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2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(1): 24-28, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616898

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report the changes made to ENT placements across the UK in response to the pandemic and their impact on student experience. METHODS: A questionnaire eliciting how ENT placements were provided before and after coronavirus disease 2019 was disseminated amongst Student and Foundation Doctors in Otolaryngology representatives. RESULTS: Thirty-eight respondents from 27 medical schools across the UK completed the survey (response rate of 90 per cent). Twenty-nine of the 38 respondents (76 per cent) reported a change in ENT placements in response to the pandemic. Six of the 38 students (16 per cent) remained satisfied with their ENT placements, as compared to 12 students prior to the pandemic (32 per cent). CONCLUSION: There is considerable variability in how medical schools responded to the pandemic. Most medical schools placed students into smaller groups, with less direct contact in the hospital. These changes resulted in lower student satisfaction. The increased emphasis on e-learning underscores the need for high quality e-learning materials to promote learning throughout the pandemic and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Otolaryngology/education , Schools, Medical , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom
3.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 29(6): 517-525, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will provide an overview of recent disruptions to the otolaryngology residency match process and conclude with questions and resources that can guide future selection system design. RECENT FINDINGS: During the implementation of the single accreditation system, the loss of osteopathic programs, reduction of osteopathic leadership positions, and lack of interest in Osteopathic Recognition represent serious threats to the profession; this has implications for the distribution of the otolaryngology workforce, plausibly decreasing healthcare access in less-populated communities. Next, the impacts of COVID-19 reverberated throughout the application process, including the reduction/elimination of away rotations, modification of application requirements, conversion to virtual interviews, and initiation of preference signaling. Soon, the transition to pass/fail scoring for the United States Medical Licensing Exam Step 1 could stimulate a paradigm shift, with a heightened emphasis on holistic review. SUMMARY: The last two match cycles have been the most dynamic and unpredictable in decades. Out of the commotion, the otolaryngology community has an opportunity for a fresh start, combining insights from past literature with recent articles compiled for this review. Moving forward, it will be advantageous to approach residency selection as a well-executed quality improvement project, requiring continuous assessment and adjustment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Otolaryngology , Humans , Otolaryngology/education , Personnel Selection , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 65, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply impacted healthcare and education systems, including resident education. The impact of the pandemic on the different types of pedagogical activities, and the displacement of pedagogical activities to online modalities have not yet been quantified. We sought to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on formal pedagogic components of otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) residency, the switch to distance learning and program director's perceptions of the future of teaching and learning. METHODS: A nationwide online survey was conducted on Canadian ORL-HNS program directors. The use of standard didactic activities in-person and online, before and during the pandemic was rated with Likert scales. Perceptions of the pandemic were described with open-ended questions. RESULTS: A total of 11 of the 13 program directors contacted responded. The analysis were conducted using nonparametric statistics. There was a significant drop in overall didactic activities during the pandemic, regardless of the teaching format (3.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.3, p < 0.05). The most affected activities were simulation and in-house lectures. Online activities increased dramatically (0.5 ± 0.2 to 5.0 ± 0.5, p < 0.001), including attendance to lectures made by other programs (0.5 ± 0.3 to 4.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Respondents stated their intention to maintain the hybrid online and in-person teaching model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that hybrid online and in-person teaching is likely to persist in the post-pandemic setting. A balanced residency curriculum requires diversity in academic activities. The pandemic can have positive consequences if higher education institutions work to better support distance teaching and learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Curriculum , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Otolaryngology/education , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Canada , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
J Surg Educ ; 79(1): 40-45, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic altered residency recruitment in the 2021 application cycle. As a result, many programs adapted by creating virtual opportunities to connect with applicants such as clerkships, open houses, meet and greets, and interviews. Recent research has explored applicant impressions on virtual interviews and open houses, but none have assessed the utility of meet and greets, optimal structure, or desired topics to be addressed. METHODS: We hosted two virtual meet and greets for otolaryngology applicants and subsequently conducted a structured survey to assess the benefit, gather insight into desired topics, and determine how future sessions could be optimized. RESULTS: Twenty of 65 participants responded to the survey (31% response rate). The majority of participants learned about the event through social media (n = 15) or online resources such as OtoMatch or HeadMirror (n = 12). Desired topics to be addressed included faculty-resident relationships (85%), research (80%), the city of Madison (75%), breadth and depth of faculty (75%), and ability to train residents for future positions and fellowships (75%), among others. Overall, participants found the events helpful in conveying the culture and environment, exposure to faculty and residents, addressing questions, and providing insight into intangible aspects of the program. The main area of improvement identified was related to having breakout rooms, longer sessions, and varying the topics for breakout rooms. CONCLUSION: Virtual meet and greets facilitate outreach and provide opportunities for applicants to engage with residency programs and demonstrate interest. While initially implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic, they will likely remain helpful in generating interest, reaching broader audiences, and possibly facilitating a successful match. It is critical to understand and incorporate the content that applicants wish to learn about at virtual meet and greets to best address questions, highlight key features, and demonstrate the intangible aspects of a residency program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Otolaryngology , Humans , Otolaryngology/education , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(8): 737-740, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has greatly disrupted routine ENT services. Subsequently, universities have chosen to either augment or suspend clinical placements. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elicit patients' perspectives toward various approaches to clinical placements in ENT during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaires were given to patients attending the ENT department for routine out-patient care. Responses were measured using a five-point Likert scale. Seventy-nine patients completed the survey. RESULTS: Ninety-five per cent of respondents felt the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic had not reduced their comfort in interacting with medical students. Most participants reported being comfortable with students participating directly or remotely in their care, and with students having access to their anonymised data. Twenty-five per cent of participants stated that they are uncomfortable with consultations being recorded and shared for medical education purposes. CONCLUSION: A number of approaches to clinical placements remain acceptable to patients. Educational leads should continue to offer placements in ENT that can incorporate direct or remote observation of consultations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Otolaryngology/education , Attitude to Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/organization & administration , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(8): 741-745, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has transformed medical education worldwide. Innovations in ENT teaching for medical students have focused on virtual learning, often replacing history-taking, patient examination and practical procedure observation. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate student experience and the impact of the altered learning environment. METHODS: Open-ended questionnaires were sent to students following ENT placements from March 2020 to March 2021. Responses were qualitatively analysed and coded using a grounded theory approach. Iterative cycles were used to develop codes via a constant comparison technique. Emerging categories from codes were refined to identify core themes. RESULTS: Core themes were explored, including: reduced clinical experience and patient contact compared with student expectations; challenges to learning opportunities in ENT; and the experience of different teaching methods, or preference for face-to-face teaching. CONCLUSION: Medical students on ENT placement have expectations of patient contact for learning opportunities. ENT departments should ensure that patient contact and face-to-face learning opportunities are facilitated, while maintaining safety, including appropriate personal protective equipment provision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Otolaryngology/education , Students, Medical/psychology , Teaching , Humans , Qualitative Research , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 29(3): 221-224, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249345

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: South Africa, and the African continent, have a shortage of ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic not only had an adverse impact on specialist training, but also impacted the ability of trainees to undertake the final examinations in order to qualify as ENT specialists. RECENT FINDINGS: The response to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the postponement of the final examination of the Fellowship of the College of Otorhinolaryngologists of South Africa (FCORL (SA)). A virtual clinical examination was held via videoconferencing to assess clinical judgement, insight, reasoning and decision making. SUMMARY: The virtual clinical assessment allowed trainees to undertake the final examination despite the COVID-19 pandemic, ensuring that they could be added to the limited number of specialists in South Africa and the African continent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Educational Measurement , Otolaryngology/education , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , South Africa
12.
Laryngoscope ; 131(11): 2455-2460, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230217

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Social media is a powerful networking tool among health care organizations. This study determines correlations between program reputation and social media activity and popularity, specifically among otolaryngology residency programs. METHODS: Accredited programs, excluding military and osteopathic, in the United States were included. Activity and popularity on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram were assessed during the same 7-month period from 2016 to 2020. Doximity Residency reputation scores (dividing programs into quartiles) and US News & World Report (comparing programs affiliated with top hospitals versus those with unranked hospitals) were utilized to compare differences based on reputation. RESULTS: Of 104 programs, 91 (88%) had social media accounts. Instagram and Twitter were more commonly used than Facebook, with 78 (75%), 49 (47%), and 42 (40%) accounts, respectively. The cumulative use of all three platforms grew yearly, while Twitter (R2  = 0.9863) and Instagram (R2  = 0.9955) presence increased exponentially. Doximity's top quartile programs had more Facebook (P = .020), Twitter (P < .001), and Instagram (P = .102) accounts. First-quartile programs also adopted each platform months before fourth-quartile programs. Stratified by US News & World Report, ranked programs had more social media accounts, with 24 (53%) on Facebook (P = .028), 32 (71%) on Twitter (P < .001), and 37 (82%) on Instagram (P = .155). Programs with higher reputations were more active and exhibited increased likes and followers over time. CONCLUSION: Social media use among otolaryngology programs has grown exponentially, with Instagram and Twitter becoming the dominant platforms. Higher ranked programs are more active on social media, have more followers, and adopt social media earlier. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2455-2460, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Otolaryngology/education , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(6): 486-491, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Simulation training has become a key part of the surgical curriculum over recent years. Current trainees face significantly reduced operating time as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, alongside increased costs to surgical training, thus creating a need for low-cost simulation models. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using multiple databases. Each model included was assessed for the ease and expense of its construction, as well as its validity and educational value. RESULTS: A total of 18 low-cost simulation models were identified, relating to otology, head and neck surgery, laryngeal surgery, rhinology, and tonsil surgery. In only four of these models (22.2 per cent) was an attempt made to demonstrate the educational impact of the model. Validation was rarely formally assessed. CONCLUSION: More efforts are required to standardise validation methods and demonstrate the educational value of the available low-cost simulation models in otorhinolaryngology.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation/economics , Otolaryngology/education , Simulation Training/economics , Surgeons/education , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Competence/economics , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Computer Simulation/statistics & numerical data , Curriculum , Databases, Factual , Humans , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Simulation Training/methods , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 29(3): 225-229, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the literature on the challenges to Otolaryngology training in the developing world, the solutions that have been implemented thus far and the role of technology in first the Digital, and now the Covid era. RECENT FINDINGS: There is an increasing prevalence of Otolaryngological pathology in the developing world. Efforts to treat this are hampered by multiple factors including appropriate medical training. A number of solutions have been implemented for this both in terms of face-to-face as well as virtual training. SUMMARY: The Covid era has created new challenges for Otolaryngology training in the developed world, sparking a huge shift in the delivery of education. Traditional forms of training have disadvantaged colleagues in the developing world and so this change in training modalities may benefit the developing world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Otolaryngology/education , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans
16.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 29(3): 230-234, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158041

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the rise of virtual tools to propagate academia and clinical service within Africa, in the field of otolaryngology, propelled by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: The rise of the COVID-19 virus saw a dramatic reduction in elective surgery and outpatient services with a subsequent reduction in experiential learning for trainees. This has spurred the rising trend to maintain the mission of education and clinical service, virtually. There have been unprecedented levels of international collaboration in the 'pandemic year of 2020' that has seen various platforms conceived to harmonize varying practices from global experts towards the ultimate goal of education propagation and improved patient care. The continent of Africa, amidst its own unique challenges, has boldly stepped into the virtual realm in form of a resident-centred platform coined University Of Cape Town-Africa Virtual ENT, and two multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings: the African Head and Neck Society Virtual Tumour Board and the African Virtual Cochlear Implant Meeting. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic will have long-lasting effects on clinical practice and training programs globally. This has demanded academicians to re-imagine novel ways to buoy academia and maintain international collaboration in an inexpensive and convenient way to nourish the sacred mission of education and clinical service within our spirited continent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Otolaryngology/education , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Africa , Humans , Telemedicine/organization & administration
18.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 165(3): 385-386, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125950

ABSTRACT

While its adverse impacts on health care setups are conspicuous, coronavirus disease 2019 continues to impede medical education. Exponential increases in the number of cases globally lend to the implementation of a nationwide lockdown. In Europe in general and Ireland in particular, the lockdown significantly limits medical students' clinical exposure and access to clinical sites. For medical students, this portends numerous implications, such as limited patient contact and an inability to explore the various medical and surgical specialties in profundity. Nevertheless, medical students continue to aspire to pursue various specialties-including otolaryngology-for which the clinical contact remains exceedingly limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Career Choice , Otolaryngology/education , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Laryngoscope ; 131(8): E2444-E2448, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the use of a three-dimensional (3D) printed, multilayer facial flap model for use in trainee education as an alternative method of teaching surgical techniques of facial reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: A 3D printed facial flap simulator was designed from a computed tomography scan and manufactured out of silicone for low-cost, high-fidelity simulation. This simulator was tested by a group of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery trainees at a single institution. The simulator group was compared to a control group who completed an exercise on a traditional paper facial flap exercise. Both groups underwent didactic lectures prior to completing their respective exercises. Pre- and post-exercise Likert scale surveys measuring experience, understanding, effectiveness, and realism were completed by both groups. Central tendency, variability, and confidence intervals were measured to evaluate the outcomes. RESULTS: Trainees completing the facial flap simulator reported a statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in overall expertise in facial flap procedures, design of facial flaps, and excision of standing cutaneous deformities. No statistically significant improvement was seen in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Trainees found the facial flap simulator to be an effective and useful training tool with a high level of realism in surgical education of facial reconstruction. Surgical simulators can serve as an adjunct to trainee education, especially during extraordinary times such as the novel coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, which significantly impacted surgical training. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E2444-E2448, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Face/surgery , Otolaryngology/education , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/education , Simulation Training/methods , Adult , Clinical Competence , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Anatomic , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Surgical Flaps/surgery
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