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1.
Mol Cell Probes ; 60: 101771, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432043

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus with the NA-H275Y mutation, which confers oseltamivir resistance, must be monitored, especially in patients undergoing neuraminidase inhibitor treatment. In this study, we developed a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay that has high sensitivity (detection limit: 1.0 × 101 copies/µL) and specificity for detecting the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y mutation; the assay is performed within 30 min at a constant temperature of 39° Celsius using an isothermal device. This method is suitable for the clinical application of targeted testing, thereby providing technical support for precision medicine in individual drug applications for patients with severe infection or immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Neuraminidase/genetics , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Recombinases , Reverse Transcription
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0025721, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410327

ABSTRACT

Human-to-human transmission of viruses, such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses, can promote virus evolution and the emergence of new strains with increased potential for creating pandemics. Clinical studies analyzing how a particular type of virus progressively evolves new traits, such as resistance to antiviral therapies, as a result of passing between different human hosts are difficult to carry out because of the complexity, scale, and cost of the challenge. Here, we demonstrate that spontaneous evolution of influenza A virus through both mutation and gene reassortment can be reconstituted in vitro by sequentially passaging infected mucus droplets between multiple human lung airway-on-a-chip microfluidic culture devices (airway chips). Modeling human-to-human transmission of influenza virus infection on chips in the continued presence of the antiviral drugs amantadine or oseltamivir led to the spontaneous emergence of clinically prevalent resistance mutations, and strains that were resistant to both drugs were identified when they were administered in combination. In contrast, we found that nafamostat, an inhibitor targeting host serine proteases, did not induce viral resistance. This human preclinical model may be useful for studying viral evolution in vitro and identifying potential influenza virus variants before they appear in human populations, thereby enabling preemptive design of new and more effective vaccines and therapeutics. IMPORTANCE The rapid evolution of viruses, such as influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is challenging the use and development of antivirals and vaccines. Studies of within-host viral evolution can contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological factors that shape viral global evolution as well as development of better antivirals and vaccines. However, little is known about how viral evolution of resistance to antivirals occurs clinically due to the lack of preclinical models that can faithfully model influenza infection in humans. Our study shows that influenza viral evolution through mutation or gene reassortment can be recapitulated in a human lung airway-on-a-chip (airway chip) microfluidic culture device that can faithfully recapitulate the influenza infection in vitro. This approach is useful for studying within-host viral evolution, evaluating viral drug resistance, and identifying potential influenza virus variants before they appear in human populations, thereby enabling the preemptive design of new and more effective vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/genetics , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Amantadine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/transmission , Lung/virology , Microfluidics , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(6): 1520-1538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377631

ABSTRACT

The global spread of COVID-19 has imparted significant economic, medical, and social burdens. Like adults, children are affected by this pandemic. However, milder clinical symptoms are often experienced by them. Only a minimal proportion of the affected patients may develop severe and complicated COVID-19. Supportive treatment is recommended in all patients. Antiviral and immunomodulatory medications are spared for hospitalized children with respiratory distress or severe to critical disease. Up till now, remdesivir is the only USFDA-approved anti-COVID-19 medication indicated in the majority of symptomatic patients with moderate to severe disease. Dexamethasone is solely recommended in patients with respiratory distress maintained on oxygen or ventilatory support. The use of these medications in pediatric patients is founded on evidence deriving from adult studies. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving pediatric COVID-19 patients have assessed these medications' efficacy and safety, among others. Similarly, three novel monoclonal anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies, bamlanivimab, casirivimab and imdevimab, have been recently authorized by the USFDA. Nonetheless, their efficacy has not been demonstrated by multiple RCTs. In this review, we aim to dissect the various potential therapeutics used in children with COVID-19. We aspire to provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence and display the mechanisms of action and the pharmacokinetic properties of the studied therapeutics. Our review offers an efficient and practical guide for treating children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Child , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Antiviral Res ; 194: 105158, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340541

ABSTRACT

It is more than 20 years since the neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir were approved for the treatment and prevention of influenza. Guidelines for global surveillance and methods for evaluating resistance were established initially by the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network (NISN), which merged 10 years ago with the International Society for influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) to become the isirv-Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG). With the ongoing development of new influenza polymerase inhibitors and recent approval of baloxavir marboxil, the isirv-AVG held a closed meeting in August 2019 to discuss the impact of resistance to these inhibitors. Following this meeting and review of the current literature, this article is intended to summarize current knowledge regarding the clinical impact of resistance to polymerase inhibitors and approaches for surveillance and methods for laboratory evaluation of resistance, both in vitro and in animal models. We highlight limitations and gaps in current knowledge and suggest some strategies for addressing these gaps, including the need for additional clinical studies of influenza antiviral drug combinations. Lessons learned from influenza resistance monitoring may also be helpful for establishing future drug susceptibility surveillance and testing for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Dibenzothiepins/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Knowledge , Morpholines/pharmacology , Neuraminidase/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Triazines/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Zanamivir/pharmacology
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8692, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199310

ABSTRACT

A metal nanoparticle composite, namely TPNT1, which contains Au-NP (1 ppm), Ag-NP (5 ppm), ZnO-NP (60 ppm) and ClO2 (42.5 ppm) in aqueous solution was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis and potentiometric titration. Based on the in vitro cell-based assay, TPNT1 inhibited six major clades of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with effective concentration within the range to be used as food additives. TPNT1 was shown to block viral entry by inhibiting the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and to interfere with the syncytium formation. In addition, TPNT1 also effectively reduced the cytopathic effects induced by human (H1N1) and avian (H5N1) influenza viruses, including the wild-type and oseltamivir-resistant virus isolates. Together with previously demonstrated efficacy as antimicrobials, TPNT1 can block viral entry and inhibit or prevent viral infection to provide prophylactic effects against both SARS-CoV-2 and opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Gold/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Silver/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Food Additives/pharmacology , Gold/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Particle Size , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 707-720, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030457

ABSTRACT

The whole world is battling through coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is a fatal pandemic. In the early 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a global health emergency without definitive treatments and preventive approaches. In the absence of definitive therapeutic agents, this thorough review summarizes and outlines the potency and safety of all molecules and therapeutics which may have potential antiviral effects. A number of molecules and therapeutics licensed or being tested for some other conditions were found effective in different in vitro studies as well as in many small sample-sized clinical trials and independent case studies. However, in those clinical trials, there were some limitations which need to be overcome to find the most promising antiviral against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In conclusion, many of above-mentioned antivirals seems to have some therapeutic effects but none of them have been shown to have a strong evidence for their proper recommendation and approval in the treatment of COVID-19. Constantly evolving new evidences, exclusive adult data, language barrier, and type of study (observational, retrospective, small-sized clinical trials, or independent case series) resulted to the several limitations of this review. The need for multicentered, large sample-sized, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on COVID-19 patients to reach a proper conclusion on the most promising antiviral agent is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Indoles/pharmacology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferons/pharmacology , Interferons/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Nitro Compounds , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 882: 173328, 2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959744

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, later identified as SARS-CoV-2, originating from Wuhan in China in November 2019, quickly spread around the world becoming a pandemic. Despite the knowledge of previous coronaviruses, such as those responsible for the SARS and MERS-CoV epidemic, there is no drug or prophylaxis treatment to this day. The rapid succession of scientific findings on SARS-CoV-2 provides a significant number of potential drug targets. Nevertheless, at the same time, the high quantity of clinical data, generated by a large number of rapidly infected people, require accurate tests regarding effective medical treatments. Several in vitro and in vivo studies were rapidly initiated after the outbreak of the pandemic COVID-19. Initial clinical studies revealed the promising potential of remdesivir that demonstrated a powerful and specific in vitro antiviral activity for COVID-19. Promising effects appear to be attributable to hydroxychloroquine. Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine are being tested in ongoing randomized trials. In contrast, oseltamivir was not effective and corticosteroids are not currently recommended. However, few data from ongoing clinical trials are identifying low molecular weight heparins, innate immune system stimulating agents, and inflammatory modulating agents as potential effective agents. The authors assume that the current pandemic will determine the need for a systematic approach based on big data analysis for identifying effective drugs to defeat SARS-Cov-2. This work is aimed to be a general reference point and to provide an overview as comprehensive as possible regarding the main clinical trials in progress at the moment.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Inflammation Mediators/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2750, 2020 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680538

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses annually kill 290,000-650,000 people worldwide. Antivirals can reduce death tolls. Baloxavir, the recently approved influenza antiviral, inhibits initiation of viral mRNA synthesis, whereas oseltamivir, an older drug, inhibits release of virus progeny. Baloxavir blocks virus replication more rapidly and completely than oseltamivir, reducing the duration of infectiousness. Hence, early baloxavir treatment may indirectly prevent transmission. Here, we estimate impacts of ramping up and accelerating baloxavir treatment on population-level incidence using a new model that links viral load dynamics from clinical trial data to between-host transmission. We estimate that ~22 million infections and >6,000 deaths would have been averted in the 2017-2018 epidemic season by administering baloxavir to 30% of infected cases within 48 h after symptom onset. Treatment within 24 h would almost double the impact. Consequently, scaling up early baloxavir treatment would substantially reduce influenza morbidity and mortality every year. The development of antivirals against the SARS-CoV2 virus that function like baloxavir might similarly curtail transmission and save lives.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Epidemics , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Thiepins/therapeutic use , Triazines/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cell Proliferation , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dibenzothiepins , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Morpholines , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Public Health , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyridones , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Thiepins/pharmacology , Triazines/pharmacology , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Genomics ; 112(6): 4427-4434, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707714

ABSTRACT

It is urgent to find an effective antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, 96 virus-drug associations (VDAs) from 12 viruses including SARS-CoV-2 and similar viruses and 78 small molecules are selected. Complete genomic sequence similarity of viruses and chemical structure similarity of drugs are then computed. A KATZ-based VDA prediction method (VDA-KATZ) is developed to infer possible drugs associated with SARS-CoV-2. VDA-KATZ obtained the best AUCs of 0.8803 when the walking length is 2. The predicted top 3 antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are remdesivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir. Molecular docking is conducted between the predicted top 10 drugs and the virus spike protein/human ACE2. The results showed that the above 3 chemical agents have higher molecular binding energies with ACE2. For the first time, we found that zidovudine may be effective clues of treatment of COVID-19. We hope that our predicted drugs could help to prevent the spreading of COVID.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Oseltamivir/metabolism , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zanamivir/metabolism , Zanamivir/pharmacology
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