Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(36): e255, 2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, COVID-19 has affected the responses of emergency medical service (EMS) systems to cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on EMS responses to and outcomes of adult OHCA in an area of South Korea. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of adult OHCA patients attended by EMS providers comparing the EMS responses to and outcomes of adult OHCA during the COVID-19 pandemic to those during the pre-COVID-19 period. Propensity score matching was used to compare the survival rates, and logistic regression analysis was used to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the survival of OHCA patients. RESULTS: A total of 891 patients in the pre-COVID-19 group and 1,063 patients in the COVID-19 group were included in the final analysis. During the COVID-19 period, the EMS call time was shifted to a later time period (16:00-24:00, P < 0.001), and the presence of an initial shockable rhythm was increased (pre-COVID-19 vs. COVID-19, 7.97% vs. 11.95%, P = 0.004). The number of tracheal intubations decreased (5.27% vs. 1.22%, P < 0.001), and the use of mechanical chest compression devices (30.53% vs. 44.59%, P < 0.001) and EMS response time (median [quartile 1-quartile 3], 7 [5-10] vs. 8 [6-11], P < 0.001) increased. After propensity score matching, the survival at admission rate (22.52% vs. 18.24%, P = 0.025), survival to discharge rate (7.77% vs. 5.52%, P = 0.056), and favorable neurological outcome (5.97% vs. 3.49%, P < 0.001) decreased. In the propensity score matching analysis of the impact of COVID-19, odds ratios of 0.768 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592-0.995) for survival at admission and 0.693 (95% CI, 0.446-1.077) for survival to discharge were found. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 period, there were significant changes in the EMS responses to OHCA. These changes are considered to be partly due to social distancing measures. As a result, the proportion of patients with an initial shockable rhythm in the COVID-19 period was greater than that in the pre-COVID-19 period, but the final survival rate and favorable neurological outcome were lower.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Propensity Score , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 82, 2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is dependent on early recognition, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. The purpose of CPR is to maintain some blood flow until the arrival of the emergency medical services (EMS). Our concern is that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on the number of patients who get CPR before EMS arrival. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence of bystander CPR during the pandemic with data from before the pandemic. METHODS: The protocol is for a retrospective cohort study where data from existing registries will be used. All participating registries will share aggregated data from 2017 to 2020, and the study team will compare the results from 2020 to results from 2017 to 2019. Due to the General Data Protection Regulation, each participating registry will check for completeness and plausibility, and perform all aggregation of data locally. In the following analysis different registries will be considered as random samples and analysed by means of a generalized linear mixed effects model with Poisson distribution for the outcome, the population covered as offsets, and different registries as random factors. DISCUSSION: This study does not present the prospect of direct benefit to the patient, but does provide an opportunity to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of bystander CPR for OHCA patients during a pandemic. By comparing data during the pandemic with already collected information in established registries we believe we can gain valuable information about changes in public response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Aged , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2283-2294, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. METHODS: In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33°C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, ≥37.8°C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. RESULTS: A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P = 0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score ≥4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02908308.).


Subject(s)
Fever/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Aged , Body Temperature , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coma/etiology , Coma/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 191-197, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222829

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted Emergency Medical Services (EMS) operations throughout the country. Some studies described variation in total volume of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) during the pandemic. We aimed to describe the changes in volume and characteristics of OHCA patients and resuscitations in one urban EMS system. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all recorded atraumatic OHCA in Marion County, Indiana, from January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2019 and from January 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020. We described patient, arrest, EMS response, and survival characteristics. We performed paired and unpaired t-tests to evaluate the changes in those characteristics during COVID-19 as compared to the prior year. Data were matched by month to control for seasonal variation. RESULTS: The total number of arrests increased from 884 in 2019 to 1034 in 2020 (p = 0.016). Comparing 2019 to 2020, there was little difference in age [median 62 (IQR 59-73) and 60 (IQR 47-72), p = 0.086], gender (38.5% and 39.8% female, p = 0.7466, witness to arrest (44.3% and 39.6%, p = 0.092), bystander AED use (10.1% and 11.4% p = 0.379), bystander CPR (48.7% and 51.4%, p = 0.242). Patients with a shockable initial rhythm (19.2% and 15.4%, p = 0.044) both decreased in 2020, and response time increased by 18 s [6.0 min (IQR 4.5-7.7) and 6.3 min (IQR 4.7-8.0), p = 0.008]. 47.7% and 54.8% (p = 0.001) of OHCA patients died in the field, 19.7% and 19.3% (p = 0.809) died in the Emergency Department, 21.8% and 18.5% (p = 0.044) died in the hospital, 10.8% and 7.4% (p = 0.012) were discharged from the hospital, and 9.3% and 5.9% (p = 0.005) were discharged with Cerebral Performance Category score ≤ 2. CONCLUSION: Total OHCA increased during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with the prior year. Although patient characteristics were similar, initial shockable rhythm, and proportion of patients who died in the hospital decreased during the pandemic. Further investigation will explore etiologies of those findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Electric Countershock , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Aged , Cohort Studies , Defibrillators , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 192-197, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) accounts for a substantial proportion of sudden cardiac events globally, with hundreds of thousands of cases reported annually in the United States. The mortality rate of patients who suffer OHCA remains high despite extensive utilization of resources. OBJECTIVES: We aim to describe the current landscape of OHCA during the COVID-19 pandemic and provide an overview of the logistical challenges and resuscitation protocols amongst emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. DISCUSSION: Recent studies in Italy, New York City, and France characterized a significant increase in OHCA incidence in conjunction with the arrival of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The presence of the pandemic challenged existing protocols for field resuscitation of cardiac arrest patients as the pandemic necessitated prioritization of EMS personnel and other healthcare providers' safety through stringent personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements. Studies also characterized difficulties encountered by the first responder system during COVID-19, such as dispatcher overload, increased response times, and adherence to PPE requirements, superimposed on PPE shortages. The lack of guidance by governmental agencies and specialty organizations to provide unified safety protocols for resuscitation led to the development of different resuscitative protocols globally. CONCLUSIONS: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic modified the approach of first responders to OHCA. With the rise in OCHA during the pandemic in several geographic regions and the risks of disease transmission with superimposed equipment shortages, novel noninvasive, adjunct tools, such as point of care ultrasound, warrant consideration. Further prehospital studies should be considered to optimize OHCA and resource management while minimizing risk to personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Emergency Responders , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Internationality , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
8.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 119, 2020 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak requires a permanent adaptation of practices. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is also involved and we evaluated these changes in the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: OHCA of medical origins identified from the French National Cardiac Arrest Registry between March 1st and April 31st 2020 (COVID-19 period), were analysed. Different resuscitation characteristics were compared with the same period from the previous year (non-COVID-19 period). RESULTS: Overall, 1005 OHCA during the COVID-19 period and 1620 during the non-COVID-19 period were compared. During the COVID-19 period, bystanders and first aid providers initiated CPR less frequently (49.8% versus 54.9%; difference, - 5.1 percentage points [95% CI, - 9.1 to - 1.2]; and 84.3% vs. 88.7%; difference, - 4.4 percentage points [95% CI, - 7.1 to - 1.6]; respectively) as did mobile medical teams (67.3% vs. 75.0%; difference, - 7.7 percentage points [95% CI, - 11.3 to - 4.1]). First aid providers used defibrillators less often (66.0% vs. 74.1%; difference, - 8.2 percentage points [95% CI, - 11.8 to - 4.6]). Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and D30 survival were lower during the COVID-19 period (19.5% vs. 25.3%; difference, - 5.8 percentage points [95% CI, - 9.0 to - 2.5]; and 2.8% vs. 6.4%; difference, - 3.6 percentage points [95% CI, - 5.2 to - 1.9]; respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 period, we observed a decrease in CPR initiation regardless of whether patients were suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection or not. In the current atmosphere, it is important to communicate good resuscitation practices to avoid drastic and lasting reductions in survival rates after an OHCA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Registries , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends
9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 305, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In most countries, the official statistics for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) take account of in-hospital deaths but not those that occur at home. The study's objective was to introduce a methodology to assess COVID-19 home deaths by analysing the French national out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) registry (RéAC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study based on data recorded in the RéAC by 20 mobile medical teams (MMTs) between March 1st and April 15th, 2020. The participating MMTs covered 10.1% of the French population. OHCA patients were classified as probable or confirmed COVID-19 cases or as non-COVID-19 cases. To achieve our primary objective, we computed the incidence and survival at hospital admission of cases of COVID-19 OHCA occurring at home. Cardiac arrests that occurred in retirement homes or public places were excluded. Hence, we estimated the number of at-home COVID-19-related deaths that were not accounted for in the French national statistics. RESULTS: We included 670 patients with OHCA. The extrapolated annual incidence of OHCA per 100,000 inhabitants was 91.9 overall and 17.6 for COVID-19 OHCA occurring at home. In the latter group, the survival rate after being taken to the hospital after an OHCA was 10.9%. We estimated that 1322 deaths were not accounted in the French national statistics on April 15, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of COVID-19 out-of-hospital deaths to in-hospital deaths was 12.4%, and so the national statistics underestimated the death rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Registries , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , France/epidemiology , Home Care Services , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Retrospective Studies
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e018379, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941677

ABSTRACT

Background Studies have reported significant reduction in acute myocardial infarction-related hospitalizations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, whether these trends are associated with increased incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in this population is unknown. Methods and Results Acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations with OHCA during the COVID-19 period (February 1-May 14, 2020) from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project and British Cardiovascular Intervention Society data sets were analyzed. Temporal trends were assessed using Poisson models with equivalent pre-COVID-19 period (February 1-May 14, 2019) as reference. Acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations during COVID-19 period were reduced by >50% (n=20 310 versus n=9325). OHCA was more prevalent during the COVID-19 period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period (5.6% versus 3.6%), with a 56% increase in the incidence of OHCA (incidence rate ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.39-1.74). Patients experiencing OHCA during COVID-19 period were likely to be older, likely to be women, likely to be of Asian ethnicity, and more likely to present with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The overall rates of invasive coronary angiography (58.4% versus 71.6%; P<0.001) were significantly lower among the OHCA group during COVID-19 period with increased time to reperfusion (mean, 2.1 versus 1.1 hours; P=0.05) in those with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The adjusted in-hospital mortality probability increased from 27.7% in February 2020 to 35.8% in May 2020 in the COVID-19 group (P<.001). Conclusions In this national cohort of hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction, we observed a significant increase in incidence of OHCA during COVID-19 period paralleled with reduced access to guideline-recommended care and increased in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medical Audit , Middle Aged , Myocardial Reperfusion/trends , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 115, 2020 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on the outcomes of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the association of RRT with 6-month mortality in patients with severe AKI treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) after OHCA. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected multicentre observational cohort study that included adult OHCA patients treated with TTM across 22 hospitals in South Korea between October 2015 and December 2018. AKI was diagnosed using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality and the secondary outcome was cerebral performance category (CPC) at 6 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to define the role of RRT in stage 3 AKI. RESULTS: Among 10,426 patients with OHCA, 1373 were treated with TTM. After excluding those who died within 48 h of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and those with pre-arrest chronic kidney disease, our study cohort comprised 1063 patients. AKI developed in 590 (55.5%) patients and 223 (21.0%) had stage 3 AKI. Among them, 115 (51.6%) were treated with RRT. The most common treatment modality among RRT patients was continuous renal replacement therapy (111 [96.5%]), followed by intermittent haemodialysis (4 [3.5%]). The distributions of CPC (1-5) at 6 months for the non-RRT vs. the RRT group were 3/108 (2.8%) vs. 12/115 (10.4%) for CPC 1, 0/108 (0.0%) vs. 1/115 (0.9%) for CPC 2, 1/108 (0.9%) vs. 3/115 (2.6%) for CPC 3, 6/108 (5.6%) vs. 6/115 (5.2%) for CPC 4, and 98/108 (90.7%) vs. 93/115 (80.9%) for CPC 5, respectively (P = 0.01). The RRT group had significantly lower 6-month mortality than the non-RRT group (93/115 [81%] vs. 98/108 [91%], P = 0.04). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that RRT was independently associated with a lower risk of death in patients with stage 3 AKI (hazard ratio, 0.569 [95% confidence interval, 0.377-0.857, P = 0.01]). CONCLUSION: Dialysis interventions were independently associated with a lower risk of death in patients with stage 3 AKI treated with TTM after OHCA.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(1): 6-11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) responses and outcomes in 2 U.S. communities with relatively low infection rates. BACKGROUND: Studies in areas with high COVID-19 infection rates indicate that the pandemic has had direct and indirect effects on community responses to OHCA and negative impacts on survival. Data from areas with lower infection rates are lacking. METHODS: Cases of OHCA in Multnomah County, Oregon, and Ventura County, California, with attempted resuscitation by emergency medical services (EMS) from March 1 to May 31, 2020, and from March 1 to May 31, 2019, were evaluated. RESULTS: In a comparison of 231 OHCA in 2019 to 278 in 2020, the proportion of cases receiving bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was lower in 2020 (61% to 51%, respectively; p = 0.02), and bystander use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) declined (5% to 1%, respectively; p = 0.02). EMS response time increased (6.6 ± 2.0 min to 7.6 ± 3.0 min, respectively; p < 0.001), and fewer OHCA cases survived to hospital discharge (14.7% to 7.9%, respectively; p = 0.02). Incidence rates did not change significantly (p > 0.07), and coronavirus infection rates were low (Multnomah County, 143/100,000; Ventura County, 127/100,000 as of May 31) compared to rates of ∼1,600 to 3,000/100,000 in the New York City region at that time. CONCLUSIONS: The community response to OHCA was altered from March to May 2020, with less bystander CPR, delays in EMS response time, and reduced survival from OHCA. These results highlight the pandemic's indirect negative impact on OHCA, even in communities with relatively low incidence of COVID-19 infection, and point to potential opportunities for countering the impact.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/trends , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Defibrillators , Electric Countershock/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oregon/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL