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Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(4): 1677-1683, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593890


The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented global public health crisis and a pandemic associated with vicarious psychosocial and economic stresses. Such stresses were reported to lead to behavioral and emotional disturbances in individuals not infected with the COVID-19 virus. It is largely unknown if these stresses can trigger acute cardiovascular events (CVE) in such individuals. Covid-19-neagtive adults presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan from March 15, 2020 through March 14, 2021 were enrolled in the study if they reported exposure to psychosocial or economic stresses related to the pandemic lockdown. Of 300 patients enrolled (mean age 58.7 ± 12.9 years), AMI was diagnosed in 269 (89.7%) patients, CVA in 15 (5.0%) patients, and OHCA in 16 (5.3%) patients. Triggering events were psychosocial in 243 (81.0%) patients and economic stressors in 157 (52.3%) patients. The psychosocial stresses included loneliness, hopelessness, fear of COVID-19 infection, anger, and stress-related to death of a significant person. The economic stressors included financial hardships, job loss or insecurity, volatile or loss of income. Exposure to more than one trigger was reported in 213 (71.0%) patients. In-hospital mortality of the patients admitted for AMI or CVA was 2.1%, and none of the OHCA survived the event. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a source of significant psychosocial and economic hardships that can trigger life-threatening acute CVE among individuals not infected with the virus.

COVID-19 , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Jordan , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e019635, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249490


Background Public health emergencies may significantly impact emergency medical services responses to cardiovascular emergencies. We compared emergency medical services responses to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and ST-segment‒elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic to 2018 to 2019 and evaluated the impact of California's March 19, 2020 stay-at-home order. Methods and Results We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using Los Angeles County emergency medical services registry data for adult patients with paramedic provider impression (PI) of OHCA or STEMI from February through May in 2018 to 2020. After March 19, 2020, weekly counts for PI-OHCA were higher (173 versus 135; incidence rate ratios, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19‒1.37; P<0.001) while PI-STEMI were lower (57 versus 65; incidence rate ratios, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78‒0.97; P=0.02) compared with 2018 and 2019. After adjusting for seasonal variation in PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI, the increase in PI-OHCA observed after March 19, 2020 remained significant (P=0.02). The proportion of PI-OHCA who received defibrillation (16% versus 23%; risk difference [RD], -6.91%; 95% CI, -9.55% to -4.26%; P<0.001) and had return of spontaneous circulation (17% versus 29%; RD, -11.98%; 95% CI, -14.76% to -9.18%; P<0.001) were lower after March 19 in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019. There was also a significant increase in dead on arrival emergency medical services responses in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019, starting around the time of the stay-at-home order (P<0.001). Conclusions Paramedics in Los Angeles County, CA responded to increased PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI following the stay-at-home order. The increased PI-OHCA was not fully explained by the reduction in PI-STEMI. Field defibrillation and return of spontaneous circulation were lower. It is critical that public health messaging stress that emergency care should not be delayed.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Electric Countershock , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Incidence , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Registries , Return of Spontaneous Circulation , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e018379, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941677


Background Studies have reported significant reduction in acute myocardial infarction-related hospitalizations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, whether these trends are associated with increased incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in this population is unknown. Methods and Results Acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations with OHCA during the COVID-19 period (February 1-May 14, 2020) from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project and British Cardiovascular Intervention Society data sets were analyzed. Temporal trends were assessed using Poisson models with equivalent pre-COVID-19 period (February 1-May 14, 2019) as reference. Acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations during COVID-19 period were reduced by >50% (n=20 310 versus n=9325). OHCA was more prevalent during the COVID-19 period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period (5.6% versus 3.6%), with a 56% increase in the incidence of OHCA (incidence rate ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.39-1.74). Patients experiencing OHCA during COVID-19 period were likely to be older, likely to be women, likely to be of Asian ethnicity, and more likely to present with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The overall rates of invasive coronary angiography (58.4% versus 71.6%; P<0.001) were significantly lower among the OHCA group during COVID-19 period with increased time to reperfusion (mean, 2.1 versus 1.1 hours; P=0.05) in those with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The adjusted in-hospital mortality probability increased from 27.7% in February 2020 to 35.8% in May 2020 in the COVID-19 group (P<.001). Conclusions In this national cohort of hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction, we observed a significant increase in incidence of OHCA during COVID-19 period paralleled with reduced access to guideline-recommended care and increased in-hospital mortality.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medical Audit , Middle Aged , Myocardial Reperfusion/trends , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult