-LAMP exhibited 100% concordance (50 of 50 patient samples) with the CDC criterion-standard diagnostic for SARS-CoV-2 sensitivity (20 of 20 positive and 30 of 30 negative) and for quantitative detection of viral load. This platform also met the CDC criterion standard for detection of clinically similar influenza A and B viruses in spiked saliva samples (n = 20), and in saliva samples from hospitalized patients (50 of 50 negative). The smartphone-based LAMP assay was rapid (25 minutes), sensitive (1000 copies/mL), low-cost (<$7/test), and scalable (96 samples/phone). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of saliva samples from patients, the smartphone-based LAMP assay detected SARS-CoV-2 infection and exhibited concordance with RT-qPCR tests. These findings suggest that this tool could be adapted in response to novel CoV-2 variants and other pathogens with pandemic potential including influenza and may be useful in settings with limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smartphone , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , Young Adult
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e226, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537267

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread around the world. The pandemic overlapped with two consecutive influenza seasons (2019/2020 and 2020/2021). This provided the opportunity to study community circulation of influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in outpatients with acute respiratory infections during these two seasons within the Bavarian Influenza Sentinel (BIS) in Bavaria, Germany. From September to March, oropharyngeal swabs collected at BIS were analysed for influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In BIS 2019/2020, 1376 swabs were tested for influenza viruses. The average positive rate was 37.6%, with a maximum of over 60% (in January). The predominant influenza viruses were Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 202), Influenza A(H3N2) (n = 144) and Influenza B Victoria lineage (n = 129). In all, 610 of these BIS swabs contained sufficient material to retrospectively test for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable in any of these swabs. In BIS 2020/2021, 470 swabs were tested for influenza viruses and 457 for SARS-CoV-2. Only three swabs (0.6%) were positive for Influenza, while SARS-CoV-2 was found in 30 swabs (6.6%). We showed that no circulation of SARS-CoV-2 was detectable in BIS during the 2019/2020 influenza season, while virtually no influenza viruses were found in BIS 2020/2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , COVID-19/diagnosis , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Oropharynx/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons
5.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(5-6): 277-282, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449965

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has forced the implementation of unprecedented public health measures strategies which might also have a significant impact on the spreading of other viral pathogens such as influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) . The present study compares the incidences of the most relevant respiratory viruses before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in emergency room patients. We analyzed the results of in total 14,946 polymerase chain reaction point-of-care tests (POCT-PCR) for Influenza A, Influenza B, RSV and SARS-CoV-2 in an adult and a pediatric emergency room between December 1, 2018 and March 31, 2021. Despite a fivefold increase in the number of tests performed, the positivity rate for Influenza A dropped from 19.32% (165 positives of 854 tests in 2018/19), 14.57% (149 positives of 1023 in 2019-20) to 0% (0 positives of 4915 tests) in 2020/21. In analogy, the positivity rate for Influenza B and RSV dropped from 0.35 to 1.47%, respectively, 10.65-21.08% to 0% for both in 2020/21. The positivity rate for SARS-CoV2 reached 9.74% (110 of 1129 tests performed) during the so-called second wave in December 2020. Compared to the two previous years, seasonal influenza and RSV incidence was eliminated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Corona-related measures and human behavior patterns could lead to a significant decline or even complete suppression of other respiratory viruses such as influenza and RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(10): 984-988, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445702

ABSTRACT

Membrane-based rapid test reagents including immunochromatography are widely used in clinical practice. Recently, high-sensitive reagents based on the immunochromatography method, such as silver amplification method and time resolved fluorescence method for influenza testing, has been developed and early confirmation of infection can be achieved. Furthermore, genetic testing, automated all the steps from extraction till detection, is getting popular. Genetic testing of mycoplasma by Smart Gene Myco system and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) test is a good example of membrane-based rapid test reagents. This system uses silica particle-containing membrane filter and enable to shorten the assay time by automates pre-treatment process for removing contamination substances in the sample which affect polymerase-chain-reaction amplification. We hope utilized genetic testing application will help quick confirmation of COVID-19 positive patient and prevent the collapse of medical system under COVID-19 development.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Genetic Testing , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0043021, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398597

ABSTRACT

Measures intended to limit the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus at the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in a rapid decrease in other respiratory pathogens. Herein, we describe the trends of respiratory pathogens in a major metropolitan health care system central microbiology reference laboratory before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, with attention to when COVID-19 mitigation measures were implemented and relaxed. During the initial lockdown period, COVID-19 was the primary respiratory pathogen detected by multiplex respiratory panels. As COVID-19 containment measures were relaxed, the first non-COVID respiratory viruses to return to prepandemic levels were members of the rhinovirus/enterovirus family. After the complete removal of COVID-19 precautions at the state level, including an end to mask mandates, we observed the robust return of seasonal coronaviruses, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Inasmuch as COVID-19 has dominated the landscape of respiratory infections since early 2020, it is important for clinicians to recognize that the return of non-COVID respiratory pathogens may be rapid and significant when COVID-19 containment measures are removed. IMPORTANCE We describe the return of non-COVID respiratory viruses after the removal of COVID-19 mitigation measures. It is important for the public and physicians to recognize that, after months of COVID-19 being the primary driver of respiratory infection, more typical seasonal respiratory illnesses have returned, and this return is out of the normal season for some of these pathogens. Thus, clinicians and the public must now consider both COVID-19 and other respiratory illnesses when a patient presents with symptomatic respiratory illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Coxsackievirus Infections/epidemiology , Coxsackievirus Infections/prevention & control , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Humans , Mandatory Programs/statistics & numerical data , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Texas/epidemiology
8.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389520

ABSTRACT

Aptamers are short fragments of nucleic acids, DNA or RNA that have the ability to bind selected proteins with high specificity and affinity. These properties allow them to be used as an element of biosensors for the detection of specific proteins, including viral ones, which makes it possible to design valuable diagnostic tools. The influenza virus causes a huge number of human and animal deaths worldwide every year, and contributes to remarkable economic losses. In addition, in 2020, a new threat appeared-the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. Both disease entities, especially in the initial stage of infection, are almost identical in terms of signs and symptoms. Therefore, a diagnostic solution is needed that will allow distinguishing between both pathogens, with high sensitivity and specificity; it should be cheap, quick and possible to use in the field, for example, in a doctor's office. All the mentioned properties are met by aptasensors in which the detection elements are specific aptamers. We present here the latest developments in the construction of various types of aptasensors for the detection of influenza virus. Aptasensor operation is based on the measurement of changes in electric impedance, fluorescence or electric signal (impedimetric, fluorescence and electrochemical aptasensors, respectively); it allows both qualitative and quantitative determinations. The particularly high advancement for detecting of influenza virus concerns impedimetric aptasensors.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , Biosensing Techniques , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Aptamers, Nucleotide/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electric Impedance , Electrochemical Techniques , Fluorescence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354921

ABSTRACT

The global damage that a widespread viral infection can cause is evident from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The importance of virus detection to prevent the spread of viruses has been reaffirmed by the pandemic and the associated social and economic damage. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in microscale and localized SPR (LSPR) in nanoscale virus sensing systems are thought to be useful as next-generation detection methods. Many studies have been conducted on ultra-sensitive technologies, especially those based on signal amplification. In some cases, it has been reported that even a low viral load can be measured, indicating that the virus can be detected in patients even in the early stages of the viral infection. These findings corroborate that SPR and LSPR are effective in minimizing false-positives and false-negatives that are prevalent in the existing virus detection techniques. In this review, the methods and signal responses of SPR and LSPR-based virus detection technologies are summarized. Furthermore, this review surveys some of the recent developments reported and discusses the limitations of SPR and LSPR-based virus detection as the next-generation detection technologies.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Virion/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue Virus/physiology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virion/chemistry
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6140-6147, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279256

ABSTRACT

To investigate the presence of respiratory viruses in the middle ear cavity of the individuals with a healthy middle ear and the children with otitis media with effusion (OME). A total of 72 middle ear samples were collected from 25 children with OME (Group 1) and 47 individuals with no middle ear disease (Group 2). Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the presence of 20 different respiratory viruses. Virus results were compared with bacteriomes of the same populations. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 56% of the patients in Group 1 and 12.8% of the individuals in Group 2. The viral co-infection rate for Group 1 and 2 was 8% and 2.1%, respectively. In Group 1, adenovirus was the most frequently detected virus with a rate of 24%, either alone (16%) or concurrent with other viruses (8%), followed by influenza B (12%), rhinovirus, and bocavirus (8%) each. Parainfluenza 4, coronavirus OC43, and RSV A/B were detected in 4% of the sample each. In Group 2, rhinovirus was detected in two samples (4.3%) followed by adenovirus, coronavirus OC43, coronavirus E299, and coronavirus NL63 with a rate of 2.1% each. The detection rate of respiratory viruses was significantly higher in children aged 6 to 11 years. There was no positive association between virus and bacteria found in the middle ear cavity. The current study has provided comprehensive data indicating the presence of diverse respiratory viruses in the healthy middle ear cavity. Our results also suggest that respiratory viruses might have a contribution to OME pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Ear, Middle/virology , Otitis Media with Effusion/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Human bocavirus/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant , Male , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Otitis Media with Effusion/microbiology , Paramyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/virology
12.
Indoor Air ; 31(6): 2058-2069, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222522

ABSTRACT

Recirculating air purification technologies are employed as potential means of reducing exposure to aerosol particles and airborne viruses. Toward improved testing of recirculating air purification units, we developed and applied a medium-scale single-pass wind tunnel test to examine the size-dependent collection of particles and the collection and inactivation of viable bovine coronavirus (BCoV, a betacoronavirus), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV, an alphacoronavirus), and influenza A virus (IAV), by a commercial air purification unit. The tested unit, the Molekule Air Mini, incorporates a MERV 16 filter as well as a photoelectrochemical oxidating layer. It was found to have a collection efficiency above 95.8% for all tested particle diameters and flow rates, with collection efficiencies above 99% for supermicrometer particles with the minimum collection efficiency for particles smaller than 100 nm. For all three tested viruses, the physical tracer-based log reduction was near 2.0 (99% removal). Conversely, the viable virus log reductions were found to be near 4.0 for IAV, 3.0 for BCoV, and 2.5 for PRCV, suggesting additional inactivation in a virus family- and genus-specific manner. In total, this work describes a suite of test methods which can be used to rigorously evaluate the efficacy of recirculating air purification technologies.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Air Pollution, Indoor , Coronavirus , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Filtration/instrumentation , Oxidative Stress , Particle Size
14.
Virol J ; 18(1): 93, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with a broad clinical differential that includes many other respiratory viruses; therefore, accurate tests are crucial to distinguish true COVID-19 cases from pathogens that do not require urgent public health interventions. Co-circulation of other respiratory viruses is largely unknown during the COVID-19 pandemic but would inform strategies to rapidly and accurately test patients with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: This study retrospectively examined 298,415 respiratory specimens collected from symptomatic patients for SARS-CoV-2 testing in the three months since COVID-19 was initially documented in the province of Alberta, Canada (March-May, 2020). By focusing on 52,285 specimens that were also tested with the Luminex Respiratory Pathogen Panel for 17 other pathogens, this study examines the prevalence of 18 potentially co-circulating pathogens and their relative rates in prior years versus since COVID-19 emerged, including four endemic coronaviruses. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 2.2% of all specimens. Parallel broad multiplex testing detected additional pathogens in only 3.4% of these SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens: significantly less than in SARS-CoV-2-negative specimens (p < 0.0001), suggesting very low rates of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Furthermore, the overall co-infection rate was significantly lower among specimens with SARS-CoV-2 detected (p < 0.0001). Finally, less than 0.005% of all specimens tested positive for both SARS-CoV-2 and any of the four endemic coronaviruses tested, strongly suggesting neither co-infection nor cross-reactivity between these coronaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Broad respiratory pathogen testing rarely detected additional pathogens in SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens. While helpful to understand co-circulation of respiratory viruses causing similar symptoms as COVID-19, ultimately these broad tests were resource-intensive and inflexible in a time when clinical laboratories face unprecedented demand for respiratory virus testing, with further increases expected during influenza season. A transition from broad, multiplex tests toward streamlined diagnostic algorithms targeting respiratory pathogens of public health concern could simultaneously reduce the overall burden on clinical laboratories while prioritizing testing of pathogens of public health importance. This is particularly valuable with ongoing strains on testing resources, exacerbated during influenza seasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alberta/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1008-1012, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206808

ABSTRACT

In the last months of 2019, an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease started in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to other parts of the world. It was named COVID-19, and to date, thousands of cases of infection and death are reported worldwide. This disease is associated with a wide range of symptoms, which makes accurate diagnosis of it difficult. During previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic in 2003, researchers found that the patients with fever, cough, or sore throat had a 5% influenza virus-positive rate. This finding made us think that the wide range of symptoms and also relatively high prevalence of death in our patients may be due to the coinfection with other viruses. Thus, we evaluated the coinfection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with other respiratory viruses in dead patients in North Khorasan. We evaluated the presence of influenza A/B virus, human metapneumovirus, bocavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza viruses in 105 SARS-CoV-2 positive dead patients, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR tests. We found coinfection with influenza virus in 22.3%, RSV, and bocavirus in 9.7%, parainfluenza viruses in 3.9%, human metapneumovirus in 2.9%, and finally adenovirus in 1.9% of SARS-CoV-2 positive dead cases. Our findings highlight a high prevalence of coinfection with influenza A virus and the monopoly of coinfection with Human metapneumovirus in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Cadaver , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viruses/classification , Young Adult
17.
J Clin Virol ; 137: 104795, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2, different European countries reacted with temporary national lockdowns with the aim to limit the virus transmission in the population. Also Austria started a lockdown of public life in March 2020. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated whether the circulation of different respiratory virus infections in Austria, as assessed by the established respiratory virus surveillance system, is affected by these measures as well and may reflect the success of the lockdown in limiting respiratory virus transmission. STUDY DESIGN: Sentinel data obtained for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus cases were analyzed and compared between the season 2019/2020 and the five previous seasons. RESULTS: We observed a rapid and statistically significant reduction of cumulative cases for all these viruses within short time after the lockdown in March 2020, compared to previous seasons (each p < 0.001). Also, sentinel screening for SARS-CoV-2 infections was performed and a decrease of SARS-CoV-2 was seen after the lockdown. While for the seasonally occurring viruses as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus or human metapneumovirus the lockdown led to the end of the annual epidemics, a re-increase of rhinovirus infections was observed after liberalization of numerous lockdown measures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that occurrence of different respiratory virus infections reflect not only the efficiency of lockdown measures taken against SARS-CoV-2 but it shows also the effects of lockdown releases on the transmission of respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemics , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Public Health Surveillance , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology
18.
J Virol Methods ; 293: 114120, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary rhesus monkey kidney cells (RhMK) can be used for the detection of respiratory viruses, including influenza and parainfluenza. The human colon adeno-carcinoma cell line, CACO-2, has been previously used for the growth of multiple influenza viruses, including seasonal, novel and avian lineages. OBJECTIVE: We compared CACO-2, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), and RhMK cells for the isolation of viruses from patients presenting with influenza like-illness (ILI). STUDY DESIGN: Nasopharyngeal specimens from patients with ILI in primary care settings were processed for conventional viral culture in MDCK, RhMK, and CACO-2. Cells were examined microscopically for cytopathic effect (CPE) and confirmatory testing included immunofluorescent antigen (IFA) detection and real-time RT-PCR. Additionally, 16 specimens positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by PCR were inoculated on CACO-2 cells. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test with IBM Statistical Program. RESULTS: Of 1031 respiratory specimens inoculated, viruses were isolated and confirmed from 331 (32.1 %) in MDCK cells, 304 (29.5 %) in RhMk cells, and 433 (42.0 %) in CACO-2 cells. These included influenza A/(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2), influenza B, parainfluenza virus (PIV) types 1, 2, and 3, human coronavirus 229E (CoV-229E), human adenovirus (HAdV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1), and enterovirus (EV). Influenza A viruses grew best in the CACO-2 cell line. Time to observation of CPE was similar for all three cell types but unlike RhMK and MDCK cells, virus-specific morphological changes were indistinguishable in CACO-2 cells. None of the 16 specimens positive for RSV by PCR grew on CACO-2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The overall respiratory virus culture isolation rate in CACO-2 cells was significantly higher than that in RhMK or MDCK cells (p < 0.05). CACO-2 cells also supported the growth of some viruses that did not grow in either RhMK or MDCK cells. Except for RSV, CACO-2 cells provide a worthwhile addition to culture algorithms for respiratory specimens.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/growth & development , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Child , Child, Preschool , Dogs , Female , Humans , Infant , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/growth & development , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/growth & development , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Young Adult
19.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 765-774, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease represents a challenge for healthcare structures. The molecular confirmation of samples from infected individuals is crucial and therefore guides public health decision making. Clusters and possibly increased diffuse transmission could occur in the context of the next influenza season. For this reason, a diagnostic test able to discriminate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from influenza viruses is urgently needed. METHODS: A multiplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was assessed using 1 laboratory protocol with different real-time PCR instruments. Overall, 1000 clinical samples (600 from samples SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, 200 samples from influenza-infected patients, and 200 negative samples) were analyzed. RESULTS: The assay developed was able to detect and discriminate each virus target and to intercept coinfections. The limit of quantification of each assay ranged between 5 and 10 genomic copy numbers, with a cutoff value of 37.7 and 37.8 for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses, respectively. Only 2 influenza coinfections were detected in COVID-19 samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that multiplex assay is a rapid, valid, and accurate method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses in clinical samples. The test may be an important diagnostic tool for both diagnostic and surveillance purposes during the seasonal influenza activity period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seasons , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3209, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065951

ABSTRACT

Viral co-infections occur in COVID-19 patients, potentially impacting disease progression and severity. However, there is currently no dedicated method to identify viral co-infections in patient RNA-seq data. We developed PACIFIC, a deep-learning algorithm that accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other common RNA respiratory viruses from RNA-seq data. Using in silico data, PACIFIC recovers the presence and relative concentrations of viruses with > 99% precision and recall. PACIFIC accurately detects SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections in 63 independent in vitro cell culture and patient datasets. PACIFIC is an end-to-end tool that enables the systematic monitoring of viral infections in the current global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Deep Learning , RNA Virus Infections/diagnosis , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/virology , Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Humans , Metapneumovirus/classification , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Neural Networks, Computer , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , RNA Virus Infections/virology , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA-Seq , Rhinovirus/classification , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Sensitivity and Specificity
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