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1.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 85, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The city of Freiburg has been among the most affected regions by the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. In out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care, all parts of the rescue system were exposed to profound infrastructural changes. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of these changes in the resuscitation landscape in the Freiburg region. METHODS: Utstein-style quantitative data on OHCA with CPR initiated, occurring in the first pandemic wave between February 27th, 2020 and April 30th, 2020 were compared to the same time periods between 2016 and 2019. Additionally, qualitative changes in the entire rescue system were analyzed and described. RESULTS: Incidence of OHCA with attempted CPR did not significantly increase during the pandemic period (11.1/100.000 inhabitants/63 days vs 10.4/100.000 inhabitants/63 days, p = 1.000). In witnessed cases, bystander-CPR decreased significantly from 57.7% (30/52) to 25% (4/16) (p = 0.043). A severe pre-existing condition (PEC) was documented more often, 66.7% (16/24) vs 38.2% (39/102) there were longer emergency medical services (EMS) response times, more resuscitation attempts terminated on scene, 62.5% (15/24) vs. 34.3% (35/102) and less patients transported to hospital (p = 0.019). Public basic life support courses, an app-based first-responder alarm system, Kids Save Lives activities and a prehospital extracorporeal CPR (eCPR) service were paused during the peak of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: In our region, bystander CPR in witnessed OHCA cases as well as the number of patients transported to hospital significantly decreased during the first pandemic wave. Several important parts of the resuscitation landscape were paused. The COVID-19 pandemic impedes OHCA care, which leads to additional casualties. Countermeasures should be taken.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , Registries
2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 57: 114-123, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803389

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of cases worldwide. As the pandemic has progressed, the understanding of this disease has evolved. Its impact on the health and welfare of the human population is significant; its impact on the delivery of healthcare is also considerable. OBJECTIVE: This article is another paper in a series addressing COVID-19-related updates to emergency clinicians on the management of COVID-19 patients with cardiac arrest. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. From a global perspective, as of February 23, 2022, 435 million infections have been noted with 5.9 million deaths (1.4%). Current data suggest an increase in the occurrence of cardiac arrest, both in the outpatient and inpatient settings, with corresponding reductions in most survival metrics. The frequency of out-of-hospital lay provider initial care has decreased while non-shockable initial cardiac arrest rhythms have increased. While many interventions, including chest compressions, are aerosol-generating procedures, the risk of contagion to healthcare personnel is low, assuming appropriate personal protective equipment is used; vaccination with boosting provides further protection against contagion for the healthcare personnel involved in cardiac arrest resuscitation. The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of cardiac arrest care is considerable and, despite multiple efforts, has adversely impacted the chain of survival. CONCLUSION: This review provides a focused update of cardiac arrest in the setting of COVID-19 for emergency clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 57: 1-5, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emerging research demonstrates lower rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR), public AED (PAD), worse outcomes, and higher incidence of OHCA during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to characterize the incidence of OHCA during the early pandemic period and the subsequent long-term period while describing changes in OHCA outcomes and survival. METHODS: We analyzed adult OHCAs in Texas from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) during March 11-December 31 of 2019 and 2020. We stratified cases into pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our prehospital outcomes were bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR), public AED use (PAD), sustained ROSC, and prehospital termination of resuscitation (TOR). Our hospital survival outcomes were survival to hospital admission, survival to hospital discharge, good neurological outcomes (CPC Score of 1 or 2) and Utstein bystander survival. We created a mixed effects logistic regression model analyzing the association between the pandemic on outcomes, using EMS agency as the random intercept. RESULTS: There were 3619 OHCAs (45.0% of overall study population) in 2019 compared to 4418 (55.0% of overall study population) in 2020. Rates of BCPR (46.2% in 2019 to 42.2% in 2020, P < 0.01) and PAD (13.0% to 7.3%, p < 0.01) decreased. Patient survival to hospital admission decreased from 27.2% in 2019 to 21.0% in 2020 (p < 0.01) and survival to hospital discharge decreased from 10.0% in 2019 to 7.4% in 2020 (p < 0.01). OHCA patients were less likely to receive PAD (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI [0.4, 0.8]) and the odds of field termination increased (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI [1.4, 1.7]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds state-wide evidence to the national phenomenon of long-term increased OHCA incidence during COVID-19, worsening rates of BCPR, PAD use and survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , Registries , Texas/epidemiology
4.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(3): 237-243, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741055

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the cardiovascular system has been highlighted since the very first weeks after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 identification. We reviewed the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on cardiac arrest, both considering those occurred out of the hospital (OHCA) and in the hospital (IHCA). RECENT FINDINGS: An increase in OHCA incidence occurred in different countries, especially in those regions most burdened by the COVID-19, as this seems to be bounded to the pandemic trend. A change of OHCA patients' characteristics, with an increase of the OHCA occurred at home, a decrease in bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator use before Emergency Medical Service (EMS) arrival and an increase in non-shockable rhythms, have been highlighted. A dramatic drop in the OHCA patients' survival was pointed out in almost all the countries, regardless of the high or low-incidence of COVID-19 cases. Concerning IHCA, a reduction in survival was highlighted in patients with COVID-19 who sustained a cardiac arrest. SUMMARY: Cardiac arrest occurrence and survival were deeply affected by the pandemic. Informative campaigns to the population to call EMS in case of need and the re-allocation of the prehospital resources basing on the pandemic trend are needed to improve survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics
5.
Resuscitation ; 172: 74-83, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740147

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Australasian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (Aus-ROC) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) Epistry (Epidemiological Registry) now covers 100% of Australia and New Zealand (NZ). This study reports and compares the Utstein demographics, arrest characteristics and outcomes of OHCA patients across our region. METHODS: We included all OHCA cases throughout 2019 as submitted to the Epistry by the eight Australian and two NZ emergency medical services (EMS). We calculated crude and age-standardised incidence rates and performed a national and EMS regional comparison. RESULTS: We obtained data for 31,778 OHCA cases for 2019: 26,637 in Australia and 5,141 in NZ. Crude incidence was 107.9 per 100,000 person-years in Australia and 103.2/100,000 in NZ. Overall, the majority of OHCAs occurred in adults (96%), males (66%), private residences (76%), were unwitnessed (63%), of presumed medical aetiology (83%), and had an initial monitored rhythm of asystole (64%). In non-EMS-witnessed cases, 38% received bystander CPR and 2% received public defibrillation. Wide variation was seen between EMS regions for all OHCA demographics, arrest characteristics and outcomes. In patients who received an EMS-attempted resuscitation (13,664/31,778): 28% (range across EMS = 13.1% to 36.7%) had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) at hospital arrival and 13% (range across EMS = 9.9% to 20.7%) survived to hospital discharge/30-days. Survival in the Utstein comparator group (bystander-witnessed in shockable rhythm) varied across the EMS regions between 27.4% to 42.0%. CONCLUSION: OHCA across Australia and NZ has varied incidence, characteristics and survival. Understanding the variation in survival and modifiable predictors is key to informing strategies to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , New Zealand/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Registries
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(6): e024140, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731380

ABSTRACT

Background Little is known about how COVID-19 influenced engagement of citizen responders dispatched to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) by a smartphone application. The objective was to describe and analyze the Danish Citizen Responder Program and bystander interventions (both citizen responders and nondispatched bystanders) during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. Methods and Results All OHCAs from January 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020, with citizen responder activation in 2 regions of Denmark were included. We compared citizen responder engagement for OHCA in the nonlockdown period (January 1, 2020, to March 10, 2020, and April 21, 2020, to June 30, 2020) with the lockdown period (March 11, 2020, to April 20, 2020). Data are displayed in the order lockdown versus nonlockdown period. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates did not differ in the 2 periods (99% versus 92%; P=0.07). Bystander defibrillation (9% versus 14%; P=0.4) or return-of-spontaneous circulation (23% versus 23%; P=1.0) also did not differ. A similar amount of citizen responders accepted alarms during the lockdown (6 per alarm; interquartile range, 6) compared with the nonlockdown period (5 per alarm; interquartile range, 5) (P=0.05). More citizen responders reported performing chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation during lockdown compared with nonlockdown (79% versus 59%; P=0.0029), whereas fewer performed standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including ventilations (19% versus 38%; P=0.0061). Finally, during lockdown, more citizen responders reported being not psychologically affected by attending an OHCA compared with nonlockdown period (68% versus 56%; P<0.0001). Likewise, fewer reported being mildly affected during lockdown (26%) compared with nonlockdown (35%) (P=0.003). Conclusions The COVID-19 lockdown in Denmark was not associated with decreased bystander-initiated resuscitation in OHCAs attended by citizen responders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263607, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A reduction in overall acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cases, increases in the severity of ACS presentation, and increased rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been reported from multiple countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The attributed factors include COVID-19 infection, fear of COVID-19 and resultant avoidance of health care facilities, and restrictions on mobility. Pakistan, a country with a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and challenges related to health care access, will be expected to demonstrate these same findings. Therefore, we compared ACS hospitalization, ACS severity, and patients who have already died (dead on arrival, or DOA) due to presumed OHCA at a tertiary cardiac hospital during pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic periods in Pakistan. METHODS: Standardized data elements were extracted from the charts of patients with ACS, and telephonic verbal autopsies (VA) using a validated tool were conducted for patients who were arrived DOA. As a comparison, cases during the same months prior to the COVID-19 were analyzed for respective waves. Events were counted, and proportions and frequencies are reported for each time period. RESULTS: A total of 4,480 ACS cases were reviewed; 1,216 cases during March-July 2019, 804 cases in the same months of 2020 (33.8% decrease); 1,304 cases in August 2019-January 2020 and 1,157 in the corresponding months of 2020 and 2021 (11.2% decrease). There was no observed change in the baseline characteristics of patients with ACS or their symptom-to-door time, and in-hospital mortality was unchanged across all time periods. There were 218 DOA cases in pre-pandemic months and 360 cases during the pandemic. The pre-pandemic rate of DOA was 12/1000 emergency patients (95% CI 10-13) compared to 22/1000 (95% CI 22-27) during the pandemic (30/1000in the 1st wave and 17/1000 during 2nd wave). On VA, CVD was found to be the major cause of death during both time periods. CONCLUSION: At a cardiac hospital in Pakistan, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a reduction in ACS hospitalization and an increased DOA rate.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Death , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 800, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635245

ABSTRACT

Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR), early defibrillation and timely treatment by emergency medical services (EMS) can double the chance of survival from out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (OHCA). We investigated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pre-hospital chain of survival. We searched five bibliographical databases for articles that compared prehospital OHCA care processes during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted, and meta-regression with mixed-effect models and subgroup analyses were conducted where appropriate. The search yielded 966 articles; 20 articles were included in our analysis. OHCA at home was more common during the pandemic (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.71, p = 0.0069). BCPR did not differ during and before the COVID-19 pandemic (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.80-1.11, p = 0.4631), although bystander defibrillation was significantly lower during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88, p = 0.0107). EMS call-to-arrival time was significantly higher during the COVID-19 pandemic (SMD 0.27, 95% CI 0.13-0.40, p = 0.0006). Resuscitation duration did not differ significantly between pandemic and pre-pandemic timeframes. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected prehospital processes for OHCA. These findings may inform future interventions, particularly to consider interventions to increase BCPR and improve the pre-hospital chain of survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/mortality , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(4): 1677-1683, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593890

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented global public health crisis and a pandemic associated with vicarious psychosocial and economic stresses. Such stresses were reported to lead to behavioral and emotional disturbances in individuals not infected with the COVID-19 virus. It is largely unknown if these stresses can trigger acute cardiovascular events (CVE) in such individuals. Covid-19-neagtive adults presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan from March 15, 2020 through March 14, 2021 were enrolled in the study if they reported exposure to psychosocial or economic stresses related to the pandemic lockdown. Of 300 patients enrolled (mean age 58.7 ± 12.9 years), AMI was diagnosed in 269 (89.7%) patients, CVA in 15 (5.0%) patients, and OHCA in 16 (5.3%) patients. Triggering events were psychosocial in 243 (81.0%) patients and economic stressors in 157 (52.3%) patients. The psychosocial stresses included loneliness, hopelessness, fear of COVID-19 infection, anger, and stress-related to death of a significant person. The economic stressors included financial hardships, job loss or insecurity, volatile or loss of income. Exposure to more than one trigger was reported in 213 (71.0%) patients. In-hospital mortality of the patients admitted for AMI or CVA was 2.1%, and none of the OHCA survived the event. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a source of significant psychosocial and economic hardships that can trigger life-threatening acute CVE among individuals not infected with the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Jordan , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Air Med J ; 41(1): 68-72, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 may have contributed to an excess of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OOHCAs). This observational study identified changes in OOHCA epidemiology pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown in a single UK helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS). METHODS: A retrospective, single-center (Essex & Herts Air Ambulance), observational study was undertaken with anonymized OOHCA data (demographics, etiology, and outcomes) from March 23, 2020, to June 23, 2020, and comparative data from March 23, 2019, to June 23, 2019. Supplementary data (total OOHCAs and patient outcomes) were provided by the East of England Ambulance Service National Health Service Trust. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square test; P < .05 was statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the HEMS activations during national lockdown, 33.6% were for OOHCAs compared with 25.8% during the reference time frame. The frequency of young and female OOHCAs demonstrated a statistically significant increase. Statistically significant variations in medical etiology and initial cardiac rhythm were identified. CONCLUSION: During the initial UK-wide lockdown, the OOHCA characteristics attended by 1 HEMS team were altered. The changes seen may be due to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 or an alteration in dispatch due to the demand placed on the wider ambulance service; this may require further consideration for any future lockdowns or pandemics.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Aircraft , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between COVID-19 and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) has been shown during different phases of the first pandemic wave, but little is known about how to predict where cardiac arrests will increase in case of a third peak. AIM: To seek for a correlation between the OHCAs and COVID-19 daily incidence both during the two pandemic waves at a provincial level. METHODS: We considered all the OHCAs occurred in the provinces of Pavia, Lodi, Cremona, Mantua and Varese, in Lombardy Region (Italy), from 21/02/2020 to 31/12/2020. We divided the study period into period 1, the first 157 days after the outbreak and including the first pandemic wave and period 2, the second 158 days including the second pandemic wave. We calculated the cumulative and daily incidence of OHCA and COVID-19 for the whole territory and for each province for both periods. RESULTS: A significant correlation between the daily incidence of COVID-19 and the daily incidence of OHCAs was observed both during the first and the second pandemic period in the whole territory (R = 0.4, p<0.001 for period 1 and 2) and only in those provinces with higher COVID-19 cumulative incidence (period 1: Cremona R = 0.3, p = 0.001; Lodi R = 0.4, p<0.001; Pavia R = 0.3; p = 0.01; period 2: Varese R = 0.4, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that strictly monitoring the pandemic trend may help in predict which territories will be more likely to experience an OHCAs' increase. That may also serve as a guide to re-allocate properly health resources in case of further pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(6): 676-683, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some studies in countries affected by the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have shown that the missions of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the rate of death and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been increased due to the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the process of EMS missions, death, and OHCA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in Tehran, Iran. All conducted missions in the first six months of the three consecutive solar years of March 21 until September 22 of 2018-2020, which were registered in the registry bank of the Tehran EMS center, were assessed and compared. Based on the opinion of experts, the technician's on-scene diagnoses were categorized into 14 groups, and then death and OHCA cases were compared. RESULTS: In this study, the data of 1,050,376 missions performed in three study periods were analyzed. In general, the number of missions in 2020 was 17.83% fewer than that of 2019 (P < .001); however, the number of missions in 2019 was 30.33% more than that of 2018. On the other hand, the missions of respiratory problems, cardiopulmonary arrest, infectious diseases, and poisoning were increased in 2020 compared to that of 2019. The raw number of OHCA and death cases respectively in 2018, 2019, and 2020 were 25.0, 22.7, and 28.6 cases per 1,000 missions. Of all patients who died in 2020, 4.9% were probable/confirmed COVID-19 cases. The history of heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory disease in patients in 2020 was more frequent than that of the other two years. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the number of missions in the Tehran EMS in 2020 were decreased compared to that of 2019, however the number of missions in 2019 was more than that of 2018. Respiratory problems, infectious diseases, poisoning, death, and OHCA were increased compared to the previous two years and cardiovascular complaints, neurological problems, and motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in 2020 were fewer than that of the other two years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021486, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The incidence of Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) is estimated at 1/1000 persons/year. In the pre-Covid-19 era world, OHCA survival rate in Europe was 7-6%. The main objective is to analyze OHCA survival in the Lombardy region by highlighting the factors related to both the victims' characteristics and the chain of survival. METHODS: All OHCAs were grouped into four pre-established periods in 2019 (14-23 January; 15-24 April; 15-24 July; 14-23 October). Following the Utstein method, we selected witnessed OHCAs with presumed cardiac etiology. The outcome of each case was collected in four moments in time: Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), Emergency Department (ED), 24 hours and 30 days. The neurological outcome 30 days after OHCA was also investigated and stratified with the Cerebral Performance Category Score (CPC). RESULTS: We selected 456 cases of OHCA with witnessed cardiac etiology. ROSC was achieved in 121 cases (26.5%), survival in the Emergency Departments in 110 patients (24.1%), after 24 hours in 86 (18.86%) and after 30 days in 72 (15.8%). Male sex was shown to improve OHCA survival. A shockable presentation rhythm, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders and the activation of Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) positively influenced OHCA outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Males are more predisposed to incur an OHCA event than females, but they have greater chances of survival. Factors most related to survival are: shockable rhythm, bystanders CPR and the activation of a PAD. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Female , Humans , Male , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(6): 423-431, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and a direct mechanism of cardiac arrest in infected patients was hypothesized. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to April 05, 2021. We included studies comparing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection versus noninfected patients. The primary outcome was survival at hospital discharge or at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation, cardiac arrest witnessed and occurring at home, bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, proportion of nonshockable rhythm and resuscitation attempted, and ambulance arrival time. RESULTS: In the ten included studies, 18% (1341/7545) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurred in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and SARS-CoV-2 infection had reduced rates of survival (16/856 [1.9%] vs. 153/2344 [6.5%]; odds ratio (OR) = 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.65; P = 0.001; I2 = 28%) and return of spontaneous circulation (188/861 [22%] vs. 640/2403 [27%]; OR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) when compared to noninfected patients. Ambulance arrived later (15 ± 10 vs. 13 ± 7.5 min; mean difference = 1.64; 95% CI, 0.41-2.88; P = 0.009; I2 = 61%) and nonshockable rhythms (744/803 [93%] vs. 1828/2217 [82%]; OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 2.08-3.73; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) occurred more frequently. SARS-CoV-2 positive patients suffered a cardiac arrest at home more frequently (1186/1263 [94%] vs. 3598/4055 [89%]; OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.45-2.40; P<0.001; I2 = 0%) but witnessed rate (486/890 [55%] vs. 1385/2475 [56%]; OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.82-1.14; P = 0.63; I2 = 0%) and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate (439/828 [53%] vs. 1164/2304 [51%]; OR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.24; P = 0.70; I2 = 53%) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: One-fifth of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection. These patients had low rates of return of spontaneous circulation and survival and were characterized by higher nonshockable rhythms but similar bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO - CRD42021243540.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 64-68, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458554

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A decline in OHCA performance metrics during the pandemic has been reported in the literature but the cause is still not known. The Montgomery County Fire and Rescue Service (MCFRS) observed a decline in both the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the proportion of resuscitations that resulted in cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 or 2 discharge of the patient beginning in March of 2020. This study examines whether the decline in these performance metrics persists when known COVID positive patients are excluded from the analysis. METHODS: Two samples of OHCA patients for similar time periods (one year apart) before and after the start of the COVID pandemic were developed. A database of known COVID positive patients among EMS encounters was used to identify and exclude COVID positive patients. OHCA outcomes in these two groups were then compared using a Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for difference in proportions and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for difference in means. A two-stage multivariable logistic regression model was used to develop odds ratios for achieving ROSC and CPC 1 or 2 discharge in each period. RESULTS: After excluding known COVID patients, 32.5% of the patients in the pre-COVID period achieved ROSC compared to 25.1% in the COVID period (p = 0.007). 6% of patients in the pre-COVID period were discharged with CPC 1 or 2 compared to 3.2% from the COVID era (p = 0.026). Controlling for all available patient characteristics, patients undergoing OHCA resuscitation prior to be beginning of the pandemic were 1.2 times more likely to achieve ROSC and 1.6 times more likely to be discharged with CPC 1 or 2 than non-COVID patients in the pandemic era sample. CONCLUSIONS: When known COVID patients are excluded, pre-pandemic OHCA resuscitation patients were more likely to achieve ROSC and CPC 1 or 2 discharge. The prevalence of known COVID positive patients among all OHCA resuscitations during the pandemic was not sufficient to fully account for the marked decrease in both ROSC and CPC 1 or 2 discharges. Other causative factors must be sought.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19 , Chi-Square Distribution , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Maryland , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Resuscitation , Retrospective Studies , Return of Spontaneous Circulation
16.
Crit Care Med ; 50(5): 791-798, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare survival among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest as a function of their status for coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: We performed an observational study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients between March 2020 and December 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 status (confirmed, suspected, or negative) was defined according to the World Health Organization's criteria. SETTING: Information on the patients and their care was extracted from the French national out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry. The French prehospital emergency medical system has two tiers: the fire department intervenes rapidly to provide basic life support, and mobile ICUs provide advanced life support. The study data (including each patient's coronavirus disease 2019 status) were collected by 95 mobile ICUs throughout France. PATIENTS: We included 6,624 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: 127 cases with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019, 473 with suspected coronavirus disease 2019, and 6,024 negative for coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The "confirmed" and "suspected" groups of coronavirus disease 2019 patients had similar characteristics and were more likely to have suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a respiratory cause (confirmed: 53.7%, suspected coronavirus disease 2019: 56.5%; p = 0.472) than noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients (14.0%; p < 0.001 vs confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 patients). Advanced life support was initiated for 57.5% of the confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 patients, compared with 64.5% of the suspected coronavirus disease 2019 patients (p = 0.149) and 70.6% of the noncoronavirus disease 2019 ones (p = 0.002). The survival rate at 30-day postout-of-hospital cardiac arrest was 0% in the confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 group, 0.9% in the suspected coronavirus disease 2019 group (p = 0.583 vs confirmed), and 3.5% (p = 0.023) in the noncoronavirus disease 2019 group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted a zero survival rate in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019. This finding raises important questions with regard to the futility of resuscitation for coronavirus disease 2019 patients and the management of the associated risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Registries
17.
Emerg Med J ; 38(9): 679-684, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel have high COVID-19 risk during resuscitation. The resuscitation protocol for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) was modified in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how the adjustments in the EMS system affected patients with OHCA remains unclear. METHODS: We analysed data from the Taichung OHCA registry system. We compared OHCA outcomes and rescue records for 622 cases during the COVID-19 outbreak period (1 February to 30 April 2020) with those recorded for 570 cases during the same period in 2019. RESULTS: The two periods did not differ significantly with respect to patient age, patient sex, the presence of witnesses or OHCA location. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation with automated external defibrillators were more common in 2020 (52.81% vs 65.76%, p<0.001%, and 23.51% vs 31.67%, p=0.001, respectively). The EMS response time was longer during the COVID-19 pandemic (445.8±210.2 s in 2020 vs 389.7±201.8 s in 2019, p<0.001). The rate of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation was lower in 2020 (6.49% vs 2.57%, p=0.001); 2019 and 2020 had similar rates of survival discharge (5.96% vs 4.98%). However, significantly fewer cases had favourable neurological function in 2020 (4.21% vs 2.09%, p=0.035). CONCLUSION: EMS response time for patients with OHCA was prolonged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early advanced life support by EMS personnel remains crucial for patients with OHCA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Emergency Medical Technicians/standards , Emergency Medical Technicians/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Taiwan/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e019635, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249490

ABSTRACT

Background Public health emergencies may significantly impact emergency medical services responses to cardiovascular emergencies. We compared emergency medical services responses to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and ST-segment‒elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic to 2018 to 2019 and evaluated the impact of California's March 19, 2020 stay-at-home order. Methods and Results We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using Los Angeles County emergency medical services registry data for adult patients with paramedic provider impression (PI) of OHCA or STEMI from February through May in 2018 to 2020. After March 19, 2020, weekly counts for PI-OHCA were higher (173 versus 135; incidence rate ratios, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19‒1.37; P<0.001) while PI-STEMI were lower (57 versus 65; incidence rate ratios, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78‒0.97; P=0.02) compared with 2018 and 2019. After adjusting for seasonal variation in PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI, the increase in PI-OHCA observed after March 19, 2020 remained significant (P=0.02). The proportion of PI-OHCA who received defibrillation (16% versus 23%; risk difference [RD], -6.91%; 95% CI, -9.55% to -4.26%; P<0.001) and had return of spontaneous circulation (17% versus 29%; RD, -11.98%; 95% CI, -14.76% to -9.18%; P<0.001) were lower after March 19 in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019. There was also a significant increase in dead on arrival emergency medical services responses in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019, starting around the time of the stay-at-home order (P<0.001). Conclusions Paramedics in Los Angeles County, CA responded to increased PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI following the stay-at-home order. The increased PI-OHCA was not fully explained by the reduction in PI-STEMI. Field defibrillation and return of spontaneous circulation were lower. It is critical that public health messaging stress that emergency care should not be delayed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Electric Countershock , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Incidence , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Registries , Return of Spontaneous Circulation , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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