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Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 30(12): 1575-1582, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262066


The field of osteoarthritis (OA) biology is rapidly evolving and brilliant progress has been made this year as well. Landmark studies of OA biology published in 2021 and early 2022 were selected through PubMed search by personal opinion. These papers were classified by their molecular mechanisms, and it was largely divided into the intracellular signaling mechanisms and the inter-compartment interaction in chondrocyte homeostasis and OA progression. The intracellular signaling mechanisms involving OA progression included (1) Piezo1/transient receptor potential channels of the vanilloid subtype (TRPV) 4-mediated calcium signaling, (2) mechanical load-F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBXW7) in chondrocyte senescence, (3) mechanical loading-primary cilia-hedgehog signaling, (4) low grade inflammation by toll-like receptor (TLR)-CD14-lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) complex and inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK) ß-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, (5) selenium pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, (6) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, (7) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-acyl-CoA thioesterase 12 (ACOT12)-mediated de novo lipogenesis and (8) hypoxia-disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like (DOT1L)-H3-lysine 79 (H3K79) methylation pathway. The studies on inter-compartment or intercellular interaction in OA progression included the following subjects; (1) the anabolic role of lubricin, glycoprotein from superficial zone cells, (2) osteoclast-chondrocyte interaction via exosomal miRNA and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), (3) senescent fibroblast-like synoviocyte and chondrocyte interaction, (4) synovial macrophage and chondrocyte interaction through Flightless I, (5) αV integrin-mediated transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) activation by mechanical loading, and (6) osteocytic TGFß in subchondral bone thickening. Despite the disastrous Covid-19 pandemic, many outstanding studies have expanded the boundary of OA biology. They provide both critical insight into the pathophysiology as well as clues for the treatment of OA.

COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Hedgehog Proteins , Pandemics , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Biology , Ion Channels/metabolism , Thiolester Hydrolases/metabolism
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(2): 325-341, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067095


To assess the chondroprotective effect and influence of N,N'-bis(1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3-oxopyrazol-4-yl) sebacamide (dpdo) that was synthesized through the reaction of phenazone with sebacoyl chloride and screened for its biological activity especially as anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory agent in a monoiodoacetate (MA)-induced experimental osteoarthritis (OA) model. Thirty male albino rats weighing "190-200 g" were divided randomly into three groups (10 each): control, MA-induced OA, and MA-induced OA + dpdo. In MA-induced OA rat, the tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factors, reactive oxygen species, as well as all the mitochondrial markers such as mitochondria membrane potential, swelling mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), and serum oxidative/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level and activities of myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase) are elevated. Also, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), levels of ATP, the level of glutathione (GSH), and thiol were markedly diminished in the MA-induced OA group compared to the normal control rats. These findings showed that mitochondrial function is associated with OA pathophysiological alterations and high gene expressions of (IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-1b) and suggests a promising use of dpdo as potential ameliorative agents in the animal model of OA and could act as anti-inflammatory agent in case of severe infection with COVID-19. It is clearly appeared in improving the bone cortex and bone marrow in the treated group with the novel compound in histological and transmission electron microscopic sections which is a very important issue today in fighting severe infections that have significant effects on the blood indices and declining of blood corpuscles like COVID-19, in addition to declining the genotoxicity and inflammation induced by MA in male rats. The novel synthesized compound was highly effective in improving all the above mentioned parameters.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/ultrastructure , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione/metabolism , Iodoacetic Acid , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/physiology , Osteoarthritis/chemically induced , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Succinate Dehydrogenase/metabolism