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1.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(2): 381-401, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337546

ABSTRACT

As the most common human chromosomal abnormality, Trisomy 21 is a condition that many otolaryngologists and likely all pediatric otolaryngologists will encounter during their careers. There are several considerations regarding airway obstruction, otologic conditions, anesthetic implications, and endocrine disorders that will impact the treatment of these patients. Further, there is increasing literature supporting the use of early instrumental assessment of swallowing, drug-induced sleep endoscopy at the time of first surgical intervention for sleep apnea, consideration of concurrent upper and lower airway evaluation, and early otologic management including potential surgical hearing rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Down Syndrome , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Child , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Endoscopy , Hearing Tests , Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery
2.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(11): 1000-1004, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of head and neck cancers (HNCs) and ear, nose, and throat (ENT) diseases due to second-hand smoke (SHS) have not been fully assessed. OBJECTIVE: To determine which ENT diseases or HNCs are associated with SHS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from a survey of a cross-sectional sample of ENT patients (n = 1228) on SHS exposure were compared to control-subject data (n = 6598) from a Japan National Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression and estimated odds ratios (ORs) determined whether SHS-disease associations were related to exposure location and disease occurrence. RESULTS: SHS was significantly associated with acute tonsillitis (OR in workplaces, 2.24 [95% CI, 1.34-3.75]; OR in restaurants, 4.24 [95% CI, 2.50-7.19]; OR in leisure places, 4.72 [95% CI, 2.93-7.62]); recurrent tonsillitis (OR in restaurants, 4.24 [95% CI, 2.52-7.13]; OR in leisure places, 5.29 [95% CI, 3.31-8.46]); facial palsy (OR in home, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.25-3.81]; OR in leisure places, 3.41 [95% CI, 1.97-5.89]); hypopharyngeal cancer (OR in home, 2.51 [95% CI, 1.18-5.36]; OR in workplaces, 2.53 [95% CI, 1.24-5.15]); and laryngeal cancer (OR in home, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.04-5.68]; OR in leisure places, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.00-5.07]). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: SHS may contribute to HNCs and ENT diseases, suggesting that merely being in the presence of smokers could increase the risk of head and neck morbidities.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data
3.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3373-3379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522163

ABSTRACT

Background: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are lysosomal storage disorders wherein glycosaminoglycans accumulate because the enzymes that degrade them are insufficient. The earliest symptoms, which are the main reasons for seeking consultation, are otorhinolaryngological and commonly occur in MPS I, II, IV, and VI. This retrospective study aimed to determine the occurrence of otorhinolaryngological manifestations in MPS patients in Taiwan and to analyze the prognosis of surgical intervention, including its effect on symptoms. Methods: We reviewed 42 patients (30 males and 12 females), with a median age of 20.5 years, who had MPS (16.7% type I, 35.7% type II, 19.0% type IIIB, 21.4% type IVA, and 7.2% type VI). The following otorhinolaryngological manifestations were collected: annual number of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and otitis media with effusion (OME) episodes, adenoid size, tonsillar size, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results: Among 42 patients, we found recurrent otitis media in 42.9% of the patients, hearing loss in 83.3% (mixed: 52.4%, conductive: 21.4%, and sensorineural: 9.5%), frequent URTIs in 47.6%, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 35.7%. Moreover, 76% of the patients underwent ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery, including adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, tympanostomy with ventilation tube insertion, tracheotomy, and supraglottoplasty. Conclusions: MPS patients had a high incidence of ENT problems. ENT surgery reduced the severity of hearing loss, degree of symptoms related to upper airway obstruction, and severity of respiratory tract and otological infections of patients with MPS.


Subject(s)
Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/epidemiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Hearing Loss/etiology , Humans , Male , Otitis Media with Effusion/epidemiology , Otitis Media with Effusion/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/surgery , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology , Taiwan/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Med Clin North Am ; 105(5): 871-883, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391540

ABSTRACT

Ear-nose-throat (ENT) manifestations are among the most frequently observed clinical features of systemic illnesses. The patients often present with overt findings of head and neck lesions such as salivary gland swelling or lymphadenopathy. In contrast, patients may present with covert findings of auditory, nasal, and laryngeal symptoms that are less obvious and are often overlooked. Therefore, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion to identify the underlying disease. Early recognition and prompt treatment or referral to specialists may prevent morbidity and mortality. This article discusses various systemic illnesses with ENT manifestations that are commonly encountered.


Subject(s)
Otolaryngology/methods , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/pathology , Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Primary Health Care
5.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(2): 101-107, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present with a wide range of symptoms. In this paper, a detailed characterisation of mild-to-moderate ear, nose nd throat (ENT) symptoms is presented with the aim of recognising the disease early to help reduce further spread and progression. METHODS: A total of 230 cases testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 134 negative controls were recruited for a case-control analysis. Symptoms were analysed using the Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Questionnaire, while other symptoms were investigated by ad hoc questions. RESULTS: Among the study samples (n = 364), 149 were males and 215 were females with age ranging from 20 to 89 years (mean 52.3). Four main groups of symptoms were obtained: influenza-like symptoms, ENT-symptoms, breathing issues and asthenia-related symptoms, representing 72%, 69%, 64% and 53% of overall referred clinical manifestations, respectively. ENT symptoms, breathing issues and influenza-like symptoms were associated with positivity to SARS-CoV-2, whereas asthenia-related symptoms did not show a significant association with SARS-CoV-2 infection after controlling for other symptoms, comorbidities and demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: ENT symptoms are equally represented with influenza-like ones as presenting symptoms of COVID-19. Patients with ENT symptoms should be investigated for early identification and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
s.l; s.n; feb. 1972. 7 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in German | SES-SP, SES-SP, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1240784

ABSTRACT

In recent years leprosy has been increasingly imported into Germany. An Indian leper showed the following features in our speciality: 1. Partly granulomatous and partly ulcerative inflammatory processus of nasal mucosa with adhesions between the tubirnate and the septum; 2. leproma in the nasal vestibule; 3. diffuse lepromas of the pinnae; 4. radiologically proved atrophy of the middle part of the alveolar process of the maxila with loose incisors (Moller-Christensen syndrome); 5. loss of the outer parts of the eyebrows (lucio signs); 6. visible and palpable firm swelling of the great auricular nerve on the right side on the neck.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Nose Diseases/diagnosis , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Leprosy/complications , Leprosy/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology
9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(3): 102917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545448

ABSTRACT

Mortality from COVID-19 has obscured a subtler crisis - the swelling ranks of COVID-19 survivors. After critical illness, patients often suffer post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses physical, cognitive, and/or mental health impairments that are often long-lasting barriers to resuming a meaningful life. Some deficits after COVID-19 critical illness will require otolaryngologic expertise for years after hospital discharge. There are roles for all subspecialties in preventing, diagnosing, or treating sequelae of COVID-19. Otolaryngologist leadership in multidisciplinary efforts ensures coordinated care. Timely tracheostomy, when indicated, may shorten the course of intensive care unit stay and thereby potentially reduce the impairments associated with PICS. Otolaryngologists can provide expertise in olfactory disorders; thrombotic sequelae of hearing loss and vertigo; and laryngotracheal injuries that impair speech, voice, swallowing, communication, and breathing. In the aftermath of severe COVID-19, otolaryngologists are poised to lead efforts in early identification and intervention for impairments affecting patients' quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Otolaryngologists , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Quality of Life , Survivorship , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): 1332-1342, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the evolution of laryngeal and extralaryngeal symptoms and findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) throughout a 3-month to 9-month treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Controlled Study. METHODS: One hundred twenty-seven LPR patients and 123 healthy individuals were enrolled from four European hospitals. Patients were managed with a 3-month personalized treatment considering the LPR characteristics at the impedance-pH monitoring. Regarding the clinical therapeutic response, treatment was adapted for 3 to 6 additional months. Symptoms and findings were assessed throughout the therapeutic course with the Reflux Symptom Score (RSS) and the short version of the Reflux Sign Assessment (sRSA). The relationship between patient and reflux characteristics, symptoms, and findings was assessed. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-one LPR patients completed the study. LPR patients exhibited more laryngeal and extralaryngeal symptoms and findings than healthy individuals. RSS significantly improved from baseline to 6 weeks posttreatment and continued to improve from 3 months to 6 months posttreatment. sRSA significantly improved from baseline to 3 months posttreatment. No further improvement was noted at 6 months posttreatment for pharyngeal and oral findings. Laryngeal findings continued to improve from 3 months to 6 months posttreatment. There was a significant association between patient stress level and RSS (P = .045). At 3 months posttreatment, 28.1% of patients had high or complete response, whereas 47.1% required 6 months or 9 months of treatment. Overall, 24.8% of patients had an LPR chronic course. CONCLUSIONS: Laryngeal and extralaryngeal symptoms and findings significantly improved throughout treatment in LPR patients. The improvement of laryngeal findings was slower. Regarding the low prevalence of some digestive or otolaryngological symptoms, a short version of the RSS could be developed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:1332-1342, 2021.


Subject(s)
Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Drug Monitoring , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/pathology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Disease Progression , Electric Impedance , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Female , Humans , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/complications , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux/drug therapy , Larynx/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Rev. ORL (Salamanca) ; 11(2): 1-4, 2020. ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-193773

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: Al menos el 36% de las infecciones cervicales profundas pueden tener un origen dental. Descripción del caso: Mujer de 44 años que consultó por disfonía de una semana de evolución. La rinofibrolaringoscopia reveló edema aritenoideo izquierdo y parálisis de la hemilaringe izquierda y cuello normal. Se realizó una tomografía axial computarizada, encontrando absceso parafaríngeo izquierdo. Se realizó tratamiento antibiótico sistémico y quirúrgico con cervicotomía y drenaje del absceso en cuyo cultivo se aisló Prevotella buccae. Comentarios: El resultado del cultivo ayudó a establecer el origen dental de la infección. En la historia dental, se encontró una historia de pericoronitis asociada con 3.8. CONCLUSIONES: el diagnóstico del origen dental de una infección cervical profunda se establece mediante la historia dental, el examen oral, la radiología oral y el cultivo microbiológico


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: At least 36% of deep cervical infections may have a dental origin. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old woman who consulted for dysphonia of a week of evolution. Rhinofibrolaryngoscopy revealed left arytenoid edema and paralysis of the left hemilarynx and normal neck. A computerized axial tomography was performed, finding left parapharyngeal abscess. Systemic and surgical antibiotic treatment was performed with cervicotomy and drainage of the abscess in whose culture Prevotella buccae was isolated. COMMENTS: The result of the culture helped establish the dental origin of the infection. In the dental history, a history of pericoronitis associated with 3.8 was found. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of the dental origin of a deep cervical infection is established by dental history, oral examination, oral radiology and microbiological culture


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Abscess/etiology , Dental Caries/complications , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Tooth Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Tooth Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Diseases/surgery , Laryngoscopy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Neck/pathology , Radiography, Panoramic
12.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(2): 63-66, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476394

ABSTRACT

Recently, almost all over the world attention of doctors and scientists is focused on a new coronavirus infection, the source of which was the causative agent SARS-CoV-2. In this regard, early diagnosis, including on the basis of symptoms from ENT organs, is crucial. A brief analysis of the available literature on the peculiarities of ENT organs manifestations in patients with SARS-CoV-2 is given. It was found out that to date there is very little data on the state of loro organs in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and no data on anosmia in the pediatric population. However, it is in children in the epidemic aspect that early diagnosis of infection and understanding of its key symptoms is of utmost importance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 134: 110022, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251975

ABSTRACT

Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) involvement by mucopolysaccharidoses is very common, affecting over 90% of patients, and occurs early in the course of the disease. Airway narrowing secondary to glycosaminoglycan deposition results in greatly increased morbidity, mortality and risk of anesthetic complications in these patients. Macroglossia, restricted mouth opening, tracheobronchomalacia, adenotonsillar hypertrophy along with other factors such as a short, rigid and unstable cervical spine, cardiac disease and increased susceptibility to respiratory infections result in a high perioperative mortality and morbidity. Imaging is most beneficial for evaluation of the airway, in particular in patients with obstructive symptoms and prior to intubation. We review the ENT manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses including airway involvement, otological, oral and dental complications. 3-D reconstructions of the trachea, which is routinely captured on CT imaging of the spine, can be of great value for planning intubation in this patient population.


Subject(s)
Mucopolysaccharidoses/diagnostic imaging , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
14.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 45(3): 316-326, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145151

ABSTRACT

ENT involvement is common in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), particularly in GPA and EGPA. Early recognition and treatment is important for good outcomes, yet evidence suggests that UK ENT surgeons may not consistently recognise the early features of AAV, despite a similar incidence to vestibular schwannoma. AAV is a rapidly advancing field, with significant developments in the understanding of its pathogenesis, classification and treatment over the past decade. Relevant vasculitis mimics are also discussed with a particular focus on the increasing prevalence of vasculitis mimics driven by an increase in recreational cocaine use, as well as the emergence and reclassification of several other vasculitis mimics in the head and neck. This article reviews key recent updates in the vasculitis literature, with a particular focus on those relevant to recognition and diagnosis of AAV for the ENT surgeon. Strengths and limitations of relevant diagnostic testing are discussed, and a method of evaluation of patients with features of AAV presenting to ENT services is outlined.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/complications , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Otolaryngology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/therapy , Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy
15.
Neurochirurgie ; 65(5): 318-321, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568777

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the literature on ENT disorders associated with craniosynostosis (CS), focusing on symptoms, diagnostic work-up, treatment and outcome. METHODS: Publications were retrieved by consulting the PubMed® free search engine of the US National Library of Medicine. The term "craniosynostosis" was combined with the following key-words: ENT, apneas, OSAS, sleep-disordered breathing, tonsillectomy, deafness, hearing loss. RESULTS: The main ENT disorders associated with CS are upper airway obstruction, chronic otitis and hearing loss. Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) is present in 7% to 67% of children suffering from CS and mainly results from midface stenosis with narrow nasal and rhinopharyngeal cavities. OSAS is diagnosed on polysomnography and airway obstruction levels are determined on wake or drug-induced sleep endoscopy and on CT or MRI. OSAS treatment can be surgical (mainly midface advancement, adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy, tracheostomy) or non-surgical (non-invasive ventilation, nasopharyngeal airway). Hearing impairment is frequently associated with CS. Its main cause is otitis media with effusion (OME) but ossicular malformations and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are sometimes observed. SNHL is mostly found in Muenke syndrome. In view of the frequency and potential severity of these disorders into account, yearly ENT visits are recommended in children presenting with CS.


Subject(s)
Craniosynostoses/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Airway Obstruction/epidemiology , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Child , Craniosynostoses/epidemiology , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Hearing Loss/etiology , Humans , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/epidemiology
16.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(3): 478-479, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535536

ABSTRACT

Granulomatosis with Polyangitis (GPA) is an uncommon immunologically mediated necrotizing vasculitis affecting the small and medium sized systemic blood vessels. We previously reported our experience with this condition and herein, we document our study findings and compare them to the clinical and radiological findings of various studies from around the world. By doing so we hope to further create awareness of this condition afflicting not only our part of the population but is part of a larger global phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Churg-Strauss Syndrome/diagnosis , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/complications , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Pakistan , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Laryngoscope ; 130(4): E122-E133, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic disorder. Our goal was to systematically review the literature regarding otolaryngology manifestations of CdLS. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases for original articles of otolaryngology manifestations for patients with CdLS. These articles were analyzed, and pooled prevalence was calculated. RESULTS: We analyzed 1,310 patients included in 35 case series and 34 case reports. Hearing loss was present for many patients (27 studies), with sensorineural hearing loss affecting 40.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.3-63.4) and conductive affecting 22.7% (95% CI: 5.7-39.7). Recurrent acute otitis media was the most frequent infectious manifestation, with 56.5% (95% CI: 34.1-78.4) in seven studies, followed by recurrent airway infections with 44.1% (95% CI: 11.0-87.1) in five studies. Forty-nine (49.7%) percent of patients (95% CI: 25.9-73.6) in nine studies had dysphagia, and 76.6% (95% CI: 59.8-93.3) in four studies had some degree of dysphonia. Craniofacial anomalies were reported in 30 studies, with micrognathia (53.1%; 95% CI: 34.1-72.1) and high arched palate (70.6%; 95% CI: 56.5-84.8) commonly reported. Additional physical exam abnormalities reported included those involving: lips (76.8%; 95% CI: 65.3-88.4), dentition (65.1%; 95% CI: 27.2-100), mouth (85.5%; 95% CI: 76.2-93.8), and eyelashes (87.1%; 95% CI: 77.2-96.9). Sleep-disordered breathing or obstructive sleep apnea affected 25.8% (95% CI: 11.4-40.2) of patients (7 studies). Airway anomalies were reported in 11 case reports. CONCLUSION: This is the first comprehensive evaluation of otolaryngologic manifestations in the CdLS literature. Most reported hearing loss and craniofacial anomalies. Sleep disorders occurred in a minority of patients, whereas airway disorders were primarily reported in case reports. These conditions should be further examined given their potential life-threatening implications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3a Laryngoscope, 130:E122-E133, 2020.


Subject(s)
De Lange Syndrome/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Humans
18.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 19(7): 34, 2019 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161431

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a major public health problem associated with various diseases. Improving obesity control and achieving greater patient satisfaction are critical unmet needs. Various otorhinolaryngologic diseases can have negative effects on quality of life or actual health status depending on their type. Over the past decade, the relationship between obesity and otorhinolaryngologic conditions has been investigated. The purpose of this review was to discuss the relationship between obesity and otorhinolaryngological diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: This is a narrative review on the current state of incidence, effects, and associated mechanisms between obesity and otorhinolaryngologic diseases. In various otologic diseases, otitis media (OM) and hearing loss (HL) are associated with obesity. In rhinologic parts, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were significantly associated with obesity. Most of these diseases are reported to have higher susceptibility and severity as body mass index (BMI) increases. However, the incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) was inversely associated with obesity, especially central adiposity. The relevance of obesity in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPR) and allergic rhinitis (AR) has yet to be clarified, and this remains controversial. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of incidence, effects, and associated mechanisms between obesity and otorhinolaryngologic diseases. Various otorhinolaryngological diseases are related to obesity. As obesity can be a negative risk factor in these otorhinolaryngologic diseases, early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases in obese patients will be critical.


Subject(s)
Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/epidemiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Body Mass Index , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
20.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 76(2): 87-94, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907388

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Children with trisomy 21 face a wide range of conditions in the head and neck region, for which it is important that physicians are aware and have a strong understanding of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders, and their management as well. Methods: Retrospective case series of pediatric patients with trisomy 21. The spectrum of otolaryngological manifestations, their management, and outcomes of each case were analysed. Results: One hundred and seventeen pediatric patients were included. The mean age was 7.2 ± 4.2 years. More than half of the patients (63%) had hearing loss (HL). The most frequent presentation was conductive HL, predominating the mild and bilateral type. The most common otological manifestations found were external ear canal stenosis and Eustachian tube dysfunction. Up to 75% of the patients with otologic involvement required some surgical procedure. The most common rhinological manifestations were chronic rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was present in 30% of all patients, which main treatment was tonsillectomy, followed by continuous positive and biphasic positive airway pressure treatments. Less than 5% of the patients presented a laryngeal compromise. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with trisomy 21 systematically should be referred to periodic ENT assessment due to the high incidence of manifestations in this region. Timely treatments should be offered in order to improve the health and the quality of life of the patient.


Introducción: Los niños con trisomía 21 enfrentan una amplia gama de problemas en la región de la cabeza y el cuello, por lo cual es importante reconocer las manifestaciones otorrinolaringológicas que presentan, así como su apropiado manejo. Métodos: Estudio de serie de casos retrospectivo de pacientes pediátricos con trisomía 21. De cada caso se analizó el espectro de manifestaciones otorrinolaringológicas, el manejo establecido y los resultados. Resultados: Se incluyeron 171 niños. La edad media de la primera valoración por otorrinolaringología en la institución fue de 7.2 ± 4.2 años. Las manifestaciones otológicas más frecuentes fueron la estenosis del conducto auditivo externo y la disfunción de la trompa de Eustaquio. Más de la mitad de los pacientes (63%) presentaron hipoacusia, principalmente de tipo conductivo bilateral, y hasta el 75% de los pacientes con afectación otológica requirieron algún procedimiento quirúrgico. Las manifestaciones rinológicas más comunes fueron la rinosinusitis crónica y la rinitis alérgica. La apnea obstructiva del sueño estuvo presente en el 30% de los pacientes. El tratamiento principal fue la amigdalectomía, seguida del tratamiento con dispositivos de presión positiva de la vía aérea. Menos del 5% de los pacientes presentaron un compromiso laríngeo. Conclusiones: Los pacientes pediátricos con trisomía 21 deben ser remitidos sistemáticamente a una evaluación otorrinolaringológica periódica, debido a la alta incidencia de manifestaciones en esta región. Se deben ofrecer tratamientos oportunos para mejorar su salud y calidad de vida.


Subject(s)
Down Syndrome/complications , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Hearing Loss/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Mexico , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies
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