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1.
Osteoporos Int ; 33(7): 1415-1427, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712222

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a major health issue worldwide. This study analyzes the effects of non-supervised osteoporosis prevention programs on bone mineral density. Non-supervised exercise increases femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density in adult women. Thus, it might be effective for preventing or treating osteoporosis or osteopenia in this population. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a major health issue worldwide. Social distancing measures due to COVID-19 have hindered the chances to take part in supervised osteoporosis prevention exercise programs. The purpose of the present study is to systematically review and meta-analyze the effects of non-supervised osteoporosis prevention exercise programs on bone mineral density (BMD) in adult women. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases (n = 7) was conducted including (a) prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing at least one exercise group vs. a control group with sedentary lifestyle or sham exercises; (b) baseline and follow-up BMD values, or BMD changes from baseline, at any skeletal site; (c) women over 30 years old; and (d) non-supervised exercise programs only. Subgroup analyses were performed for menopausal status, intervention duration, type of exercise, and osteopenia/osteoporosis status. RESULTS: Ten studies were included (n = 668). Random effect analyses showed that unsupervised exercise had beneficial effects on lumbar spine (LS) BMD with standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.77), and femoral neck (FN) BMD with SMD = 0.51 (95% CI: 0.16-0.85). Unsupervised exercise increased LS (SMD = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.13-1.33)) and FN BMD (SMD = 0.85 (95% CI: 0.33-1.37)) in women with osteopenia/osteoporosis, but not in healthy counterparts. CONCLUSION: Non-supervised exercise improves FN and LS BMD in adult women. Beneficial effects of exercise on FN and LS BMD might be more pronounced in those with poor bone health compared with healthy counterparts. More RCTs prescribing non-supervised, osteogenic exercise are required in this population. It is necessary to investigate the efficacy of remote/assistive technologies for delivering and monitoring non-supervised exercise interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoporosis , Adult , Bone Density , Exercise Therapy , Female , Femur Neck , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae , Osteoporosis/prevention & control
2.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(5): 756-763, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631875

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is underdiagnosed and undertreated in people living in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs), even though aged-care residents are at greater risk of experiencing fractures than their community-dwelling counterparts. The first (2009) and second (2016) Consensus Conferences on the Treatment of Osteoporosis in RACFs in Australia addressed the prevention of falls and fractures in RACFs. A third Consensus Conference was held to review advances in the field of osteoporosis for people living in RACFs and to update current guidelines. The Conference was held virtually in October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Attendance at the meeting was open to health practitioners (n = 116) (eg, general practitioners, geriatricians, rehabilitation specialists, endocrinologists, pharmacists, and physiotherapists) working in RACFs. Participants chose and/or were assigned to breakout groups to review the evidence and reach a consensus on the topic area assigned to the group, which was then presented to the entire group by a nominated spokesperson. Recommendations developed by breakout groups were discussed and voted on by all attending participants. This article updates the evidence for preventing falls and fractures and managing osteoporosis in older adults living in RACFs based on agreed outcomes from the group. We anticipate these updated recommendations will provide health practitioners with valuable guidance when practicing in RACFs.


Subject(s)
Assisted Living Facilities , COVID-19 , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Aged , Humans , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/prevention & control , Pandemics
3.
Singapore Med J ; 62(4): 159-166, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326002

ABSTRACT

Screening for osteoporosis in women can be based on age and weight, using the Osteoporosis Screening Tool for Asians and assessment for other risk factors such as early menopause, Chinese ethnicity and other secondary factors. Based on the resulting risk profile, women can be triaged to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning for definite diagnosis of osteoporosis. Treatment should be considered in women with previous fragility fractures, DEXA-diagnosed osteoporosis and high risk of fracture. Exercise improves muscle function, can help prevent falls and has moderate effects on improvements in bone mass. Women should ensure adequate calcium intake and vitamin D. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) effectively prevents osteoporosis and fractures, and should be encouraged in those aged < 50 years. For women aged < 60 years, MHT or tibolone can be considered, especially if they have vasomotor or genitourinary symptoms. Risedronate or bisphosphonates may then be reserved for those aged over 60 years.


Subject(s)
Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Osteoporosis , Bone Density , Diphosphonates , Female , Humans , Menopause , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/diagnosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/prevention & control
5.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 344-355, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159771

ABSTRACT

The objectives are to present an updated synopsis on osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome and evaluate the roles of selected micronutrients in its prevention and management. OSA refers to the concurrent deterioration of bone (osteopenia/osteoporosis), muscle (sarcopenia) and adipose tissue expansion. It portrays the most advanced stage in a continuum of body composition disorders. Although OSA has been widely studied involving the populations of different backgrounds, its prevalence is hard to collate because different methodologies and criteria were used for its diagnosis. Another critical health aspect is the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) which contributes to OSA and vice versa. Nutrition is important in the prevention and management of both OSA and LGCI. Although micronutrients act in numerous metabolic and physiological processes, their roles here are presented in relation to OSA (and its components) and LGCI in general and relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. These include calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and vitamins D and K; their interactions, physiological ratios and synergism/antagonism are discussed as well. In conclusion, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D have a profound impact on OSA and its components, and the latter two also on LGCI. Potassium and vitamin K are vital in bone, muscle functioning and possibly adipose tissue modification. Both, but particularly vitamin D, surfaced as important modulators of immune system with application in COVID-19 infections. While both phosphorus and sodium have important roles in bone, muscle and can impact adiposity, due to their abundance in food, their intake should be curbed to prevent possible damaging effects.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Obesity , Osteoporosis , Sarcopenia , Trace Elements , Vitamins , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diet therapy , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Humans , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Sarcopenia/diet therapy , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Syndrome , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/metabolism , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/physiology
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