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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1162, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730287

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination is effective in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infections among vaccinated individuals. However, it remains unclear how effectively COVID-19 vaccines prevent people from spreading the virus to their close contacts. Using nationwide administrative datasets on SARS-CoV-2 infections, vaccination records, demographics, and unique household IDs, we conducted an observational cohort study to estimate the direct and indirect effectiveness of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines in reducing infections among vaccinated healthcare workers and their unvaccinated household members. Our estimates for adults imply indirect effectiveness of 39.1% (95% CI: -7.1% to 65.3%) two weeks and 39.0% (95% CI: 18.9% to 54.0%) eight weeks after the second dose. We find that the indirect effect of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines within households is smaller for unvaccinated children than for adults and statistically insignificant. Here, we show that mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines are associated with a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infections not only among vaccinated individuals but also among unvaccinated adult household members in a real-world setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/methods , Young Adult , /administration & dosage
2.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 20, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707603

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immune responses have been studied extensively in the course of mRNA vaccination against COVID-19. Considerably fewer studies have assessed the effects on innate immune cells. Here, we characterized NK cells in healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients in the course of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA prospective, open-label clinical vaccine trial. See trial registration description in notes. Results revealed preserved NK cell numbers, frequencies, subsets, phenotypes, and function as assessed through consecutive peripheral blood samplings at 0, 10, 21, and 35 days following vaccination. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of NKG2C+ NK cells at baseline (Day 0) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab titers following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination at Day 35. The present results provide basic insights in regards to NK cells in the context of mRNA vaccination, and have relevance for future mRNA-based vaccinations against COVID-19, other viral infections, and cancer.Trial registration: The current study is based on clinical material from the COVAXID open-label, non-randomized prospective clinical trial registered at EudraCT and clinicaltrials.gov (no. 2021-000175-37). Description: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04780659?term=2021-000175-37&draw=2&rank=1 .


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/metabolism , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 18, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, different treatments have been used in critically ill patients. Using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been suggested in various studies as an effective option. Our study aims to access the efficacy of IVIG in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective matched cohort study, records of three tertiary centers with a large number of COVID-19 admissions were evaluated and used. Based on treatment options, patients were divided into two groups, standard COVID-19 treatment (109 patients) and IVIG treatment (74 patients) patients. Also, the effect of IVIG in different dosages was evaluated. Patients with IVIG treatment were divided into three groups of low (0.25 gr/kg), medium (0.5 gr/kg), and high (1 gr/kg) dose. Data analysis was performed using an independent t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the outcomes between two groups, including duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and mortality rate. RESULTS: The duration of hospitalization in the IVIG group was significantly longer than standard treatment (13.74 days vs. 11.10 days, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in ICU length of stay, the number of intubated patients, and duration of mechanical ventilation (p > 0.05). Also, initial outcomes in IVIG subgroups were compared separately with the standard treatment group. The results indicated that only the duration of hospitalization in the IVIG subgroup with medium dose is significantly longer than the standard treatment group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the use of IVIG in critically ill COVID-19 patients could not be beneficial, based on no remarkable differences in duration of hospitalization, ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and even mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2789, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699128

ABSTRACT

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is a progressive retinal disease that often leads to severe and permanent vision loss. Early initiation of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has been shown to preserve vision in nAMD patients. Concurrently, treatment outcomes in real-world are inferior to those reported in clinical trials. The most likely reasons observed are fewer treatment-intensity in routine clinical practice than in clinical trials. The other possibility could be the delay in starting treatment and the re-treatment interval. Although a negative impact of aforementioned parameters seems obvious, quantitative impact measures remain elusive in a real-world setting due to a lack of an 'optimal treatment' control group. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed, validated, and applied a model to assess and quantify the impact of anti-VEGF administration variables on visual acuity development in a prospective nAMD patient cohort. The model was further applied to probe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on visual progressions in nAMD patients. The presented model paves the way to systematically explore and evaluate realistic interventions in the current treatment paradigm, that can be adopted in routine clinical care.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Models, Theoretical , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Prospective Studies
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114905, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611829

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongue coating has been used as an effective signature of health in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The level of greasy coating closely relates to the strength of dampness or pathogenic qi in TCM theory. Previous empirical studies and our systematic review have shown the relation between greasy coating and various diseases, including gastroenteropathy, coronary heart disease, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the objective and intelligent greasy coating and related diseases recognition methods are still lacking. The construction of the artificial intelligent tongue recognition models may provide important syndrome diagnosis and efficacy evaluation methods, and contribute to the understanding of ethnopharmacological mechanisms based on TCM theory. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to develop an artificial intelligent model for greasy tongue coating recognition and explore its application in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we developed greasy tongue coating recognition networks (GreasyCoatNet) using convolutional neural network technique and a relatively large (N = 1486) set of tongue images from standard devices. Tests were performed using both cross-validation procedures and a new dataset (N = 50) captured by common cameras. Besides, the accuracy and time efficiency comparisons between the GreasyCoatNet and doctors were also conducted. Finally, the model was transferred to recognize the greasy coating level of COVID-19. RESULTS: The overall accuracy in 3-level greasy coating classification with cross-validation was 88.8% and accuracy on new dataset was 82.0%, indicating that GreasyCoatNet can obtain robust greasy coating estimates from diverse datasets. In addition, we conducted user study to confirm that our GreasyCoatNet outperforms TCM practitioners, yet only consuming roughly 1% of doctors' examination time. Critically, we demonstrated that GreasyCoatNet, along with transfer learning, can construct more proper classifier of COVID-19, compared to directly training classifier on patient versus control datasets. We, therefore, derived a disease-specific deep learning network by finetuning the generic GreasyCoatNet. CONCLUSIONS: Our framework may provide an important research paradigm for differentiating tongue characteristics, diagnosing TCM syndrome, tracking disease progression, and evaluating intervention efficacy, exhibiting its unique potential in clinical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Ethnopharmacology/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Tongue , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Qi , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/microbiology , Tongue/pathology
6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 258-268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565719

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has potentially increased the risk for adolescent depression. Even pre-pandemic, <50% of youth with depression accessed care, highlighting needs for accessible interventions. Accordingly, this randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04634903 ) tested online single-session interventions (SSIs) during COVID-19 in adolescents with elevated depression symptoms (N = 2,452, ages 13-16). Adolescents from all 50 US states, recruited via social media, were randomized to one of three SSIs: a behavioural activation SSI, an SSI teaching that traits are malleable and a supportive control. We tested each SSI's effects on post-intervention outcomes (hopelessness and agency) and three-month outcomes (depression, hopelessness, agency, generalized anxiety, COVID-19-related trauma and restrictive eating). Compared with the control, both active SSIs reduced three-month depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.18), decreased post-intervention and three-month hopelessness (d = 0.16-0.28), increased post-intervention agency (d = 0.15-0.31) and reduced three-month restrictive eating (d = 0.12-17). Several differences between active SSIs emerged. These results confirm the utility of free-of-charge, online SSIs for high-symptom adolescents, even in the high-stress COVID-19 context.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Internet-Based Intervention , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Behavioral Symptoms/diagnosis , Behavioral Symptoms/therapy , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134147, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508585

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority groups, and race and ethnicity have been associated with disease severity. However, the association of socioeconomic determinants with racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. Objective: To evaluate the association of race and ethnicity with COVID-19 outcomes and to examine the association between race, ethnicity, COVID-19 outcomes, and socioeconomic determinants. Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed, medRxiv, bioRxiv, Embase, and the World Health Organization COVID-19 databases was performed for studies published from January 1, 2020, to January 6, 2021. Study Selection: Studies that reported data on associations between race and ethnicity and COVID-19 positivity, disease severity, and socioeconomic status were included and screened by 2 independent reviewers. Studies that did not have a satisfactory quality score were excluded. Overall, less than 1% (0.47%) of initially identified studies met selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Associations were assessed using adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs), combined prevalence, and metaregression. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main measures were RRs, ORs, and combined prevalence values. Results: A total of 4 318 929 patients from 68 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, 370 933 patients (8.6%) were African American, 9082 (0.2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native, 101 793 (2.4%) were Asian American, 851 392 identified as Hispanic/Latino (19.7%), 7417 (0.2%) were Pacific Islander, 1 037 996 (24.0%) were White, and 269 040 (6.2%) identified as multiracial and another race or ethnicity. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, African American individuals (RR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.38-9.07; P = .008) and Hispanic individuals (RR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.28-17.20; P = .02) were the most likely to test positive for COVID-19. Asian American individuals had the highest risk of intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.60-2.34, P < .001). The area deprivation index was positively correlated with mortality rates in Asian American and Hispanic individuals (P < .001). Decreased access to clinical care was positively correlated with COVID-19 positivity in Hispanic individuals (P < .001) and African American individuals (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, members of racial and ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 positivity and disease severity. Furthermore, socioeconomic determinants were strongly associated with COVID-19 outcomes in racial and ethnic minority populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Social Class , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Prevalence , /statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27228, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501195

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Remdesivir is the only antiviral approved for lower respiratory tract infection produced by SARS-CoV-2. The main objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate, readmissions, mean hospital stay, need for higher levels of oxygen support, and adverse effect-induced abandonment rate in hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and treated with remdesivir (RDSV). The secondary objective was to determine mortality-related risk factors in these patients.The study included a prospective cohort of patients admitted to a third level Spanish hospital between July 5, 2020 and February 3, 2021 for COVID-19 diagnosed by SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction and/or antigen test and treated with RDSV.Remdesivir was received by 185 patients (69.7% males) with a mean age of 62.5 years, median Charlson index of 3 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-4), and median ambient air oxygen saturation of 91% (IQR: 90-93); 61.6% of patients had hyper-inflammatory syndrome at admission. Median time with symptoms before RDSV treatment was 5 days (IQR: 3-6) and the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR: 7-15); 19 patients (10.3%) died after a median stay of 13.5 days (IQR: 9.7-24 days), 58 patients (12.9%) were admitted to ICU, 58 (31.4%) needed higher levels of oxygen support, 0.5% abandoned the treatment due to adverse effects, and there were no readmissions. The only mortality-related factor was the need for higher levels of oxygen support (odds ratio 12.02; 95% confidence interval 2.25-64.2).All studied patients were admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and in respiratory failure, needing initial low-flow oxygen support, and all received RDSV within 1 week of symptom onset. The percent mortality was lower in these patients than was observed in all patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to our center (10.3% vs 20.3%, respectively). Despite receiving RDSV, 1 in 3 patients needed higher levels of oxygen support, the sole mortality-related factor.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Statistics, Nonparametric
9.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 948-961, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498509

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Regeneration/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Mol Cell Biol ; 42(1): e0046721, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494978

ABSTRACT

A subset of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly the aged and those with comorbidities, develop the most severe form of the disease, characterized by acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), coincident with experiencing a "cytokine storm." Here, we demonstrate that cytokines which activate the NF-κB pathway can induce activin A. Patients with elevated activin A, activin B, and FLRG at hospital admission were associated with the most severe outcomes of COVID-19, including the requirement for mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality. A prior study showed that activin A could decrease viral load, which indicated there might be a risk to giving COVID-19 patients an inhibitor of activin. To evaluate this, the role for activin A was examined in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, via blockade of activin A signaling. The hamster model demonstrated that use of an anti-activin A antibody did not worsen the disease and there was no evidence for increase in lung viral load and pathology. The study indicates blockade of activin signaling may be beneficial in treating COVID-19 patients experiencing ARDS.


Subject(s)
Activins/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Follistatin-Related Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Survival Rate
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470938

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors influencing infection outcomes. The latter specifically includes diet and lifestyle factors during pandemic restrictions. We also cover the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food products and the food chain, as well as virus persistence on different surfaces and in different environmental conditions, which were major public concerns during the initial days of the pandemic, but have since waned in public attention. We discuss useful measures to avoid the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spread through food, and approaches that may reduce the risk of contamination with the highly contagious virus. While hygienic protocols are required in food supply sectors, cleaning, disinfection, avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories, and foodstuffs at different stages of the manufacturing process are still particularly relevant because the virus persists at length on inert materials such as food packaging. Moreover, personal hygiene (frequent washing and disinfection), wearing gloves, and proper use of masks, clothes, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene, provide on-site protections for food sector employees as well as supply chain intermediates and consumers. Finally, we emphasize the importance of following a healthy diet and maintaining a lifestyle that promotes physical well-being and supports healthy immune system function, especially when government movement restrictions ("lockdowns") are implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Diet/methods , Internationality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27281, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434548

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In December 2019, with pneumonia-like clinical manifestations, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged and quickly escalated into a pandemic. Since the first case detected in early March of last year, 8668 have died with an infection mortality rate of 1.52%, as of March 20, 2021. Bangladesh has been struck by the 2nd wave from mid-march 2021. As data on the second wave are sparse, the present study observed the demographic profile, symptoms, and outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during this wave.The study was conducted at Sheikh Russel National Gastroliver Institute on 486 admitted cases during the 2nd wave of COVID-19 in Bangladesh (March 24-April 24, 2021) using a cross-sectional study design and a convenient sampling technique.Out of 486 cases, 306 (62.9%) were male, and 180 were female, with a mean age of 53.47 ±â€Š13.86. The majority of patients (32.5%) were between the ages of 51 and 60. While fever and cough being the predominant symptoms (>70% cases), the most common co-morbidities were hypertension (41.4) and diabetes mellitus (39.4). Intensive care unit utilization rate was 25%, and a half of the patients had 51% to 70% tomographic lung involvement with an overall mortality rate of 19.3%. Older age, chronic renal disease, percentage of lung involvement, and intensive care unit necessity were important mortality determinants.The present study gives an insight into the demographic profiles and outcomes of admitted patients with COVID-19 during the second wave at a covid dedicated hospital in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Retrospective Studies
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27228, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434545

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Remdesivir is the only antiviral approved for lower respiratory tract infection produced by SARS-CoV-2. The main objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate, readmissions, mean hospital stay, need for higher levels of oxygen support, and adverse effect-induced abandonment rate in hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and treated with remdesivir (RDSV). The secondary objective was to determine mortality-related risk factors in these patients.The study included a prospective cohort of patients admitted to a third level Spanish hospital between July 5, 2020 and February 3, 2021 for COVID-19 diagnosed by SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction and/or antigen test and treated with RDSV.Remdesivir was received by 185 patients (69.7% males) with a mean age of 62.5 years, median Charlson index of 3 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-4), and median ambient air oxygen saturation of 91% (IQR: 90-93); 61.6% of patients had hyper-inflammatory syndrome at admission. Median time with symptoms before RDSV treatment was 5 days (IQR: 3-6) and the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR: 7-15); 19 patients (10.3%) died after a median stay of 13.5 days (IQR: 9.7-24 days), 58 patients (12.9%) were admitted to ICU, 58 (31.4%) needed higher levels of oxygen support, 0.5% abandoned the treatment due to adverse effects, and there were no readmissions. The only mortality-related factor was the need for higher levels of oxygen support (odds ratio 12.02; 95% confidence interval 2.25-64.2).All studied patients were admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and in respiratory failure, needing initial low-flow oxygen support, and all received RDSV within 1 week of symptom onset. The percent mortality was lower in these patients than was observed in all patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to our center (10.3% vs 20.3%, respectively). Despite receiving RDSV, 1 in 3 patients needed higher levels of oxygen support, the sole mortality-related factor.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Statistics, Nonparametric
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17730, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397894

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection remains controversial. Current literature mainly examined efficacy, safety and potential predictors of NIV failure provided out of the intensive care unit (ICU). On the contrary, the outcomes of ICU patients, intubated after NIV failure, remain to be explored. The aims of the present study are: (1) investigating in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ICU patients receiving endotracheal intubation after NIV failure and (2) assessing whether the length of NIV application affects patient survival. This observational multicenter study included all consecutive COVID-19 adult patients, admitted into the twenty-five ICUs of the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February-April 2020), who underwent endotracheal intubation after NIV failure. Among the 704 patients admitted to ICU during the study period, 280 (40%) presented the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. The median age was 69 [60-76] years; 219 patients (78%) were male. In-hospital mortality was 43%. Only the length of NIV application before ICU admission (OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06-4.98), p = 0.03) and age (OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.33), p < 0.01) were identified as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality; whilst the length of NIV after ICU admission did not affect patient outcome. In-hospital mortality of ICU patients intubated after NIV failure was 43%. Days on NIV before ICU admission and age were assessed to be potential risk factors of greater in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(10): e801-e809, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 infection has bimodal distribution in Europe with a first wave in March to June 2020 and a second in September 2020 to February 2021. We compared the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcomes of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and infection in the first vs. second pandemic waves in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study the characteristics of ALL and COVID-19 infection, comorbidities, treatment and outcome in the two periods were compared. The study ended when vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 was implemented in Spain. RESULTS: Twenty eight patients were collected in the first wave and 24 in the second. The median age was 46.5 years (range 20-83). Patients from the first wave had a trend to more severe ALL (higher frequency of patients under induction or submitted to transplantation or under immunosuppressive therapy). No significant differences were observed in need for oxygen support, intensive care unit (ICU) requirement, days in ICU and time to COVID-19 infection recovery. Seventeen patients (33%) died, with death attributed to COVID infection in 15 (29%), without significant differences in the 100 day overall survival (OS) probabilities in the two waves (68% ± 17% vs. 56% ± 30%). The only prognostic factor for OS identified by was the presence of comorbidities at COVID-19 infection (HR: 5.358 [95% CI: 1.875- 15.313]). CONCLUSION: The frequency and mortality of COVID-19 infection were high in adults with ALL, without changes over time, providing evidence in favor of vaccination priority for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Blood ; 139(11): 1631-1641, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309901

ABSTRACT

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is now established as the gold-standard imaging modality for both staging and response assessment in follicular lymphoma (FL). In this Perspective, we propose where PET can, and cannot, guide clinicians in their therapeutic approach. PET at diagnosis and pretreatment is important for staging, with greater sensitivity compared with standard CT, and consequent improved outcomes in truly limited-stage FL. Small data sets suggesting that a high baseline standardized uptake value (SUVmax) identifies de novo histologic transformation (HT) have not been corroborated by data from GALLIUM, the largest prospective study to examine modern therapies for FL. Nonetheless, the role of baseline quantitative PET measures requires further clarification. The median survival of patients with newly diagnosed FL is now potentially >20 years. Treatment of symptomatic FL aims to achieve remission and optimize quality of life for as long as possible, with many patients achieving a "functional cure" at the cost of unwanted treatment effects. Several studies have identified end-of-induction (EOI) PET after initial chemoimmunotherapy in patients with a high tumor burden as strongly predictive of both progression-free and overall survival, and EOI PET is being evaluated as a platform for response-adapted treatment. Unmet needs remain: improving the inferior survival for patients remaining PET positive and quantifying the progression-free survival and time to next treatment advantage, and additional toxicity of anti-CD20 maintenance in patients who achieve complete metabolic remission. In the absence of an overall survival advantage for frontline antibody maintenance, the question of using PET to guide the therapeutic approach is more important than ever in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Lymphoma, Follicular/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Follicular/drug therapy , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Pandemics , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vincristine/administration & dosage
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253524, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients during the Covid-19 era. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter study involving 13 intensive cardiac care units, to evaluate consecutive STEMI patients admitted throughout an 8-week period during the Covid-19 outbreak. These patients were compared with consecutive STEMI patients admitted during the corresponding period in 2018 who had been prospectively documented in the Israeli bi-annual National Acute Coronary Syndrome Survey. The primary end-point was defined as a composite of malignant arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, and/or in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included individual components of primary outcome, cardiogenic shock, mechanical complications, electrical complications, re-infarction, stroke, and pericarditis. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 1466 consecutive acute MI patients, of whom 774 (53%) were hospitalized during the Covid-19 outbreak. Overall, 841 patients were diagnosed with STEMI: 424 (50.4%) during the Covid-19 era and 417 (49.6%) during the parallel period in 2018. Although STEMI patients admitted during the Covid-19 period had fewer co-morbidities, they presented with a higher Killip class (p value = .03). The median time from symptom onset to reperfusion was extended from 180 minutes (IQR 122-292) in 2018 to 290 minutes (IQR 161-1080, p < .001) in 2020. Hospitalization during the Covid-19 era was independently associated with an increased risk of the combined endpoint in the multivariable regression model (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.03-2.68, p value = .04). Furthermore, the rate of mechanical complications was four times higher during the Covid-19 era (95% CI 1.42-14.8, p-value = .02). However, in-hospital mortality remained unchanged (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.81-3.78, p-value = .16). CONCLUSIONS: STEMI patients admitted during the first wave of Covid-19 outbreak, experienced longer total ischemic time, which was translated into a more severe disease status upon hospital admission, and a higher rate of in-hospital adverse events, compared with parallel period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252867, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After one year of the pandemic and hints of seasonal patterns, temporal variations of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 are widely unknown. Additionally, heterogeneous data regarding clinical indicators predicting disease severity has been published. However, there is a need for a risk stratification model integrating the effects on disease severity and mortality to support clinical decision-making. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, observational, prospective, epidemiological cohort study at 45 hospitals in Germany. Until 1 January 2021, all hospitalized SARS CoV-2 positive patients were included. A comprehensive data set was collected in a cohort of seven hospitals. The primary objective was disease severity and prediction of mild, severe, and fatal cases. Ancillary analyses included a temporal analysis of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients for the entire year 2020. FINDINGS: A total of 4704 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized with a mortality rate of 19% (890/4704). Rates of mortality, need for ventilation, pneumonia, and respiratory insufficiency showed temporal variations, whereas age had a strong influence on the course of mortality. In cohort conducting analyses, prognostic factors for fatal/severe disease were: age (odds ratio (OR) 1.704, CI:[1.221-2.377]), respiratory rate (OR 1.688, CI:[1.222-2.333]), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR 1.312, CI:[1.015-1.695]), C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 2.132, CI:[1.533-2.965]), and creatinine values (OR 2.573, CI:[1.593-4.154]. CONCLUSIONS: Age, respiratory rate, LDH, CRP, and creatinine at baseline are associated with all cause death, and need for ventilation/ICU treatment in a nationwide series of COVID 19 hospitalized patients. Especially age plays an important prognostic role. In-hospital mortality showed temporal variation during the year 2020, influenced by age. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04659187.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Geography , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110314, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230184

ABSTRACT

Importance: After the emergence of COVID-19, studies reported a decrease in hospitalizations of patients with ischemic stroke (IS), but there are little to no data regarding hospitalizations for the remainder of 2020, including outcome data from a large cohort of patients with IS and comorbid COVID-19. Objective: To assess hospital discharge rates, demographic factors, and outcomes of hospitalization associated with the COVID-19 pandemic among US patients with IS before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the Vizient Clinical Data Base on 324 013 patients with IS at 478 nonfederal hospitals in 43 US states between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020. Patients were eligible if they were admitted to the hospital on a nonelective basis and were not receiving hospice care at the time of admission. A total of 41 166 discharged between January and March 2020 were excluded from the analysis because they had unreliable data on COVID-19 status, leaving 282 847 patients for the study. Exposure: Ischemic stroke and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly counts of discharges among patients with IS in 2020. Demographic characteristics and outcomes, including in-hospital death, among patients with IS who were discharged in 2019 (control group) were compared with those of patients with IS with or without comorbid COVID-19 (COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups, respectively) who were discharged between April and December 2020. Results: Of the 282 847 patients included in the study, 165 912 (50.7% male; 63.4% White; 26.3% aged ≥80 years) were allocated to the control group; 111 418 of 116 935 patients (95.3%; 51.9% male; 62.8% White; 24.6% aged ≥80 years) were allocated to the non-COVID-19 group and 5517 of 116 935 patients (4.7%; 58.0% male; 42.5% White; 21.3% aged ≥80 years) to the COVID-19 group. A mean (SD) of 13 846 (553) discharges per month among patients with IS was reported in 2019. Discharges began decreasing in February 2020, reaching a low of 10 846 patients in April 2020 before returning to a prepandemic level of 13 639 patients by July 2020. A mean (SD) of 13 492 (554) discharges per month was recorded for the remainder of 2020. Black and Hispanic patients accounted for 21.4% and 7.0% of IS discharges in 2019, respectively, but accounted for 27.5% and 16.0% of those discharged with IS and comorbid COVID-19 in 2020. Compared with patients in the control and non-COVID-19 groups, those in the COVID-19 group were less likely to smoke (16.0% vs 17.2% vs 6.4%, respectively) and to have hypertension (73.0% vs 73.1% vs 68.2%) or dyslipidemia (61.2% vs 63.2% vs 56.6%) but were more likely to have diabetes (39.8% vs 40.5% vs 53.0%), obesity (16.2% vs 18.4% vs 24.5%), acute coronary syndrome (8.0% vs 9.2% vs 15.8%), or pulmonary embolus (1.9% vs 2.4% vs 6.8%) and to require intubation (11.3% vs 12.3% vs 37.6%). After adjusting for baseline factors, patients with IS and COVID-19 were more likely to die in the hospital than were patients with IS in 2019 (adjusted odds ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 4.83-5.53; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale adjusted odds ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.15-4.05). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, after the emergence of COVID-19, hospital discharges of patients with IS decreased in the US but returned to prepandemic levels by July 2020. Among patients with IS between April and December 2020, comorbid COVID-19 was relatively common, particularly among Black and Hispanic populations, and morbidity was high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Patients/classification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patients/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
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